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Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations
How Congress Exercises the Power of the Purse through Authorizing Legislation, Appropriations Measures, Supplemental Appropriations, Earmarks, and Enforcing the Authorization-Appropriations Process
Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations
How Congress Exercises the Power of the Purse through Authorizing Legislation, Appropriations Measures, Supplemental Appropriations, Earmarks, and Enforcing the Authorization-Appropriations Process
Compiled by TheCapitol.Net Authors: Bill Heniff Jr, Sandy Streeter, Thomas L. Hungerford, Robert Keith, Megan Suzanne Lynch
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Summary Table of Contents
Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations:
How Congress Exercises the Power of the Purse through Authorizing Legislation, Appropriations Measures, Supplemental Appropriations, Earmarks, and Enforcing the Authorization-Appropriations Process
A primary avenue for exercising Congress’s power of the purse is the authorization and appropriation of federal spending to carry out government activities. While the power over appropriations is granted to Congress by the U.S. Constitution, the authorization appropriation process is derived from House and Senate rules. The formal process consists of two sequential steps: (1) enactment of an authorization measure that may create or continue an agency or program as well as authorize the subsequent enactment of appropriations; and (2) enactment of appropriations to provide funds for the authorized agency or program.
Chapter 1: “Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process,” by Bill Heniff Jr., CRS Report for Congress RS20371, June 17, 2008
Chapter 2: “The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction,” by Sandy Streeter, CRS Report for Congress 97-684, December 2, 2008
Chapter 3: “Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981,” by Thomas L. Hungerford, CRS Report for Congress RL33134, January 2, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Chapter 4: “Examples of Legislative Provisions in Annual Appropriations Acts,” by Robert Keith, CRS Report for Congress RL30619, December4, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Chapter 5: “Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements,” by Megan Suzanne Lynch, CRS Report for Congress RS22867, June 1, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.Net. All Rights Reserved. 703-739-3790 www.thecapitol.net
..net . .. . . . .Net.Chapter 6: “Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements.. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .... . . . ... . ... .. ... . . by Bill Heniff. .” by Megan Suzanne Lynch. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . 141 Chapter 10: Other Resources . . . . . .. 2009 . ... .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . .Net . . 95 Chapter 9: Resources from TheCapitol. 2009 .. . . . . . . .. .. .. June 17. . .. . All Rights Reserved. . and Robert Keith . . .. 142 iv Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.. June 1.. CRS Report for Congress RS22866..... . ... 703-739-3790 www. Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process.. .. ... . . . . . . .. .. . . 81 Chapter 8: Congressional Deskbook: Chapter 9. . . . . . .. ... ... . . .thecapitol. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . ... .” by Sandy Streeter.. ... . ... . ..... . CRS Report for Congress RL34462. .... .... . ... . . Jr. . 73 Chapter 7: “House and Senate Procedural Rules Concerning Earmark Disclosure.
5 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.. 2008 Authorizing Legislation Appropriations Measures Enforcing the Authorization-Appropriations Process ... 2008 Introduction Annual Appropriations Cycle President Submits Budget Congress Adopts Budget Resolution Timetable for Consideration of Appropriations Measures Work of the Appropriations Committees House and Senate Floor Action House Senate House and Senate Conference Action Presidential Action Types of Appropriations Measures Regular Appropriations Bills Continuing Resolutions Supplemental Appropriations Measures Spending Ceilings for Appropriations Measures Allocations Enforcement House Senate Emergency Spending Relationship Between Authorization and Appropriation Measures Rescissions Table 1... Regular Appropriations Bills Completed by Deadline and Number of Continuing Resolutions..... December 2... Number of Regular Appropriations Bills Packaged in Omnibus (or Minibus) Measure. FY1977-FY2008 Table 3....Net.net v .. June 17. Initial House Appropriations Committee’s 302(b) Allocations for FY2008 . 703-739-3790 www. 1 Chapter 2: “The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction.” by Bill Heniff Jr..Table of Contents Chapter 1: “Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process.. House Committee on Appropriations’ 302(a) Allocations for FY2008 Table 4... CRS Report for Congress 97-684.” by Sandy Streeter. All Rights Reserved.. FY1977-FY2008 Table 2...thecapitol.. CRS Report for Congress RS20371....
. . . . Supplemental Appropriations as a Percentage of Budget Authority. . . January 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981-2008 Table 1. . 2008 . . Examples of Legislative Provisions Included in Omnibus Appropriations Acts Table 4. . . . . . . . . . . . CRS Report for Congress RS22867. . 2009 . . Effect of Supplemental Appropriations Net of Rescissions on Budget Deficit Chapter 4: “Examples of Legislative Provisions in Annual Appropriations Acts. . . . .” by Robert Keith. . . . . . . . . . . . .net . . . . . December 4. . . . . . . . . Examples of Legislative Provisions Dropped From Omnibus Appropriations Acts Chapter 5: “Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements. . . . . . . 703-739-3790 www. . . June 1. . 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . .” by Megan Suzanne Lynch. . . . . 65 Introduction Senate Earmark Disclosure Rule Legislation Subject to the Rule Requirements for Senators Submitting Earmark Requests Requirements for Committees vi Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. . . . . .Chapter 3: “Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981.” by Thomas L. . . . . . . . .Net. . . . . . . CRS Report for Congress RL33134. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hungerford. Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions Table 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of Legislative Provisions Included in Supplemental Appropriations Acts Table 2. . . . . . . . 33 Introduction Budget Rules and Supplemental Appropriations General Trend in Supplemental Appropriations Budget Controls and Rescissions Budgetary Impacts of Supplemental Appropriations Conclusions Figure 1. . . . CRS Report for Congress RL30619. . . . . . . . . 43 The Separation of Legislation and Appropriations House Rule XXI Senate Rule XVI Inclusion of Legislative Provisions in Appropriations Acts Rules Are Not Self-Enforcing Rules May Be Waived Rules Are Not Comprehensive Recent Practices Table 1. . . .thecapitol. . . . . . . . . . . Omnibus Appropriations Acts: FY1986-FY2008 Table 3. . . . .
