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ANSI/AGMA 1012- G05

[Revision of
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90]

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012- G05

Gear Nomenclature, Definition of Terms


with Symbols

American
National
Standard

Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols


ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05
[Revision of ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90]
Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the
standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review,
substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National
Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretation of this standard should be addressed to the American Gear Manufacturers
Association.
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the
Association on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite
350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]

Approved September 29, 2005

ABSTRACT
This standard lists terms and their definitions with symbols for gear nomenclature.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--846--7

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3
Terms and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4
Geometric definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4.1 General designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4.2 Kinds of gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.3 Principal planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.4 Principal directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5 Surfaces and dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.6 Terms related to gear teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.7 Terms related to gear pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.8 Terms related to tooth contact in a gear pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5
Inspection definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Index of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Annexes
A
B
C

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Glossary of trade terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Terms and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA
1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols.]
In 1926 the AGMA adopted a recommended practice for gearing nomenclature, terms and
definitions. It included some symbols and abbreviations.
A complete revision of terms and definitions by the AGMA Nomenclature Committee was
issued as AGMA 112.02 in October, 1948. This later became AGMA 112.03, and American
Standard B6.10--1954, with ASME as a co--sponsor.
A separate project dealing with Letter Symbols for Gear Engineering appeared in 1943 as
AGMA 111.01, later becoming AGMA 111.03 and American Standard B6.5--1954.
Abbreviations for Gearing was another separate project released as AGMA 116.01 in 1955.
Most of these abbreviations were already listed in American Standard Z32.13--1950
Abbreviations for Use on Drawings, and it was, therefore, unnecessary to process gearing
abbreviations as a separate American Standard. The number of abbreviations used in
gearing has intentionally been kept very small to permit memorizing without the need to
refer to the standard.
AGMA Standard 112.04, Gear Nomenclature (Geometry) Terms, Definitions, Symbols and
Abbreviations, was a complete revision and integration of the three standards previously
mentioned. Because of the widespread acceptance of the previous standards, changes
were kept to a minimum. The standard in this form was approved by the AGMA Membership
on April 25, 1965.
AGMA 112.05 included several revisions to keep it abreast of the then current gearing
techniques. It was approved by Standards Committee B6, Gears, the Co--Secretariats and
the American National Standards Institute on February 3, 1976 and designated ANSI
B6.14--1976.
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90 was a revision of 112.05. This revision incorporated the terms from
AGMA Standard 116.01 (Oct., 1972), Glossary of Terms Used in Gearing, and terms from
ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook, Tolerances and
Measuring Methods for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears (Including Metric
Equivalents). In addition, terms which started to be commonly used in gear load rating were
introduced in the annex.
ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05 is a revision that updates the style of presentation, reordered the
sequence of some terms, added definitions for right and left flank, and modified annexes B
and C.
The first draft of ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05 was made in June 2002. It was approved by the
AGMA membership in July, 2005. It was approved as an American National Standard on
September 29, 2005.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

iv

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Nomenclature Committee


Chairman: Dwight Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cole Manufacturing Systems

ACTIVE MEMBERS
M.R. Chaplin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.L. Errichello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O.A. LaBath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T. Miller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.M. Rinaldo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contour Hardening, Inc.


GEARTECH
Gear Consulting Services of Cincinnati, LLC
CST Cincinnati
Atlas Copco Comptec, Inc.

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

(This page is intentionally blank)

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American National Standard --

Gear Nomenclature,
Definitions of Terms with
Symbols

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

3.2 Symbols
The purpose of standard symbols for gear engineering is to establish a uniform practice in mathematical
notation for equations and formulas dealing with
toothed gearing. Such equations and corresponding
calculations may be used in connection with design,
application, manufacture, inspection, new methods,
and new problems.
NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this standard may differ from other AGMA standards. The user
should not assume that familiar symbols can be used
without a careful study of these definitions.

1 Scope
This standard establishes the definitions of terms,
symbols and abbreviations which may be used to
communicate the technology and specifications of
external and internal gear teeth. It provides definitive
meanings by the use of words and illustrations, for
commonly used gearing terms.

SI (metric) units of measure, where applicable, are


shown in the text. Where equations require a
different format or constant for use with SI units, the
primary equation has an (M) appended and the
secondary expression is shown after the first,
indented.
Example:
d=zm
D= N
Pd

2 Normative references
The following documents contain provisions which,
through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
the standard. At the time of publication, the editions
were valid. All publications are subject to revision,
and the users of this standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent
editions of the publications listed.
ISO 701:1998, International gear notation -Symbols for geometrical data.

