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step by step introduction of .1 bands will be possible at a later stage. Stepwise deployment in UMTS 2. Rural areas: Option 1: deploy UMTS in 900 MHz band.Scalability of bandwidth Urban areas: Most likely LTE will be deployed. Not a lot of operators can afford to take out this much of spectrum due to heavy usage in this band Option 2: Introduce LTE in 900 MHz band Advantage: reuse of GSM 900 Sites. LTE with smaller granularity (1. Advantage: rollout can start now Disadvantage: a block of 5 MHz need to be taken out of the GSM band.4 / 3 / 5 /…MHz).

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Cost per MByte decreases with introduction of new technologies.7 -Flat architecture. For urban larger bandwidth expected in 2. -Reuse of spectrum > Refarming of existing 900 MHz band in rural areas possible.6 GHz . From HSPA > LTE cost per MByte will reduce with more than 70% Why? -Increased spectral efficiency > bits per Hz per cell for LTE (2X2 MIMO) ~ 1.

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SAE: System Architecture Evolution SAE GW: Serving Gateway +PDN Gateway .

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UDP: User Datagram Protocol ( L4 Transport Layer) .

SCTP: Stream Control Transmission Protocol. For IP signalling GTP: GPRS Tunnelling Protocol ( same as for UMTS Rel 99): user plane traffic .