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MINIMUM LOADS FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER

STRUCTURES
NOMBRE
LUIS EDUARDO TELLO VELEZ
MATERIA
ANÁLISIS ESTRUCTURAL II
CURSO
CUARTO INGENIERIA CIVIL
AÑO LECTIVO
2014-2015

SHRINKAGE.BASIC REQUIREMENTS BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES MUST BE BUILT IN ORDER TO SUPPORT FORCES ACTING ON THEM SO THEY MUST SUPPORT FACTORED LOADS. THE DEFORMATION IS UNDER THE REGULARIZED DEFORMATION TESTED IN LABS BY EXPERTS. LATERAL DRIFT DUE TO LATERAL FORCES LIKE FORCES CREATED BY EARTHQUAKES. BUILDINGS ARE CLASIFIED IN CATEGORY TWO IF THE AUTHORITY OF THE JURISDICTION DICTATES THAT THE BUILDING CAN HANDLE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SO IT DOESN’T THREAT HUMAN LIFE. THE NEED OF BUILDING SAFER. STRUCTURES LIKE THESE. A PREVENTION PROGRAM. MUST WORK PROPERLY UNDER THE EFFECT OF NOMINAL LOADS WHICH ARE EITHER ALONE OR THEY CAN COMBINE SO THE STRESSES STAY UNDER THE ALLOWABLE STRESS. THESE EFFECTS ARE SO IMPORTANT BECAUSE THE STRUCTURE SERVICE DEPENDS ON HOW WELL THE STRUCTURE CAN WITHSTAND THESE EFFECTS AND HOW ABOUT LIVING IN A DEFORMED STRUCTURES THAT STANDS STILL AND IS STRONG ENOUGH?. THEY ARE GROUPED IN FOUR CATEGORIES RANGING FROM ONE TO FOUR. VIBRATIONS THAT MIGHT THE WHOLE STRUCTURE. CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT ANOTHER EFFECTS LIKE SELF STRAINING FORCES THAT MIGHT CHANGE THE WHOLE PERSPECTIVE OF THE STRUCTURE DUE TO TEMPERATURE. PURPOSE THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT IS TO DETERMINE LOADS ACTING ON A STRUCTURE LIKE BUILDINGS SO THEY STILL STAND EVEN IN CATASPROHIC EVENTS AND STILL STIFF SO IF THEY DEFLECT. SO THAT MEANS HOW HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CAN BE HANDLED IN CATASTROPHIC EVENTS. NATURE OF OCCUPANCY BUILDING ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON THE NATURE OF THE OCUPPANCY. BUT THEY NEED THREE ELEMENT AT MINIMUM: A HAZARD ASSESSMENT. AND AN EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN. CREEP AND OTHER SIMILAR EFFECTS AND SPECIALLY BEING CAREFUL ABOUT WIND AND EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS WHEN SAFETY AND LIFE OF THE OCCUPANTS COME IN HANDY. STRUCTURES AND ELEMENTS THAT MAKE UP THE WHOLE STRUCURE MUST BE STIFF ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND EFFECTS LIKE DEFLECTIONS. MORE STABLES STRUCTURES MAKES CIVIL ENGINEERS SO IMPORTANT SO TECHNOLOGY IS PLUS TO GET IT.BUILDING THAT HAS A LOW HAZARD TO HUMAN LIFE IN THE EVENT OF FAILURE. . THE FIRST CATEGORY IS A NONTHREATENING. IN ADDITION THE MATERIAL THEY ARE MADE OF MUST WORK UNDER THEIR ESTIMATED STRENGTH.

