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BloodTypeTestingLab

SITTIPUNSUWANMANEE,JIDAPADENLAMPAI114

Introduction

In Mendelian genetic, an individual's gene is composed of two alleles, oneallelefrom


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mother ( maternal ) and another allele from father (paternal).
Eventhoughitispossiblefora
gene to have more than two different alleles forms on the population, but regardless of how
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many alleles exist in the population, the gene can still have only two alleles.
Those genes
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that have multiple allelic forms are referred as having multiple allelic traits.The dominant
1
allele in thegene will express its phenotype and repress recessive allele in a heterozygote.

Anexampleofagenethathavemultipleallelictraitisourhumanbloodtype.

Blood is an essential tissueinhumanthatfunctionsastransporter,regulatorandother


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important functions.
On the surface of our human red blood cell, there is anantigen called
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agglutinogen.
The two types of agglutinogen are type A and type B.
We use the
3
presence or absence of these molecules in classification of ABO blood type.
Our blood
plasma also contains protein called antibodies, molecules that will recognize and attack
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foreign molecules.
In the past many people died after blood transfusion because the blood
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types were not matched.
Antibody in patients will recognize the donors blood from the
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antigen, as foreign.
This will trigger immune response, which lead to blood clottingthat kill
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the patient.
The table 2
below illustrates antigen and antibodies presence/absence and
genotypesineachbloodtype.

from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2267/

The purpose ofthislabistouseasimplebloodtestexperimenttoconfirm/determinea


persons blood type and also determine their parents blood genotype. A simple way to test
the bloodtype istodropantibodyA,antibodyBandAntibodyABonseparateslideofthe
blood sample. The blood sample that undergo coagulation meantthe antibody responses to
the antigen and therefore the blood clotted. Sincewe already know that the blood sample is
O,ourhypothesisisthereshouldbenocoagulationoccurredintheresult.

Materials

2microscopeSlides
AntiA,B,AB
Markers
Lancets
LancetDevice
Ethanol
CottonBall
3toothpicks

Method
1. Draw2circlesineach2slides
2. Markeachcircleascontrol,antiA,antiB,antiAB
3. Punctureonthefingerbyusinglancetdevice
4. Dropthebloodoneachcircle
5. Dropantibody:antiAcircle>dropantiA
antiBcircle>dropantiB
antiABcircle>dropantiAB
control>donotputanyantibody
5.Mixthebloodandantibodybyusingtoothpicks
6.Waitandobservetheresults

Results
StateofBloodAfterAddingAntibody

State:Coagulation/NoCoagulation

Control

AntiA

NoCoagulation

AntiB

NoCoagulation

AntiAB

NoCoagulation

(pictureofbloodafteraddingantibody)

Observation

Aftermixingthebloodwithantibodyandwaitedfor10seconds,westartcomparing
eachcircle.Bloodincontrolcirclebeanormalbloodbutitisgraduallydry.Coagulationis
whenbloodchangestobegel.However,bloodinallA,B,andABcirclesdissolvedwith
antibodyandtherewerenocoagulationoccurredinanycircle.

Discussion

In thisexperiment,wehavetodropantibodyineachcircletoseethereactionbetween
blood and antibody. If the blood coagulate, which means blood does not dissolve with
antibody, then we can interpret blood type from there. For example, the result of our
experiment shows that in all AntiA, B, and AB circles, blood dissolves with antibody.
Therefore, it can be said that the blood type is O. However, we have encountered with a
difficulty during the experiment. Sittipun wasn't able to get sufficient amount of blood sample
sowesimplysolvedtheproblembyhavinghimpuncturedhisfingertwice.