3 Terms and symbols


3.1 Terms
The terminology used in this standard is intended for
use in all AGMA documents and is summarized in
the index.
Many terms are listed in the index more than once by
restating alphabetically with rearranged key words,
to aid user look--up of related terms.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

(2M)
(2)

Symbols must be distinguished from abbreviations


which are shortened forms of words often used on
drawings and in tables, but not suitable for mathematical work (see annex A). For example, the
symbol for circular pitch is p, whereas the abbreviation is CP.
AGMA is changing to use symbols consistent with
symbols used by ISO. In the definition titles, where
the old AGMA symbol is still commonly used but
differs from the ISO symbol, both symbols are listed
with the ISO symbol at the end of the line. Annex C
contains an alphabetical list of the old symbols with
the new symbols also listed.
3.2.1 Subscripts
A subscript following the general symbol may be
used to indicate a value applying to a particular gear
or tool, or a value taken at a particular position or in a
particular direction. For convenience and brevity, it
is desirable to use a general symbol without a
subscript when only one value of a given kind is
involved. Thus, in a spur gear or a straight--tooth
bevel gear, there is occasion to consider only one
cross section of the teeth, namely, the transverse

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

section, and it is convenient and natural to refer, for


instance, simply to the circular pitch, p, and the
pressure angle, . In the case of gears with oblique
teeth, on the other hand, it is usually necessary to be
specific and to refer to the transverse pitch, pt, and
the transverse pressure angle, t, in order not to
leave any doubt as to whether values are being given
for the transverse plane or normal plane.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

number of teeth is called the gear, see figure 1.


(Wheel per ISO 1122--1:1998).

Pinion

3.2.2 Typography
In accordance with the usual practice in published
text, symbols, whether upper or lower case, should
be printed in serif italic font. This is done to avoid
confusion in reading the symbols and to make a
distinction between upper and lower case. An
exception is Greek capital letters and all subscripts,
which are always vertical sans serif font.
Numbers appearing as coefficients, subscripts,
superscripts, or exponents should be printed in
vertical Arabic numerals. Abbreviations should
always be printed vertical and are not recommended
for use in formulas. Trigonometric functions should
be printed in lower case vertical type. Standard
mathematical notation should be followed.

4 Geometric definitions
There is an old Chinese proverb that states: The
beginning of wisdom is to call things by their right
names. Unfortunately, gearing terms and meanings
vary in different offices, shops, textbooks, and
among gear authorities.
To obtain related continuity, the terms have been
grouped in what may be called a textbook arrangement in preference to alphabetical order. Many of
the definitions have been written in a way that makes
them depend on one another, as a logical series.
This arrangement leads to a more comprehensive
understanding of the concepts and geometrical
relations.
4.1 General designations
4.1.1 Gears
Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by
means of successively engaging teeth, see figure 1.
4.1.2 Gear (wheel)
A gear (wheel) is a machine part with gear teeth. Of
two gears that run together, the one with the larger

Gear
(wheel)

Rack

Figure 1 -- Gears
4.1.3 Pinion
A pinion is a machine part with gear teeth. Of two
gears that run together, the one with the smaller
number of teeth is called the pinion, see figure 1.
4.1.4 Worm
A worm is a gear with one or more teeth in the form of
screw threads, see figures 2 and 9.

Figure 2 -- Worm
4.1.5 Rack
A rack is a gear with teeth spaced along a straight
line, and suitable for straight line motion. It can be
regarded as part of a gear of infinitely large diameter,
see figure 1.
4.1.6 Basic rack
For every pair of conjugate involute profiles, there is
a basic rack (see 4.7.1). This basic rack is the profile
of the conjugate gear of infinite pitch radius, see
figure 3.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

4.2.2 Internal gear

Profile angle

An internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the


inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears,
an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding
90, see figure 4.
An internal gear can be meshed only with an external
pinion.
4.2.3 Parallel axis gears
Figure 3 -- Basic rack in normal plane

Gears which operate on parallel axes. External


helical gears on parallel axes have helices of
opposite hands, see figure 5. If one of the members
is an internal gear, the helices are of the same hand.

4.1.7 Generating rack


A generating rack is a rack outline used to indicate
tooth details and dimensions for the design of a
generating tool, such as a hob or a gear shaper
cutter.

Left hand

4.1.8 Number of teeth or threads, N, z


Number of teeth or threads is the number of teeth
contained in the whole circumference of the pitch
circle.
4.1.9 Gear ratio, mG, u
Gear ratio is the ratio of the larger to the smaller
number of teeth in a pair of gears.
z
u = z2

(1M)

Right hand
Figure 5 -- Parallel helical gears

4.2.3.1 Spur gear

N
mG = G
NP

(1)

4.2 Kinds of gears

A spur gear has a cylindrical pitch surface and teeth


that are parallel to the axis, see figure 6.