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SO BUILDING AND OTHER KIND OF STRUCTURES CAN SUPPORT THEM. D= DEAD LOAD Di= WEIGHT OF ICE E= EARTHQUAKE F= LOAD DUE TO FLUIDS WITH WELL DEFINED PRESSURES AND MAXIMUM HEIGHTS Fa= FLOOD LOAD H= LOAD DUE TO LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE. THIS KIND OF DESIGN HAS ADVANTAGES RATHER THAN THE SECOND DESIGN METHOD WHICH IS CALLED BY THE NAME ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. WE’LL NEED TO USE THESE STANDARDS MENTIONED BELOW WHEN THE AUTHORIZED MATERIAL DICTATES SO.4. THESE FACTS AS WE’LL SEE ARE USED TO DESIGN PROPORTIONING ELEMENTS OF A PARTICULAR CONSTRUCTION WHICH WENT UNDER A STRICT CONTROL. STARTS TO WORK WITH MATERIAL BETTER SO STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ARE STIFFER. THE FIRST ONE IS DESIGNING ELEMENTS OF A STRUCTURE BASED ON STRENGTH DESIGN. THE FIRST ONE DOESN’T RESTRICT THE STRESS INSTEAD.3 AND 2. SO LET’S ANALYZE THE METHODS THE FIRST ONE IS CALLED STRENGTH DESIGN ON WHICH ASCE ESTABLISHES IT SHOULD BE AUTHORIZED WHEN THE MATERIAL DESIGN STANDARD SAYS SO. GROUND WATER PRESSURE . SO PLEASE HAVE A LOOK ON HOW WE FACTOR THOSE LOADS. THOSE FACTORED LOAD ARE INCREASED IN CASE OF EVENTS TAKING PLACE AT A CERTAIN TIME. SO THIS MAKES SENSE BECAUSE FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORING LOAD ARE DIFFERENT.DESIGN DESIGNING BUILDINGS ASCE (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS) IS CLEAR TO REFER TO SECTIONS 2. THE SECOND DESIGN METOD RESTRICTS THE RESISTANCE OF THE ELEMENT THEREFORE WE’LL HAVE BIGGER SECTIONAL AREA WHICH MAKES IT STRONGER AND SOMETIMES ELEMENTAL STRUCTURES WON’T HAVE THE NECESSITY TO HAVE STEEL TO WITHSTAND STRESS DUE TO BENDING.

THE WEIGHT OF FIXED EQUIPMENT LIKE ELECTRICAL FEEDERS. THE WEIGHT OF MATERIALS ALSO NEED TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT AND IN THE ABSENCE OF DEFINITE INFORMATION.L= LIVE LOAD Lr= ROOF LIVE ROAD R=RAIN LOAD S= SNOW LOAD T= SELF-STRAINING FORCE W= WIND LOAD Wi= WIND ON ICE THE EXCEPTIONS ARE A) THE LOAD FACTOR IN 3. FINISHES AND OTHER INCORPORATED ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL ITEMS AND FIXED EQUIPMENT INCLUDING THE WEIGHT OF CRANES. FOR THE SECOND DESIGN METHOD CALLED ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN ON WHICH EFFECTS OF ONE OR MORE LOADS ACTING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED DEAD LOADS DEAD LOADS CONSIST OF THE WEIGHT OF THE MATERIALS INCORPORATED INTO THE BUILDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WALLS. ROOFS.4. HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEMS SHALL BE INCLUDED.5 ARE REDUCED TO 0. FLOORS. THE WEIGHT OF MATERIALS SHOULD BE AUTHORIZED BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE JURISDICTION. . CEILINGS. STIRWAYS.5 WHEN THE LIVE LOAD ON OCCUPANCIES ARE LESS OR EQUAL TO 100 PSF WITH THE EXCEPTION OF GARAGES OR AREAS OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY B) THE LOAD FACTOR (H) MUST BE ZERO WHEN IT’S COUNTERACTED BY W OR E.

1 THAT EXPLAINS THE UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD ACCORDING TO AN OCCUPANCY. LIVE LOADS MIGHT APPEAR IN A STRUCTURE WHEN IT COMES TO ROOF LOADS FOR MAINTENANCE BY WORKERS. UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS BUILDINGS MUST BE DESIGNED BY UNIFOMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS WHICH ARE THE MAXIMUM LOADS THAT SHOULD BE EXPECTED WHEN THE STRUCTURE IS IN SERVICE. CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST NOT USE VALUE THAT GOES UNDER THIS CRITERIA THAT’S INCLUDED IN TABLE 4. . EARTHQUAKE LOADS AND FLOOD LOADS.LIVE LOADS LIVE LOADS ARE LOAD THAT APPEAR WHEN THE STRUCTURE IS IN SERVICE. IN ADDITION. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL AND DURING THE SERVICE LIFE BY MOVABLE OBJECTS LIKE PEOPLE. ROOF LOADS. SNOW LOADS. WE MIGHT CALL LIVE LOADS LIKE WIND LOAD. IT DOES NOT INCLUDE CONSTRUCTION AND ENVIROMENTAL LOADS.

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. THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS ACI 318S-08.BIBLIOGRAPHY ASCE 7: MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES.