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BloodTypeTestingLab

BoondareeDaophiphatchai
PiyapornRuangsorn
113
Introduction:
Asweknowphysicaltraitsfromthechromosomesthatreceivedfromyourmotherand
father.Geneofeachchromosomewilltellphysicalappearance

andthegenotypeofthe
individualforaspecifictrait.Eachcharacteristicofphysicalappearanceandgenotypecontrolled
by2alleles/trait.Ineachtraittherearetwoallelesbutsometraitcanhavemorethan2variation
ofalleles,calledMultipleallelictrait.ExampleofMultipleallelictraitisBloodtype.
BloodtypeofAllhumancanbetypedfortheABObloodgroup.Humanbloodtype
A
B
definedbytwoalleles.Therearethreedifferentalleles:I
(GroupA),I
(GroupB),i(GroupO).
TherearetwoantigensandtwoantibodiesthathavetoresponsiblefortheABObloodtypes.The
differentofeachbloodtypeswilldeterminewhatbloodtypeyouareforsafetytransfusing.
Anantigenisanysubstancethatcausesyourimmunesystemtoproduce
antibodies
againstit.Wecanfoundantigenineggwhiteandproteinsfromtransplantedtissuesandorgans
oronthesurfaceoftransfusedbloodcells.Antibodiesgammaglobulinproteinsthatarefoundin
bloodorotherbodilyfluidsofvertebrates.
Thebloodtypesaredeterminedbyantigensonthesurfaceofredbloodcelland
antibodieswillpresentinplasma.Tocheckthebloodtypes,ifyouaregroupA,youwillhave
antigenAandantibodyB,groupBwillhaveantigenBandhaveantibodyA,groupABwill
havebothantigenAandBbutwillnothaveantibody,groupOdonothavebothantigenAandB
(theantigensdontshow)butwillhaveantiAtypeandantiBtypeantibodies.
Materials
:
TwoMicroscopeslides
AntiA,B,AB
Markers
Lancets
LancetDevice
Ethanol
CottonBall
Threetoothpicks
Methods
:
1. Drawtwocircles(1cm.diameter)sidebysideoneachslide(Thereare2slides)

2.
3.
4.
5.

Eachcirclemarkcontrol,antiA,antiB,orantiAB
Puncturethetipofoneofmembersfinger
Thendropasingledropofbloodineachcircle(exceptincontrolcircle).
Inthecirclemarkedas:
a.AntiA:dropasingledropofantiA
b.AntiB:dropasingledropofantiB
c.AntiAB:dropasingledropofantiAB
8.Mixingthebloodandtheantibodybyusingtoothpick.
9.Wait10secondsandobservetheresult.
10.Recordtheresult
Result

State:Coagulation/Nocoagulation

Control

Nocoagulation

AntiA

Nocoagulation

AntiB

Nocoagulation

AntiAB

Nocoagulation
*After10secondsthatmixedbloodandantibodiesandobservetheresult.

Discussion
1. Statethebloodtypeofyourmumanddadandexplainthedifferentscenariosofallele
inheritancethatledtoyourbloodtype(foreachmember,statewhosescenarioitis)
BoondareesBloodtype(O)

BoondareesmumxBoondareesdad
iixii
100%GroupO
ForBoondareesbloodtype,herparentbotharegroupOandbothgenotypesareii.So
theoffspringofthetraitmustbegroupO100%
PiyapornsBloodtype(B)
PiyapornsmumxPiyapornsdad
B
iixI
i
50%GroupOand50%GroupB
ForPiyapornsparent,PiyapornsmumisgroupOandherdadisgroupB.Thegenotype
B
BB
ofhermumisii(groupO)andherdadisI
i(groupB)notI
I
becausehersistersbloodtype
aregroupBandgroupO,whichmeansoneofhersisterisrecessivehomozygous.Ifgenotypeof
BB
PiyapornsdadisI
I,theoffspringwonthavegroupOoffspring.

PunnettSquare

B
I

B
I
i

ii

B
I
i

ii

*ThistableprovedtheoutcomeofoffspringofPiyapornsparenttosupportgenotypeof
Piyapornssister.

2. Explainwhybloodcoagulatewithsomeantibodiesbutnotwithotherantibodies
Bloodcoagulatewithsomeantibodiesbutnotwithotherantibodiesbecausetheantibody
ofbloodtypeismatchedwithantigenofotherbloodtype.Forexample,ifantibodyAof
groupBmixedwithantigenAofgroupAtogether,thecoagulationofbloodwilloccur
becauseGroupBcannotreceiveantigenA.

ABOblood
types

AntigenA

AntigenB

AntibodyA

AntibodyB

yes

no

no

yes

no

yes

yes

no

no

no

yes

yes

AB

yes

yes

no

no

*Thistableistoshowtheantigensandantibodiesofeachbloodtypestosupportthe
answerabove.

Conclusion
Intheexperiment,wedroppedasingledropofblood(groupO)andmixedwith
threedifferentantibodies(antA,antiB,andantiAB).Theresultsfromthreedifferentmixing
after10secondsarenocoagulation.TheresultprovesthatgroupOreceivesantibodyA,
antibodyB,andantibodyABandwealsoknownthatgroupOdonthaveantigenAandantigen
B.Soitmeansthatthecoagulationcanoccuronlywhentheantigenofbloodtypematchedwith
antibodyofotherbloodtypes,whichmeansgroupOplasmacanonlytransfusebloodtoany
bloodtypesbutitcannotreceivebloodfromotherbloodtypes.Theresultfromtheexperiment
alsoprovethatwhatbloodtypesBoondareearetomakesurethatsheisgroupObylookingat
theresultsfromthebloodthatmixedthreedifferentantibodies.Theexperimentalsoshowsthat
inmedicaltreatmentwhenwetransfusebloodtopatientwhohasdifferentbloodfromus,we
needtotransfusebloodthatpatient'sbloodcanreceiveforsafety.Thus,bloodtypesisan
importantthingthatweshouldknow.
Thereisanerrorinthisexperiment.WhenpunctureatipofBoondareesfinger,the
blooddidntbleedenoughandweneedtodroppedasingleofbloodinthesamecircletomake
surethatitsenoughfortesting.Howevertheresultfromtheexperimentitstillfollowstheblood
typestableandwhatwehavelearnt.

References
JanewayandTraver.(1994).
Antigensandantibodies
.RetrievedMarch16,2015,from
https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081213184129AAuKnT3
UniversityofArizona.(1997,October23).
Bloodtypestutorial.
RetrievedMarch16,2015,from
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/blood_types/markers.html
Dennis,O.(19992014).
ABCBloodtypes.
RetrievedMarch16,2015,from
http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/ABO_system.htm
CarlBianco,MD.(19992014).
BloodTypes.
RetrievedMarch16,2015,from
http://health.howstuffworks.com/humanbody/systems/circulatory/blood5.htm
UniversityofUtah.(2015).
Genesandbloodtype.
RetrievedMarch16,2015,from
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/blood/