. .00 Introduction: Congress’s “Power of the Purse” 9. . . .40 Presidential Budget Process 9. 73 Introduction House Earmark Disclosure Rule Legislation Subject to the Rule Requirements for Members Submitting Earmark Requests Requirements for Committees Chapter 7: “House and Senate Procedural Rules Concerning Earmark Disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process.11 Budget Enforcement Act Procedures 9. . . .41 Typical Executive Budget Process Timetable 9. Paragraph 8 Earmarks and Leverage Chapter 8: Congressional Deskbook: Chapter 9. . .thecapitol. .30 Budget Enforcement Framework 9. . .01 Congress’s Constitutional “Power of the Purse” 9. . 2009 . .” by Megan Suzanne Lynch. . .42 Office of Management and Budget Publications Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. Clause 9(b) Senate Rule XLIV. and Robert Keith . . . . . June 1. . CRS Report for Congress RL34462. . clause 9 Senate Rule XLIV Specified Information (Including Certifications) From Congressional Earmark Sponsors Classified Earmarks Conference Report Procedures Affecting New Earmarks House Rule XXI. . . . .” by Sandy Streeter. . . . . . .20 The Budget Cycle 9. . Jr. . . . . . 703-739-3790 www. 2009 . . . 81 Introduction Earmark Definition Spending Earmark Definition Limited Tariff Benefit Definition Limited Tax Benefit Definition Public Disclosure Procedures on Earmark Requests Earmark List and Congressional Earmark Sponsors House Rule XXI.10 Key Budget Process Laws 9.Net. CRS Report for Congress RS22866. 95 9. . . . June 17. . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . .net vii . by Bill Heniff.Chapter 6: “Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements. .02 Federal Budgeting Concepts and Terminology 9.
. . ..80 Authorization and Appropriation Processes 9.. .... . .53 Congressional Budget Process Flowchart 9... . .. .90 Revenue Legislation 9.. ... ... .. . .... .. . 142 Internet Resources viii Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.54 Functional Categories in a Congressional Budget Resolution 9.Net. .61 Budgeting for Direct and Guaranteed Loans 9.. All Rights Reserved. .. .... . . .50 Congressional Budget Process 9.43 Volumes Containing and Explaining the President’s Annual Budget 9.70 Spending Legislation 9. Revenue. and General Provisions 9... . .91 Tax Expenditures 9. 703-739-3790 www.. . .9..82 New Appropriations Subcommittee Organization 9. ..55 Membership on the House and Senate Budget Committees 9.60 Spending..Net . . ...83 Sequence of Appropriations Measures through Congress 9..... 141 Capitol Learning Audio Courses Live Training Chapter 10: Other Resources Books . .. .. ... ..84 Examples of Appropriations Subcommittees’ Requirements for Member Requests 9.. .net ... . ...130 Apportionment 9. . .100 Debt-Limit Legislation 9. . Earmarks.92 Revenue Estimates 9. .120 Implementation of the Budget by Executive Agencies 9. .thecapitol... .. ..140 Transfer and Reprogramming 9.51 Congressional Budget Process Timetable 9...... ... ...... and Debt-Limit Legislation 9. . . . .. ..150 Impoundment: Deferrals and Rescissions 9.160 Budget Process Glossary Chapter 9: Resources from TheCapitol.... ..52 Completion Dates of Budget Resolutions 9. ..44 Program and Financing Schedule in President’s Budget Appendix 9. .. .81 Limitations.. .71 Differences between Discretionary and Direct Spending 9... . .110 Reconciliation Legislation 9.. .
Chapter 1: Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process Overview of the AuthorizationAppropriations Process Bill Heniff Jr. Analyst on the Congress and Legislative Process June 17.net 1 .thecapitol. 2008 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.Net.crs. 703-739-3790 www.gov RS20371 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. All Rights Reserved.
net ..................................................Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process Contents Authorizing Legislation.........................Net.......................................2 Congressional Research Service 2 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol............................................. All Rights Reserved...............................1 Appropriations Measures .......2 Contacts Author Contact Information .................................................................................... 703-739-3790 www........................................................................thecapitol........................1 Enforcing the Authorization-Appropriations Process .
All Rights Reserved.Net.net .thecapitol.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations 36 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 703-739-3790 www.
Chapter 3: Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.thecapitol. All Rights Reserved.Net.net 37 . 703-739-3790 www.
thecapitol. 703-739-3790 www.Net.net . All Rights Reserved.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations 38 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.
Net.net 39 .thecapitol. 703-739-3790 www. All Rights Reserved.Chapter 3: Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.
All Rights Reserved. 703-739-3790 www.net .Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations 40 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.Net.thecapitol.
net 41 . 703-739-3790 www.Net.Chapter 3: Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.thecapitol. All Rights Reserved.
548 117 Stat. 2763A281 through 293 NASA Enhanced-Use Lease of Real Property Demonstration Homeland Security Act of 2002 Amendments Agricultural Assistance Act of 2003 TANF and Medicare Price-Anderson Act Amendments United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission 8. 2763A225 114 Stat. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Designation of American Museum of Science and Energy (H. Consolidated Appropriations Act.R. 2763A258 through 266 114 Stat.thecapitol. 1441A-27 114 Stat.R. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Delta Regional Authority Act of 2000 (H. 1441A-29 114 Stat. 5656 enacted by cross-reference) Early Learning Opportunities Acts (H. 2763A268 through 281 114 Stat.R. 2763A76 through 79 114 Stat.R. 2763A266 through 268 114 Stat. October 27.56 Omnibus Appropriations Act / Legislative Provision 117 Stat. 5656 enacted by cross-reference) Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 526-532 117 Stat. 2763A79 through 89 114 Stat. 2763A167 through 169 114 Stat. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Colorado Ute Settlement Act Amendments of 2000 (H. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Dakota Water Resources Act of 2000 (H. 2001 (P. 2763A57 through 62 114 Stat.R.R. 2000) Basic Charter School Grant Program (H. 106-554. 1441A-57 through 58 114 Stat. VA-HUD Appropriations Act for FY2001 (P. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Vietnam Education Foundation Act of 2000 (H. 538-547 117 Stat. 703-739-3790 www.R.R. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) CRS-11 .L. 2763A254 through 258 114 Stat. December 21.R. 525-526 117 Stat.R. 2763A89 through 92 114 Stat. 1441A-81 114 Stat. All Rights Reserved. 5656 enacted by cross-reference) Mandatory Removal From Employment of Federal Law Enforcement Officers Convicted of Felonies (H.Net. 551 117 Stat. 1441A-25 114 Stat. 552-553 Statutes-at-Large Citation 114 Stat.net Rural Education Achievement Program (H. 5656 enacted by cross-reference) Physical Education for Progress Act (H.R. 1441A-70 114 Stat.L. 2763A74 through 76 114 Stat. 2000) Technical Amendments and Corrections to the National Housing Act Computer Access for Public Housing Residents Native American Eligibility for the Ross Program Filipino Veterans’ Benefits Improvements Amendment to Irrigation Project Contract Extension Act of 1998 Scope of Authority of Secretary of Energy to Modify Organization of National Nuclear Security Administration 9. 106-377. 5656 enacted by cross-reference) Assets for Independence Act Amendments of 2000 (H. 5658 enacted by cross-reference) Wet Weather Watershed Pilot Projects (H.R.
703-739-3790 www. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Law Enforcement Pay Equity Act of 2000 (H.R. 1501A318 113 Stat. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Honoring the Navajo Code Talkers (H.R.R. 2763A315 through 323 114 Stat. 5662 enacted by cross-reference) New Markets Venture Capital Program Act of 2000 (H.R. 3426 enacted by cross-reference) Admiral James W. 1501A276 through 280 113 Stat. 1501A521 through 603 Silk Road Strategy Act of 1999 (H. 3424 enacted by cross-reference) Welfare-to-Work and Child Support Amendments of 1999 (H. 1501A321 through 403 113 Stat. 3424 enacted by cross-reference) International Debt Relief (H.R. 3422 enacted by cross-reference) Mississippi National Forest Improvement Act of 1999 (H. Medicaid. 2763A653 through 666 114 Stat. 3425 enacted by cross-reference) Medicare. 2763A365 through 461 114 Stat. Medicaid. Consolidated Appropriations Act. 2763A667 through 710 Statutes-at-Large Citation Sioux Nation Supreme Court and National Native American Mediation Training Center (H.R.R. 2763A463 through 586 114 Stat. 2763A328 through 335 114 Stat.R. 3424 enacted by cross-reference) Denali Commission (H.R. 2763A587 through 651 114 Stat. 3425 enacted by cross-reference) Survivor Benefits (H. 1999) 113 Stat. 1501A311 through 318 113 Stat. Diagnosis. Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 (H. 106-113. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Jamestown 400th Commemoration Commission Act of 2000 (H. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Certain Alaskan Cruise Ship Operations (H. 1501A123 through 126 113 Stat. 1501A280 113 Stat.R. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Black Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area Act of 2000 (H. 2763A359 through 363 114 Stat. 5660 enacted by cross-reference) Medicare. and Interventions for Newborns and Infants With Hearing Loss (H. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Children’s Internet Protection Act (H.thecapitol.Net. 2763A335 through 352 114 Stat.net Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act of 1999 (S. and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (H.R. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Literacy Involves Families Together Act (H. 1501A210 through 214 113 Stat. 1501A405 through 520 113 Stat.R.R.R.L. 2763A293 through 295 114 Stat. 5661 enacted by cross-reference) Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 (H. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor Act (H.R. 2000 (P. 2763A295 through 303 114 Stat. 5663 enacted by cross-reference) Small Business Reauthorization Act of 2000 (H. 1948 enacted by cross-reference) CRS-12 57 .R.R.R.R. 2763A324 through 328 114 Stat. All Rights Reserved.R. 5667 enacted by cross-reference) 10.R. and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (H.Omnibus Appropriations Act / Legislative Provision 114 Stat.R. 2763A311 through 312 114 Stat.R. Nance and Meg Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act.R. 2763A303 through 310 114 Stat. November 29. 3427 enacted by cross-reference) Chapter 4: Examples of Legislative Provisions in Annual Appropriations Acts Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) LIFE [Legal Immigration Family Equity] Act Amendments of 2000 (H. 5666 enacted by cross-reference) Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (H. 2763A353 through 357 114 Stat. 3423 enacted by cross-reference) Early Detection. 1501A280 through 287 113 Stat.
2681-751 through 759 112 Stat. 2681-726 through 728 112 Stat. 2681-736 through 741 112 Stat. 105-277.thecapitol. Montana. 2681-710 through 718 112 Stat. 1999 (P. and State of South Dakota Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Restoration Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998 Western Hemisphere Drug Elimination Act Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1998 Canyon Ferry Reservoir.L. 2681-637 through 641 112 Stat. 2681-749 through 751 112 Stat. 2681-707 through 710 112 Stat. 2681-641 through 658 112 Stat. 2681-693 through 707 112 Stat. 703-739-3790 www. 2681-719 through 726 112 Stat. 2681-742 through 749 112 Stat.58 Omnibus Appropriations Act / Legislative Provision 113 Stat. 2681-741 through 742 112 Stat. 2681-670 through 693 112 Stat. 2681-658 through 660 112 Stat. 2681-760 through 761 112 Stat. 1998) Lorton Technical Corrections Act of 1998 Olympic and Amateur Sports Act Amendments of 1998 Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 American Fisheries Act Denali Commission Act of 1998 American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998 Salton Sea Feasibility Study Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe. 2681-660 through 670 112 Stat. 2681-854 through 856 112 Stat. Lower Brule Sioux Tribe. 2681-761 through 854 112 Stat. Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. 2681-728 through 735 112 Stat. 2681-616 through 637 112 Stat. All Rights Reserved.net Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998 Government Paperwork Elimination Act Drug Demand Reduction Act Methamphetamine Trafficking Penalty Enhancement Act of 1998 Not Legalizing Marijuana for Medicinal Use Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 Depository Institutions-GSE Affiliation Act of 1998 Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 CRS-13 . 2681-611 through 616 112 Stat. 2681-856 through 886 Paygo Adjustments 11. 2681-759 through 760 112 Stat. 2681-600 through 603 112 Stat. October 21. Act Internet Tax Freedom Act Other Provisions [regarding Internet taxes] Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 Child Online Protection Act Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Modification Act Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 2681-603 through 609 112 Stat.Net. 1536-1537 Statutes-at-Large Citation 112 Stat.
S. 3009-523 through 545 110 Stat.net Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 CRS-14 59 .L. 1321-107 through 156 110 Stat. 3009-26 through 31 110 Stat. Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act. Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996 (P.L. 1997 (P. 1321-358 through 380 Amendments to the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995 District of Columbia School Reform Act of 1995 Amendments to the Goals 2000: Educate America Act FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996 USEC [U.thecapitol. All Rights Reserved. 2681-886 through 918 112 Stat. 1321-313 through 320 110 Stat. 3009-500 110 Stat. 1321-335 through 354 110 Stat. 703-739-3790 www. 3009-389 through 394 110 Stat. 3009-275 through 293 110 Stat. Enrichment Corporation] Privatization Act Chapter 4: Examples of Legislative Provisions in Annual Appropriations Acts Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 1321-66 through 77 110 Stat. 1996) 110 Stat. 2681-919 Statutes-at-Large Citation Tax and Trade Relief Extension Act of 1998 Pay-As-You-Go Provision 12. 3009-23 through 25 110 Stat. 1321-251 through 257 110 Stat. 3009-372 through 374 110 Stat. 1321-14 through 22 110 Stat. 3009-394 through 499 110 Stat. September 30. 104-134. 3009-546 through 724 110 Stat. 3009-503 through 507 110 Stat. April 26. 3009-173 through 178 110 Stat. 1996) 110 Stat. 3009-724 through 747 110 Stat. 3009-374 through 378 110 Stat.Omnibus Appropriations Act / Legislative Provision 112 Stat. 3009-748 through 749 Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments of 1996 Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 NATO Enlargement Facilitation Act of 1996 Student Loan Marketing Association Reorganization Act of 1996 Museum and Library Services Act of 1996 Thrift Savings Investment Funds Act of 1996 Thrift Savings Plan Act of 1996 Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996 Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996 Adjustment of PAYGO Balances Amendments to District of Columbia School Reform Act of 1995 Oregon Resource Conservation Act of 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Small Business Programs Improvement Act of 1996 California Bay-Delta Environmental Enhancement and Water Security Act 13.Net. 104-208. 3009-293 through 314 110 Stat.
October 30. The listing is intended merely to be illustrative.L. All Rights Reserved. 1329-446 through 450 100 Stat. 1329-442 through 443 101 Stat. 99-190. 703-739-3790 www.thecapitol. 1223-1224 99 Stat.60 Omnibus Appropriations Act / Legislative Provision Statutes-at-Large Citation 101 Stat. 1329 101 Stat.L. 1289 99 Stat. 3341-373 through 376 100 Stat.net a.Net. 3341-376 through 388 99 Stat. 3341-362 through 373 100 Stat. Further Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1988 (P. 1985) Revisions to Defense Contract Allowable Cost Provision (10 U. A provision in an appropriations act is determined to be “legislative” by a ruling of the chair or a vote of the chamber. 1329-437 through 441 101 Stat. 99-591.L. 1267 99 Stat. The provisions listed in this table. no ruling was made by the chair or the chamber in these cases. Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1987 (P. 1324-1325 14. Magnuson Foundation and Margaret Chase Smith Foundation Assistance Act Authorization and Grants Agriculture Aid and Trade Missions Act 15. CRS-15 . should be regarded only as “possibly legislative” in nature. Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 100-202. upon the raising of a point of order or appeal. although they meet criteria long used by the House and Senate to determine whether a provision is legislative. 1986) Defense Acquisition Improvement Act of 1986 Paperwork Reduction Reauthorization Act of 1986 Human Rights in Romania School Lunch and Child Nutrition Amendments of 1986 Aviation Safety Commission Act of 1986 Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986 16. it does not represent a comprehensive or systematic survey and should not be used to assess or infer any trends in House and Senate practices. Further Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1986 (P. 3341-130 through 177 100 Stat. December 22. December 19. 2324) United States Holocaust Memorial Council Amendment to Title XI of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 Ethics in Government Act Amendments of 1985 Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service (using the cited public laws in slip law form).S.C. therefore. 3341-335 through 345 100 Stat. 1987) Cancellation of FY1998 Sequester Order Special House and Senate Procedures for Considering Requests for the Nicaraguan Resistance Warren G. 3341-353 through 354 100 Stat.
L. 1996. dropped in conference (CQA.L. dropped in conference (CQM. 10-66) Originated in House. Medicaid. p. dropped in conference (CQM. 3) Originated in House. 10-66) Originated in House. dropped in conference (CQA. p. 10-58) Originated in Senate. p. 1996. October 21. p. 1996) 1999 Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. p. 1996. 10/20/98. 10/8/98.Net.net Sources: Congressional Quarterly. 10-52) Originated in House. p. dropped in conference (CQA. 1999 (P. Examples of Legislative Provisions Dropped From Omnibus Appropriations Acts Legislative Provisiona Modification of timber salvage policy District of Columbia school voucher plan Restriction on Medicaid payments for abortion Abortion restrictions on overseas family planning funds (Mexico City policy) Collection by states of taxes from Indian tribal businesses General Accounting Office review of Forest Service’s management plan for the Tongass National Forest Ban against most federal benefits to illegal immigrants Bar against Medicare.L. p. CQ Almanac (1996 and 1997) and CQ Daily Monitor (1998). 10/16/98. dropped in conference (CQA. dropped in conference (CQA. 2) Dropped in conference (CQM. dropped in conference (CQM. 1996. p. 703-739-3790 www. 1996. dropped in conference (CQM. p. 2) Originated in House.thecapitol. 10-66) Originated in House. dropped in conference (CQA. All Rights Reserved. 10/20/98. April 26. 1996. dropped in conference (CQA. dropped in conference (CQA. 104-208. September 30. p. 10-58) Originated in House. p. 1996. p. 105-277. 1996. 10-11 and 12) Originated in House. 1996. 10/14/98. p. 10-16) Originated in House. and Social Security administrative funds being used to support union activities Exemption for certain workplaces from a safety regulation requiring employees to wear long pants Bar against homosexual couples adopting children District of Columbia school voucher plan Parental notification regarding the provision of contraceptives to minors Term limits for high-level staff of the Federal Election Commission Extension of tax credit for alternative fuels Commentaryb Originated in Senate. 10-14) Originated in House. p. 1998) Chapter 4: Examples of Legislative Provisions in Annual Appropriations Acts Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. CRS-16 61 . 1997 (P.Table 4. 104-134. dropped in conference (CQA. 1996) 1997 Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act. 4) Fiscal Year Appropriations Act 1996 Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996 (P. 7) Originated in Senate.
In this context. should be regarded only as “possibly legislative” in nature. The provisions listed in this table. All Rights Reserved.Net. Legislative provisions listed under these omnibus acts may have been dropped in the conference on the omnibus act or beforehand in a conference on one of the regular appropriations acts subsequently incorporated into the omnibus act.net The three omnibus appropriations acts incorporated the full text of several of the regular appropriations acts. no ruling was made by the chair or the chamber in these cases. origination in a chamber means that it was offered in the markup of the Appropriations Committee or subcommittee of that chamber. Whether the provision originated in the House or the Senate is indicated. 703-739-3790 www. CQA refers to CQ Almanac. Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. In the case of the three omnibus appropriations acts listed in this table.62 Notes: CQM refers to CQ Monitor.thecapitol. or was proposed in conference by the conferees of that chamber. was offered during floor consideration by that chamber. although they meet criteria long used by the House and Senate to determine whether a provision is legislative. The listing is intended merely to be illustrative. all of the legislative provisions were dropped in conference. CRS-17 . therefore. upon the raising of a point of order or appeal. such provisions sometimes are dropped at earlier stages of the legislative process. A provision in an appropriations act is determined to be “legislative” by a ruling of the chair or a vote of the chamber. however. b. it does not represent a comprehensive or systematic survey and should not be used to assess or infer any trends in House and Senate practices. a.
Net. 703-739-3790 www.gov RS22867 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.Chapter 5: Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements Megan Suzanne Lynch Analyst on the Congress and Legislative Process June 1.thecapitol.crs.net 65 . All Rights Reserved. 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.
including a conference report and joint explanatory statement. 703-739-3790 www. authorizing legislation. The disclosure requirements apply to earmarks in appropriations legislation. and tax measures.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements Summary Earmark disclosure rules in both the House and Senate establish certain administrative responsibilities that vary by chamber. Senate committees are responsible for compiling and presenting such information in accord with Senate rules. but also to measures not reported by committees. Further. they apply not only to measures reported by committees.Net. floor amendments and conference reports. to the committee of jurisdiction. such as the purpose and recipient of the earmark.net . All Rights Reserved. In the Senate.thecapitol. a Senator requesting that an earmark be included in legislation is responsible for providing specific written information. This report will be updated as needed. Congressional Research Service 66 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. or limited tariff benefit included in either the text of a bill or any report accompanying the measure. disclosure rules apply to any congressional earmark. limited tax benefit. Under Senate rules. Furthermore.
Net.Chapter 8: Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process Chapter Nine Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process Contributing Author Bill Heniff Jr.net 95 . with update by Robert Keith Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. All Rights Reserved. 703-739-3790 www.thecapitol.
40 9.61 Spending. Earmarks.41 9. 703-739-3790 www.84 Authorization and Appropriation Processes Limitations.82 9.150 Impoundment: Deferrals and Rescissions 9.160 Budget Process Glossary 96 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.44 The Budget Cycle Budget Enforcement Framework Presidential Budget Process Typical Executive Budget Process Timetable Office of Management and Budget Publications Volumes Containing and Explaining the President’s Annual Budget Program and Financing Schedule in President’s Budget Appendix 9.81 9.50 9.120 Implementation of the Budget by Executive Agencies 9.43 9.42 9.83 9.100 Debt-Limit Legislation 9. All Rights Reserved.60 9.91 9.55 Congressional Budget Process Congressional Budget Process Timetable Completion Dates of Budget Resolutions Congressional Budget Process Flowchart Functional Categories in a Congressional Budget Resolution Membership on the House and Senate Budget Committees 9.00 9.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Analysis section title 9.140 Transfer and Reprogramming 9.92 Revenue Legislation Tax Expenditures Revenue Estimates 9.130 Apportionment 9.71 Spending Legislation Differences between Discretionary and Direct Spending 9. and General Provisions New Appropriations Subcommittee Organization Sequence of Appropriations Measures through Congress Examples of Appropriations Subcommittees’ Requirements for Member Requests 9. Revenue.11 Key Budget Process Laws Budget Enforcement Act Procedures 9.90 9.54 9.30 9.20 9.01 9.110 Reconciliation Legislation 9. and Debt-Limit Legislation Budgeting for Direct and Guaranteed Loans 9.10 9.53 9.70 9.80 9.52 9.51 9.thecapitol.02 Introduction: Congress’s “Power of the Purse” Congress’s Constitutional “Power of the Purse” Federal Budgeting Concepts and Terminology 9.Net.net .