Different people have different blood type and blood genotype because we all have
different father and mother. In this experiment, the blood sample we used is belong to
Sittipun. We confirmedthatthe sample blood is typeO. WeknewthathisfatherhasAblood
A
A
A
type and genotype ofhis blood can be either I
i or I
I
(AO, AA) and his mother has Bblood
B
B
B
type and genotype of her blood can be either I
i or I
I
(BO, BB).However, if hisfather and
mother blood genotype is both dominant or one of them hasdominantbloodgenotypethatis
A
A
B
B
I
I
or I
I
, there is no chance forhimtohaveObloodtype.Thisisbecausethechildrenmust
get one allele from his or her father and one allele from the mother and therefore only
possible blood types are AB, A, and B blood type. There is only one way forhim to have O
A
B
blood type that his fathers blood genotype is I
i is and mothers blood genotype is I
i. He
receivedrecessiveallelesfromhisparentandhaveObloodtype.

A
B
Possibility:
I
ixI
i
25%isABbloodtype
25%isBbloodtype
25%isAbloodtype
25%isObloodtype
(1:1:1:1)

ForJidapa,hermotherandfatherbothhaveOpositivebloodtypeandtheirblood
genotypeisii.IfObloodtypepeoplearemated,theratiooftheirchildrenshouldbe100%O
bloodtype.Thereisnochanceoftheiroffspringtohaveotherbloodtypesbecauseherfather
andmotherwillgiveoneoftheiralleletochildrenandtheybotharehomozygouswiththe
samebloodtype.Additionally,Rhsysteminvolvedinbloodtype.Inthissystempositiveis
dominantandnegativeisrecessive.Positivebloodtypecanbe++or+andnegativeblood
typeisonly.
Inotherwords,theirchildrencanbebothRhpositiveorRhnegative.Children
arealsoeasilytohaveOnegativebloodtypethatistherarestbloodtypeiftheirparentsare
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both+.

Possibility:
iixii
100%isObloodtype

Conclusion

Inconclusion,ourhypothesisistrue.Therewerenobloodcoagulationoccurredinany
sample,whichmeansnoantibodiesreactedwiththebloodsample.Theonlybloodtypethat
havenoantigenstoreactwithantibodiesistypeOandthereforewecanconfirmthatthe
bloodsampleisreallytypeO.Inthisexperiment,wehavelearnedthatantibodyroleisto
attachtoproteinandchemicalthatisnotnormallyfoundinourbodywhichisantigen.Inother
cases,ifthebloodcoagulatesafteraddingantibody,itmeansthatantibodyfindsthematched
antigenwhichislocatedonredbloodsurface.Forinstance,AbloodtypehasAantigenon
redbloodsurfaceandthencoagulateswhenwedropanyantibodyAbecauseantiAwillnot
producedbythembutproduceantiBinstead.However,ifweinjectBbloodtypeintobody,
antiBantibodyinAbloodtypewillrecogniseandthendestroythebloodthatisdangerousto
ourbody.Therefore,Oisonlybloodtypethatcandonatetoanybloodtypebutcanreceive
fromonlyObecauseObloodtypehasbothA,andBantibodyanddoesnothaveany
antigen.Inaddition,ABbloodtypecanreceivesanybloodtypebutcandonatetoonlyAB
bloodtypebecauseABbloodtypehasbothantigenAandBbutdoesnothaveanyantibody.

References

1. CornellUniversityDepartmentofAnimalBiology.[Internet]Multiplealleles.[updated
2013Oct10cited2015Mar13].Availablefrom
http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/usdagen/mult_alleles.html

2. DeanL.Bloodgroupsandredcellantigens[Internet].
Bethesda(MD):NationalCenter
forBiotechnologyInformation(US)2005.[
cited2015Mar13].Availablefrom
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2267/

3. GeneticScienceLearningCenter.[Internet].Geneandbloodtype.[NoDatecited
2015Mar13]Availablefrom
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/blood/

4. G.Alan[Internet]Aretheyreallymyparent?.[1996Apr4cited2015Mar13]
.Availablefromhttp://www.drgreene.com/qaarticles/aretheyreallymyparents/