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This project is talking about the spring with squared and ground ends. I will write brief report

to show my idea. We only know several conditions. And these limited conditions is not enough

for us to design the spring. To design the helical compression spring, the spring index and wire

diameter are requested to know. I would use the similar way like the example in the textbook.

But I want to show more possibility to make this project more convinced and professional. So I

set up the Excel with all possible wire diameters. And then I used restrictive condition to shrink

range of the possible data, such as outer coil diameter, factor of safety and static safety factor. I

do be confused how to find the exact data as result. But I realized the purpose of the project is to

use the minimum money and make biggest benefit. So I calculated the relative cost to find the

minimum cost and make sure the other parameters. All units in this project are SI. The material

of the wire is oil-temper

Procedure

1. Find the range of spring index, C.

Assume the spring index is between 7 and 10, and show them in the Excel.

Comment: According to the textbook, the spring index, C is between 4 and 121. But the range is

so huge. It will make the calculation more complicated. So I decided to assume the spring index

is between the 7 and 10.

Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc., Conn., 1987.

Comment: In this project, we only need to consider the oil-tempered ASTM 229 wire.

3. Find the outer coil diameters, Do for all possible wire diameters.

C=

D

d

(1)

ed, p829). Worcester. Worcester polytechnic institude.

D= Do d

(2)

Do = C*d + d

(3)

Comments: Because of the various wire diameters and different spring index. Therere huge

amount of the outer coil diameters in the Excel. It will be shown in the A-1.

4. Shrinking the possible wire diameters. Because the coil must fit the 1.5inch diameter hole,

the Do 1.5 inches.

Comments: possible Do will be shown without color shadow. A-13

5. Find the direct shear factor Kw with not removed.

Kw =

4C1 0.615

+

4C4

C

(4)

Discussion: Because this wire has not had the set removed, the Kw is requested. People need to

figure out how to use Kw and Ks.

6. Find the shear stress, Tworking with loading force.

Discussion: Because I want to limit the condition to shrink the range of data, the 60lbs that

the length wont exceed 2.5inches will help.

T working = Kw*

8FD

d 3

(5)

Comments: All possible shear stress will be shown in the A-2

7. Find the Ultimate tensile strength Sut.

Sut = A*(d)

(6)

Comments: the A and b are variables that can be found in Table 1 based on the ASTM 229

Table 1 coefficient of different material5

3 Apendix A-1

4 Apendix A-2

5 Norton, R. (2014). Spring Design. In Machine Design: An integrated approach (fifth

ed, p829). Worcester. Worcester polytechnic institude.

Sys = 0.60*Sut

(7)

Comments: based on the different d, the Sys and Sut will has a huge amount. And all of them

will be shown in the A-46

9. Find the static safety factor, Nss

Nss =

Sys

Tworking

(8)

Comments: Because the safety factor should 1, in the various Nss I can shrink the range of the

possible data and mark the impossible data with color shadow. And all of them will be shown in

the A-37

10. Find the spring rate, k

k=

F

y

45 lbs

0.5inches

= 90 lbs/in

(9)

Comments: From the project statement, F = 105 - 60 = 45 lbs. And the y will 0.5 inches.

11. Find the number of active coil, Na.

K=

6 Apendix A-4

7 Apendix A-3

d 4G

8D 3Na

or

Na=

d 4G

8D 3k

(10)

Nt = Na + 2

(11)

Comments: All possible Nt will be shown in the A-58 without color shadow

Ls = d*Nt

(12)

Comments: All possible Ls will be shown in the A-69 without color shadow

yinitial =

Finitial

k

60lbs

90lbs /

= 0.6667 in

(13)

(14)

Lf = Ls +

8 Apendix A-5

9 Apendix A-6

(15)

Comments: yworking = 0.5in can be found in the problem

Because Ls is various in Apendix, the Lf will also be shown in the A-711

17. Find the deflection to the shut height, yshut

= 0.075+0.5+0.6667

(16)

= 1.24167 in

(17)

Tshut = Kw *

8F shutD

3

d

(fifth ed, p829). Worcester. Worcester polytechnic institude

11 Apendix A-7

12 Apendix A-8

(18)

Sys

Ns = T shut

(19)

Comments: Sys is not changed, and same with above number. Use the proper Sys and can find

the all Ns in the A-913. Because the factor of safety should 1, so I can shrink the range of data.

All impossible data will be color shadow.

Discussion: Therere many solution to find out the parameter of the wire. But I decide to use the

economic way to get it. I will find the cheapest one to find out other parameters.

21. Find the unit relative cost based on the possible different wire diameter, d

In the Table 2, when the diameter of the wire is 0.08 in, the price is 1.3

0.08

Aread =

=0.005026548in2

Area =

Aread

1.3

Area

( d )

4

(20)

(21)

13 Apendix A-9

14 Norton, R. (2014). Spring Design. In Machine Design: An integrated approach

(fifth ed, p829). Worcester. Worcester polytechnic institude

(22)

Comments: By finding the unit relative cost, I can find the total relative cost in A-1015

22. Find the total length of wire by regarding every coil as a cycle.

Lw = *Do*Nt

(23)

23. Find the relative cost with different unit relative cost and different wire diameter.

(24)

Comments: All possible relative cost will be shown in the A-10 without color shadow.

24. Find the smallest total relative cost, and find out the wire diameter and spring index in A-10

Smallest relative cost = 64.82569

Comments: With the smallest relative cost, I can find out the d = 0.125 in, C = 0.82

25. With d = 0.125 in, C = 0.82, find the safety factor, free length, shut height, total number of

coil, number of active coil, outer coil diameter, static safety factor, shear stress, shut-height

stress and mean coil diameter

Comments: show all parameters in A-1116.

15 Apendix A-10

Because it asked to round to nearest 0.25 coil, so the Nt=5.75 and Na=3.75

Conclusion

I found C to be 8.2. Its close to the guess on textbook. After I completed the design project,

I learned what the specific steps for wire compressing is, And I figured out how to find the

different parameters of the wire by using the tables in textbook. When the worker chose different

material, it will make the coil has different characters. Certainly, this project is under the ideal

situation. That means it ignore the manufacturing influence. I believe if we chose a different to

produce the coil, its characters must be changed. The purpose of project is to use the minimum

money and make biggest benefit. In a word, I enjoyed this project. It not only let me know

springs more deeply but also let know how design the project. Its better to teach people how to

fish rather than giving fish to people directly. The project is important. But how to design a

project and how to write a report are more important.

Reference of equation

Spring rate

D

d

(1)

D= Do d

(2)

Do = C*d + d

(3)

C=

Mean coil diameter

Shear factor

Kw =

Torsional working shear stress

16 Apendix A-11

4C1 0.615

+

4C4

C

(4)

8FD

T working = Kw* d 3

(5)

Sut = A*(d)

(6)

Sys = 0.60*Sut

(7)

Sys

Tworking

(8)

Nss =

spring rate

k=

F

y

45 lbs

0.5inches

=90lbs/in

(9)

d 4G

3

8D k

(10)

K=

d 4G

3

8D Na

or

Na=

Nt = Na + 2

(11)

shut height

Ls = d*Nt

(12)

initial deflection

yinitial =

clash allowance

Finitial

k

60lbs

90lbs /

= 0.6667 in

(13)

(14)

(15)

free length

Lf = Ls +

deflection to the shut height

(16)

(17)

shut-height stress

Tshut = Kw *

8F shutD

d 3

(18)

safety factor

Sys

Ns = T shut

(19)

Area of 0.08in

0.08

2

Aread =

=0.005026548in2

(20)

Aread

1.3

Area

(21)

Area

Area =

total length of wire

( d )

4

(22)

Lw = *Do*Nt

(23)

relative cost

Apendix

A-1

(24)

A-2

A-3

A-4

A-5

A-6

A-7

A-8

A-9

A-10

A-11

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