Clause 2 declares that (Art. cl.Chapter 8: Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process § 9.Net.”) Article I.01. All Rights Reserved.” ensures Congress’s primary role in setting revThe Congress shall have the Power enue and borrowing policies for the federal government 1 To lay and collect Taxes. sec. Clause 7 declares in part that funds can be withdrawn from the Treasury only pursuant to laws that make appropriations.) gress’s Constitutional “Power of the Purse. Imposts. Clause 1 declares in part that Congress shall have No Money shall be drawn from the the power to originate (that is. 9. . among other things. or the procedures they should use. I. This power. Federal Budgeting Concepts and Terminology.) the power to borrow funds “on the credit of the United States” belongs to Congress. Congress’s Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. and as the role of the federal government in the national economy has steadily expanded. Congress has also increasingly shared power over budgetary matters with the president and the executive branch. . It has refashioned the president’s role in budgeting. two key provisions in the Constitution. including taxes and duties. In addition to its powers regarding revenues and borrowing. Under the Constitution.02. however. Congress has given the president a formal leadership role in the development of the budget and has defined the tools at his disposal in executing it. and in determining how these resources are spent. referred to as “the power of the Revenues and Borrowing purse.00 Introduction: Congress’s “Power of the Purse” § 9. Duties. but in Consequence of enues of various types. Con(Art. (See § 9. sec. 7. both chambers have developed an extensive set of rules (some set forth in statute) and precedents that lay out complicated. the Constitution does not prescribe how the House and Senate should organize themselves. 2 The congressional power of the purse derives from To borrow Money on the credit of the United States . Section 9. . revenue measures must originate in the House of Representatives. The House and Senate have also created an intricate committee system to support these processes. “to lay and collect”) revTreasury. 703-739-3790 www.net 97 3 . Appropriations made by Law . however. . and Excises . Congress exerts control over the expenditure of funds. 8. to conduct budgeting.) As American society has grown and become ever more complex. .01 Congress is distinguished from nearly every other legislaConstitutional ture around the world by the high degree of control it “Power of the Purse” exercises over fashioning the government’s budgetary policies. The president is a coequal with Congress and also exercises considerable influence over key budget decisions. . multiple processes for making budgetary decisions. Article I. Over the years. SecSpending tion 8. Section 8. I. (See § 9. Beyond this requirement.thecapitol.
to a greater degree. home ownership is encouraged by allowing deductions from individual income taxes for mortgage interest paid during the year. The stages of spending involving the enactment of budget authority and the incurring of obligations and outlays are referred to informally as the “spending pipeline. and other means. fees.thecapitol. A tax expenditure is revenue forgone due to an exemption. federal agencies determine the outlay levels for a particular year through thousands of discrete actions. and usually take the form of electronic fund transfers. but in the case of offshore oil leases and certain other activities. converted from budget authority into outlays) is known as the spendout rate. Ultimately. Revenues also are raised by tariffs. outlays—is indirect. Conversely. All Rights Reserved. A tax expenditure represents a means of pursuing federal policy that is an alternative to a spending program. and types of financial transactions. submitting a purchase order for goods. Spendout rates vary from account to account. or other exception to an underlying tax law.02 Federal Budgeting Concepts and Terminology Federal budgeting involves a complex web of legislative and executive procedures. and excise taxes. Budget authority authorizes agencies to enter into obligations. the same goal could be promoted on the spending side of the budget by issuing grants or loans for home ownership to individuals. Congress exercises direct control over the enactment of budget authority. from the sale of assets. or employing personnel. such as entering into a contract. An obligation is any type of action that creates a financial liability on the part of the federal government. Continued on page 99 98 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. the issuance of checks. obligating and expending 90 percent or more of its budget authority during the fiscal year. or converted to outlays in the first year. social insurance taxes. 703-739-3790 www. Most such receipts are offsets against the outlays of the agencies that collect the money. deduction. For example. categories of budgetary legislation. When the obligation is liquidated.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations § 9. An account that involves personnel-intensive activities may have a high spendout rate. but its influence over obligations—and. Offsetting collections and receipts arise from fees collected by the federal government for its business-type operations. Some concepts and terms fundamental to understanding federal budgeting include those that follow. or the disbursement of cash. an account that involves the procurement of major weapons systems may have a low spendout rate. it is offset against spending. The most well-known type of legislation that provides budget authority is an annual appropriations act. corporate income taxes.” The rate at which funds are spent (that is. with only 5 or 10 percent of its budget authority being disbursed. Outlays represent the actual payment of obligations. Rather. fines.Net. Spending When Congress enacts legislation providing legal authority for an agency to spend money. (Congress tends to use the former term and the executive branch tends to use the latter. Revenues Income received by the federal government is referred to as revenues or receipts.) Revenues are raised from several different sources. an outlay ensues. gifts and bequests.net . Some income to the federal government is not treated as revenue. the revenues are deducted from the total outlays of the federal government. and from other sources. In recent decades. revenues have stemmed mainly from individual income taxes. it provides budget authority. and from program to program within accounts.
Congress’s efforts to control the level of the surplus or the deficit are less effective over the short run compared with the long run. Congress and the president from time to time must enact legislation to raise the statutory limit on the debt. Congress controls the enactment of legislation providing budget authority and raising revenues. In addition. Overall revenue and spending levels usually increase from year to year under the baseline because of demographic trends. to avoid complicating the decisionmaking process.thecapitol. As a general matter. while the Congressional Budget Office develops its own baseline. to support the president’s budget. As a consequence. and other factors. Because of this. inflation. referred to as the current services estimates. the federal government is compelled to incur debt because of requirements that trust fund surpluses be invested in federal securities. workload changes. and other economic factors prove to be significantly inaccurate. the two agencies share a common approach to constructing budget baselines. a baseline is a set of projections of future spending and revenues. but not the occurrence of outlays. unemployment levels. The national economy can exert a significant influence on the federal budget.Net. For this reason. differences in aggregate projections and estimates for particular accounts and programs are inevitable. Statutory Limit on the Debt When the federal government needs to borrow funds. Sometimes the differences may be significant enough to complicate the process of resolving policy differences. The Office of Management and Budget develops a budget baseline. for the most part. and the resulting surplus or deficit.Chapter 8: Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process § 9. Federal Funds and Trust Funds The budget consists of two main groups of funds: federal funds and trust funds. projected budgetary levels may change by tens of billions of dollars during the course of a year. Federal funds—which comprise mainly the general fund—largely derive from the general exercise Continued on page 100 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. it issues debt to the public. Although.02 (continued) Surplus and Deficit The relationship between spending and revenues is reflected in the surplus or deficit figure. All Rights Reserved. based upon assumptions about the state of the economy and the continuation of current policies without change. the amount of money that the federal government is able to borrow is constrained by a limit in statute. If projections about economic growth.net 99 . to aid the congressional budget process. Congress and the president usually require that economic assumptions be revised only once or twice a year. the federal government owes debt to the public and to itself. As long as the federal government incurs annual deficits and trust funds incur annual surpluses. Baseline Budgeting Congress and the president employ baseline budgeting as a tool to analyze the context in which budget policy choices are made and to assess the impact of particular proposals. while a deficit is an excess of outlays over revenues. In the simplest terms. 703-739-3790 www. the economic assumptions that underlie the budget baseline are crucially important. A surplus is an excess of revenues over outlays. referred to as baseline budget projections.
