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Unit 3

Outcome 2
Key Knowledge point 1

Types of contemporary interactions with natural
environments including:

Primary industries


How do each of you interact with nature in

your own time?
How would you categorise these?
What different motives are behind these?

What examples are you linked to?

The sector of an economy making direct

use of natural resources. This includes
agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining,
and extraction of oil and gas.
This is contrasted with the secondary
sector, producing manufactures and other
processed goods, and the tertiary sector,
producing services.
Environmental Impacts as a result?

Interactions - Examples:
• Logging companies,
• Mining companies,
• Energy companies
• Agriculture
• Fisheries
• Game hunting.. etc

• Aboriginal – trading goods
• Early European settlers – Cleared land for farming

practices, sealing + whaling, logging
1800’s – mining (gold, stone, tin), farming practices
1900’s – mining, logging, farming, fishing, hunting,
WHY have these interactions changed?

Seen in the Grampians and surrounding areas
 Grain
 Cattle
 Sheep

Quarrying (in southern Grampians – not

Heatherlie quarry anymore)

 Victoria is Australia’s largest food and fibre exporting state.

Our strong agricultural sector produces goods valued at
around $8 billion a year
 Western Victoria’s temperate climate, high quality soils and
clean water support our world-class agriculture industries.
 Australia is a major producer and exporter of Agriculture
and its closely related sectors earn $155 billion a year for a
12% share of Australia’s GDP.
 Australian farmers and grazers own 135,996 farms,
covering 61% of Australia’s landmass.
But what impacts do we know are associated with

Concerns about the impact of quarrying are hardly
Complaints about quarrying activities were
voiced as far back as the 1890s.
The issues of concern haven't changed over time
 visual intrusion on natural landscapes
 physical damage to landscapes
 noise pollution causing avoidance by wildlife
 damage to caves
 deterioration in water quality due to chemical


What examples are you linked to?

Definition.. .Time spent away from work in activity
outdoors usually for ‘fun’.
The need to do something for recreation is an
essential element of human biology and psychology
but is often undertaken for the following reasons..
Risk taking
Thrill seeking/rush

Recreational interaction examples:
•rock climbing
•bird watching
•mountain biking

What recreational activities did you see that

could be undertaken in the Grampians??

Patterns of Recreation Interactions
•Aboriginal – learning skills, stories, walking, dancing and
•Early European - early 1800’s – little recreation time – maybe
walking, picnics
•Late 1800’s – early 1900’s – tramping, bird watching,
camping, picnics
•1900’s after first world war – hiking, driving, bird watching,
surfing, sailing, flying, bungy jumping, skiing, rock climbing,
caving, camping, trekking, scuba diving………
•WHY have these interactions changed?

The protection and enhancement of the environment.
Conservation interaction - Examples:
•Environment groups
•Creating of National Parks
•Management strategies
•Conservation Laws
•Minimal impact strategies
•Reduction in use of resources
•Reduction of waste and pollution
•Education and awareness
•Development of environmentally friendly

energy sources

Patterns of Conservation Interactions
•Aboriginal – areas for no hunting/gathering, only
took what they needed, use of fire for regeneration
•Early European settlers – didn’t have any
•1800’s – didn’t have any until late 1800’s when
national parks first became a possibility
•1900’s – recognition of land degradation,
environmental awareness, environment groups
formed, national parks formed, acts of parliament
passed and implemented, management strategies
developed, use of resources limited
•WHY have these interactions changed?

The visiting of places for leisure, recreation, challenge,
education which is outside their usual environment.
Tourism is making use of an environment to make a
Tourism interaction - Examples:
•Bus tours
•Educational tours
•Sight seeing
•Variety of accommodation
•Experiencing local culture/food/music
•Recreational activities – golf, birdwatching, walking, skiing, climbing,

sailing, kayaking, 4WD, photography…

Different types of Tourism:
 Eco-tourism- Sustainability
 Visiting Natural Resources
 Man made tourism- MCG, Water world etc.

Patterns of Tourism Interactions
•Aboriginal – no tourism, visited other tribes for
trade, marriage, ceremonies
•Early European settlers – no tourism, travel was for
commerce / new settlement and trade
•1800’s – no tourism until late 1800’s when income
was sufficient to visit family or friends for leisure
•1900’s – mostly domestic travel until 1970’s
•1970’s - now –
•WHY have these interactions changed?

Tourism is the main income of Halls Gap.
What tourist activities are on offer here?
What are the positive impacts of these?
What are the negative environmental impacts

of these?

Has Tourism benefited the Natural Environment?
 PositiveMore money injected into the Grampians area.
Improving area to make it more desirable.

 NegativeMore people = more impact
Industralisation (Environmental Changes).

Has Tourism changed societies relationship with

the environment?
 Yes because we are more engaged and have more

information about what the environment has to

Compare and contrast the different
contemporary societal relationships with
outdoor environments
(200 words)
Think about the environmental, social and financial positives
and negatives of these interactions