4.2.1 External gear


An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the
outer surface of a cylinder or cone, see figure 4.

Pinion

Gear
External gear

Internal gear

Rack
External bevel gear

Internal bevel gear

Figure 4 -- External and internal gears

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Figure 6 -- Spur gears

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4.2.3.2 Spur rack


A spur rack has a planar pitch surface and straight
teeth that are at right angles to the direction of
motion, see figure 6.
4.2.3.3 Helical gear
A helical gear has a cylindrical pitch surface and
teeth that are helical, see figure 7.
4.2.3.4 Helical rack

Single helical
gears

Double helical
gears

Herringbone
gears

Figure 8 -- Single and double helical

A helical rack has a planar pitch surface and teeth


that are oblique to the direction of motion, see
figure 7.

4.2.4 Wormgearing
Wormgearing includes worms and their mating
gears. The axes are usually at right angles, see
figure 9.
Cylindrical
worm

Helical gear

Helical rack

Figure 7 -- Helical gear and rack


4.2.3.5 Single helical gears
Single helical gears have teeth of only one hand on
each gear, see figure 8.
4.2.3.6 Double helical gears
Double helical gears have teeth of both right hand
and left hand on each gear. The teeth are separated
by a gap between the helices. Where there is no
gap, they are known as herringbone, see figure 8.
4.2.3.7 Herringbone gears
Herringbone gears have teeth of both right hand and
left hand on each gear. The teeth are continuous
without a gap between the helices, see figure 8.

Enveloping
wormgear

Cylindrical
(non--enveloping)
wormgear

Figure 9 -- Wormgearing
4.2.4.1 Wormgear (wormwheel)
A wormgear (wormwheel) is the mate to a worm. A
wormgear that is completely conjugate to its worm
has line contact and is said to be enveloping, see
figure 9. It is usually cut by a tool that is geometrically
similar to the worm. An involute spur gear or helical
gear used with a cylindrical worm has only point
contact.
4.2.4.2 Cylindrical worm
A cylindrical worm has one or more teeth in the form
of screw threads on a cylinder, see figures 2 and 9.
4.2.4.3 Enveloping (hourglass) worm
An enveloping (hourglass) worm has one or more
teeth and increases in diameter from its middle

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

portion toward both ends, conforming to the


curvature of the gear, see figure 10.

Figure 11 -- Crossed helical gears


4.2.5.2 Spiral gears
See 4.2.5.1.
4.2.5.3 Face gears
A face gear set consists of a face gear in combination
with a spur, helical, or conical pinion. A face gear has
a planar pitch surface and a planar root surface, both
of which are perpendicular to the axis of rotation, see
figure 12.
Figure 10 -- Double--enveloping wormgearing
Offset

4.2.4.4 Double--enveloping wormgearing


Double--enveloping wormgearing comprises enveloping (hourglass) worms mated with fully enveloping
wormgears, see figure 10. Also known as globoidal
wormgearing.
Pinion on center

Pinion off center

4.2.5 Crossed axis gears


Crossed axis gears are gears which operate on
non--parallel axes.
Figure 12 -- Face gears
4.2.5.1 Crossed helical gears
4.2.5.4 Bevel gears
Gears that operate
non--parallel axes.

on

non--intersecting,

The term crossed helical gears has superseded the


term spiral gears. There is theoretically point contact
between the teeth at any instant. They have teeth of
the same or different helix angles, of the same or
opposite hand. A combination of spur and helical or
other types can operate on crossed axes, see figure
11.

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Bevel gears have conical pitch surfaces operating on


intersecting or non--intersecting axes, see figure 13.
Bevel gears that operate on non--intersecting axes
are known as hypoid gears, see 4.2.5.12. When
bevel gears is used as a general term, it covers
straight, spiral, zerol, skew bevel and hypoid gears.
Practically all bevel gears have spiral teeth that are
curved and oblique. The axes may be at right angles
or otherwise. The tooth surfaces of a bevel gear and

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

pinion are both cut or generated by the same or


similar tools.

Shaft angle greater


or less than 90

4.2.5.5 Miter gears


Miter gears are mating bevel gears with equal
numbers of teeth and with axes at right angle, see
figure 13.