they are not earmarked by law to any specific program or agency. revenues are collected under a Social Security payroll tax and are used to pay for Social Security benefits and related purposes. One component of federal funds. Each of these laws has been amended on numerous occasions. The revenues and spending of the Social Security trust funds. The total budget includes both the federal funds and the trust funds. budget procedures. is earmarked according to source and purpose. Further. The merging together of federal funds and trust funds into a single budget sometimes is referred to as the “unified budget approach. and effectively serve as rules of the House and Senate. and the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. under the terms of statutes that designate them as trust funds. As such.” On-Budget and Off-Budget Entities On-budget entities are federal agencies and programs that are fully reflected in the totals of the president’s budget and the congressional budget resolution. Congress has established special procedures for the consideration of measures affecting Social Security revenues and spending. the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. The Social Security trust funds (the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Fund and the Disability Insurance Fund) are the largest of the trust funds. Thus. § 9.Net. but three laws are key: the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921.02 (continued) of the taxing power and general borrowing. For the most part. The provisions dealing with congressional procedure were enacted as an exercise of Congress’s rule-making authority. as well as the financial transactions of the Postal Service Fund. 100 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. to account for funds earmarked by specific sources and purposes. are at present the only off-budget entities. 703-739-3790 www. The 1974 Congressional Budget Act and the 1985 Balanced Budget Act contain provisions that set forth congressional. The use of federal funds is determined largely by annual appropriations acts. Trust funds are established. off-budget entities are excluded from the budget enforcement procedures applicable to federal programs generally. Off-budget entities. on the other hand. These transactions are shown separately in the budget. as well as executive. All Rights Reserved. the budget reports two deficit or surplus amounts—one excluding the Social Security trust funds and the Postal Service Fund and the other including these entities. called special funds. either chamber may modify the provisions that affect its operations without the concurrence of the other chamber and without the enactment of a law.thecapitol.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations § 9. specifically are excluded by law from these totals.net . The use of trust funds is controlled primarily by entitlement laws and other substantive legislation.10 Key Budget Process Laws Many different statutes lay the foundation for the modern budget process used by the federal government.
80 House Appropriations Committee subdivides its 302(a) allocation among its subcommittees. Any such legislation. Hearings on president’s budget by House and Senate Appropriations Committees and subcommittees begin soon after it is submitted and continue through the spring. President submits budget proposal to Congress no later than first Monday in February. Senate floor votes on budget resolution. 114 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. Discretionary Spending Appropriations process § 9. Budget resolution may include reconciliation directives to authorizing committees. they are the spending ceilings for the regular appropriations measures. they are the spending ceilings for the regular appropriations measures.Net. must be consistent with budget resolution policies.90 House authorizing committees mark up and report individual mandatory spending and revenue legislation.53 Congressional Budget Process Flowchart Approximate timeline: February March April Congress agrees to concurrent resolution on the budget. § 9. Mandatory Spending and Revenues Reconciliation process § 9. referred to as 302(a) allocations. Senate committees submit views and estimates to Senate Budget Committee. These subdivisions are referred to as 302(b) allocations.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations § 9. are printed in joint explanatory statement accompanying the conference report on the budget resolution. Individual mandatory spending and revenue legislation § 9. House floor votes on conference report on budget resolution. Budget resolution spending levels are allocated to committees having jurisdiction over spending legislation. however. Discretionary spending amount assumed in budget resolution allocated to House/Senate Appropriations Committees in respective 302(a) allocations. Senate authorizing committees mark up and submit recommended changes in law to Senate Budget Committee.50 House committees submit views and estimates to House Budget Committee. 703-739-3790 www.110 House authorizing committees mark up and submit recommended changes in law to House Budget Committee. These subdivisions are referred to as 302(b) allocations. House Budget Committee holds hearings and marks up budget resolution. Conference committee resolves differences between House and Senate versions of budget resolution. § 9.70. Allocations. All Rights Reserved.net . Congress implements budget resolution policies by adopting: (1) appropriations measures. authorizing committees also may develop and report individual legislation changing mandatory spending and revenue laws.thecapitol. Senate Appropriations Committee subdivides its 302(a) allocation among its subcommittees. Hearings on presidential and congressional mandatory spending and revenue proposals by House and Senate authorizing committees begin soon after president’s budget is submitted and continue through the spring.40 Budget Resolution § 9. instructing them to recommend changes in law to achieve mandatory spending and revenue changes specified in budget resolution. Separate from any reconciliation directives. House floor votes on budget resolution. Senate Budget Committee holds hearings and marks up budget resolution. Senate floor votes on conference report on budget resolution. Senate authorizing committees mark up and report individual mandatory spending and revenue legislation.
Net.84 Examples of Appropriations Subcommittees’ Requirements for Member Requests Continued on page 129 128 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.net .thecapitol. 703-739-3790 www.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations § 9. All Rights Reserved.
net 129 .Net. All Rights Reserved.84 (continued) Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol. 703-739-3790 www.Chapter 8: Legislating in Congress: Federal Budget Process § 9.thecapitol.
instead. As an interim step. a general provision indicates that all funding provided in the act is available for one year unless otherwise indicated. Report language is most likely when the Appropriations Committee prefers to spend more or less on a particular item than the president has requested or when the committee wants to earmark funds for a particular project or activity. such as those to pay interest on the national debt or to pay the salaries of members of Congress.net . These general provisions appear as numbered sections. No-year funds are carried over to future years.e.thecapitol. These provisions also transfer funds from one account to another. which provide for funds to be available for two or more fiscal years. Legislative History. In addition to providing funds. usually at the end of the title or act. on the amount of direct or guaranteed loans that can be made. there is a strong expectation that the agency will adhere to the instructions. and set ceilings on the amount of obligations that can be made under permanent appropriations. rescind funds (or release deferred funds). the funds are available for obligation during the single fiscal year and lapse after the year has expired). The appropriations reports do not comment on every item of expenditure. the rules require that the members requesting such items identify the intended beneficiaries and purposes and certify that they (or their spouses) have no financial interest in them. most funding is provided as one-year appropriations (i. 703-739-3790 www. appropriations acts often contain substantive limitations on government agencies. the Senate Appropriations Committee incorporated the requirements into its rules for the development and reporting of appropriations acts.. Appropriations measures also contain other types of provisions that serve specialized purposes. Congress also makes no-year appropriations by specifying that the funds shall remain available until expended. Permanent appropriations. along with other directives or guidance. Detailed information on how funds are to be spent.73.) 3 130 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.Net. remain available without additional action by Congress. each appropriations act has general provisions that apply to all the accounts in a title or in the whole act. is provided in the committee and conference reports accompanying the various appropriations measures. (See § 10. or on the amount of administrative expenses that can be incurred during the fiscal year. The Senate also passed legislation in 2007 imposing similar requirements. Congress sometimes makes multiyear appropriations.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations ther. When a particular item is mentioned by the committee. All Rights Reserved. Agencies ordinarily abide by this report language in spending the funds appropriated by Congress. such as provisions that liquidate (pay off) obligations made pursuant to certain contract authority and that reappropriate funds provided in previous years. but as of this writing the legislation still was pending. even if they have not been obligated. In a typical appropriations act. The account language usually does not indicate the period that funds are available. In addition to the substantive limitations and other provisions associated with each account.
com> Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.CongressionalBudgeting.com> • The President’s Budget <www.com> • The Appropriations Process in a Nutshell with James Saturno ISBN: 1587330431 • Authorizations and Appropriations in a Nutshell with James Saturno ISBN: 1587330296 Live Training • Understanding Congressional Budgeting and Appropriations <www.com> • The Defense Budget <www.TheDefenseBudget.com> • Advanced Federal Budget Process <www.CapitolLearning.Net Capitol Learning Audio Courses™ <www.Chapter 9: Resources from TheCapitol.Net.net 141 . All Rights Reserved.PresidentsBudget.Net Resources from TheCapitol.thecapitol. 703-739-3790 www.BudgetProcess.
2004 <www.Net.gov/products/GAO-06-382SP> 142 Copyright ©2010 by TheCapitol.org/research/features/appropriations/index.net . All Rights Reserved.gao. January 1. accessible by the public for free that includes for each Federal award <www.harvard. 2006 <www.edu/publication/19147/ congressional_authorization_and_appropriation_processes. July 2009 <http://belfercenter.gao.heritage. February 1.” Memo in report Confrontation or Collaboration? Congress and the Intelligence Community by Eric Rosenbach and Aki Peritz. Volume II Chapter 6 – Availability of Appropriations: Amount Chapter 7 – Obligation of Appropriations Chapter 8 – Continuing Resolutions Chapter 9 – Liability and Relief of Accountable Officers Chapter 10 – Federal Assistance: Grants and Cooperative Agreements Chapter 11 – Federal Assistance: Guaranteed and Insured Loans GAO-06-382SP.USAspending.ksg.Goverment Series: Congressional Authorizations and Appropriations Other Resources Internet Resources • New America Foundation: Education in the Federal Budget: Federal Appropriations Process <www.cfm> • “The Congressional Authorization and Appropriation Processes.newamerica.html> • The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Transparency Act) requires a single searchable website. 703-739-3790 www. Volume I Forward Chapter 1 – Introduction Chapter 2 – The Legal Framework Chapter 3 – Agency Regulations and Administrative Discretion Chapter 4 – Availability of Appropriations: Purpose Chapter 5 – Availability of Appropriations: Time GAO-04-261SP. Kennedy School of Government Harvard University.gov/products/GAO-04-261SP> • Principles of Federal Appropriations Law: Third Edition.net/programs/education_policy/ federal_education_budget_project/basics/appropriations> • Heritage Foundation: Issues: Federal Budget and Spending <www.gov> • Principles of Federal Appropriations Law: Third Edition.thecapitol. Belfour Center for Science and International Affairs John F.
military. business. advocacy and media training. All courses. congressional operations. Our recommended provider of government training in Brazil is PATRI/EDUCARE <www. We’ve worked with hundreds of clients across the country to develop and produce a wide variety of custom. former Members of Congress.Net supports the T. lobbyists. TheCapitol. Faculty and authors include senior government executives.. Congressional Quarterly Executive Conferences.Net We help you understand Washington and Congress. news media and NGOs nationwide.000 clients representing congressional offices. military branches.Net encompasses a dynamic team of more than 150 faculty members and authors. Our blog: Hobnob Blog—hit or miss . VA 22313-5706 703-739-3790 www. seminars and workshops can be tailored to align with your organization’s educational objectives and presented on-site at your location. Instruction includes topics on the legislative and budget process. give or take .. TheCapitol.patri. associations. and Sunlight Foundation Non-partisan training and publications that show how Washington works. and NGOs on the dynamics and operations of the legislative and executive branches and how to work with them. corporations..Net . this or that . on-site training.™ PO Box 25706. business etiquette and writing.Williams Debate Society TheCapitol. All training includes course materials.C. Williams Debate Society.. Our practitioner books and publications are written by leading subject matter experts. public and foreign policy development. Scholarship Fund of Alexandria. Hill and agency staff.. federal and state agencies.Net has more than 2.C.™ For over 30 years.About TheCapitol. TheCapitol. TheCapitol. have been training professionals from government. editors and journalists. lawyers.Net is on Yelp. nonprofit executives and scholars.com> T.TheCapitol..Net and its predecessor. all of whom are independent subject matter experts and veterans in their fields. Alexandria.
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