Pinion

Figure 14 -- Angular bevel gears

90

Gear
Bevel gears

Figure 15 -- Crown gear


4.2.5.8 Straight bevel gears

45_
45_
90_

Straight bevel gears have straight tooth elements,


which if extended, would pass through the point of
intersection of their axes, see figure 16.

Miter gears

Figure 13 -- Bevel gears

4.2.5.6 Angular bevel gears


Angular bevel gears are bevel gears in which the
axes are not at right angles, see figure 14.
4.2.5.7 Crown gear
A crown gear is a bevel gear with a planar pitch
surface. The crown gear is analogous to the basic
rack in spur gears, see figure 15.

Straight bevel
gears

Skew bevel
gears

Figure 16 -- Straight and skewed bevel


4.2.5.9 Skew bevel gears
Skew bevel gears are those for which the corresponding crown gear has teeth that are straight and
oblique, see figure 16.
4.2.5.10 Spiral bevel gears
Spiral bevel gears have teeth that are curved and
oblique, see figure 17.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05
Pitch plane

Spiral bevel
gears

Zerol bevel
gears

Transverse
plane
Pitch
cylinder

Figure 17 -- Spiral bevel and zerol


4.2.5.11 Zerol bevel gears
Zerol bevel gears have teeth that are curved but in
the same general direction as straight teeth. They
are spiral bevel gears of zero spiral angle, see figure
17.

Plane of axes

Figure 19 -- Principal reference planes

4.2.5.12 Hypoid gears

4.3.3 Pitch plane

Hypoid gears are similar in general form to bevel


gears, but operate on non--intersecting axes, see
figure 18.

The pitch plane of a pair of gears is the plane


perpendicular to the axial plane and tangent to the
pitch surfaces. A pitch plane in an individual gear
may be any plane tangent to its pitch surface, see
figure 19 and 4.5.1.

Offset

The pitch plane of a rack or in a crown gear is the


imaginary planar surface that rolls without slipping
with a pitch cylinder or pitch cone of another gear.
The pitch plane of a rack or crown gear is also the
pitch surface, see figures 20 and 25.

Figure 18 -- Hypoid gears


4.2.5.13 Other trade name gears
It is beyond the scope of this standard to define all
trade name kinds of gears, see annex B.
4.3 Principal planes

Pitch plane of cylindrical gears

4.3.1 Axial plane


An axial plane may be any plane containing the gear
axis and a given point, see figure 19.
4.3.2 Plane of axes
The plane of axes is the plane that contains the two
axes for parallel or intersecting axis gears, see figure
19.

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Pitch plane of rack

Pitch plane of crown gear

Figure 20 -- Pitch plane of gears

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

4.3.4 Plane of rotation

4.3.6 Transverse plane

A plane of rotation is any plane perpendicular to a


gear axis, see figure 21.

A transverse plane is perpendicular to the axial plane


and to the pitch plane. In gears with parallel axes,
the transverse plane and plane of rotation coincide,
see figures 19 and 22.
4.3.7 Normal plane
A normal plane is normal to a tooth surface at a pitch
point, and perpendicular to the pitch plane. In a
helical rack, a normal plane is normal to all the teeth it
intersects. In a helical gear, however, a plane can be
normal to only one tooth at a point lying in the plane
surface. At such a point, the normal plane contains
the line normal to the tooth surface, see figure 22.

Spur
gear

Bevel
gear

Plane of
rotation

Important positions of a normal plane in tooth


measurement and tool design of helical teeth and
worm threads are:
Transverse
plane

Figure 21 -- Planes of rotation

(1) the plane normal to the pitch helix at side of tooth;


(2) the plane normal to the pitch helix at center of
tooth;
(3) the plane normal to the pitch helix at center of
space between two teeth

4.3.5 Tangent plane


A tangent plane is tangent to the tooth surfaces at a
point or line contact.

Normal
plane

In a spiral bevel gear, one of the positions of a normal


plane is at a mean point and the plane is normal to
the tooth trace.

Transverse
planes

Pitch
plane

Line normal to
tooth surface in
normal plane

Pitch point

Figure 22 -- Planes at a pitch point on a helical tooth

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

4.3.8 Central plane

4.4.2 Transverse direction

The central plane of a wormgear is perpendicular to


the gear axis and contains the common perpendicular of the gear and worm axes. In the usual case with
axes at right angles, it contains the worm axis, see
figure 23.

The transverse direction is a direction within a


transverse plane, see figure 24.
4.4.3 Normal direction
The normal direction is a direction within a normal
plane, see figure 24.
4.5 Surfaces and dimensions

Central
plane

The pitch surface definitions are for gears having


their ratio of angular velocities constant, and axes
either parallel or intersecting, and, therefore, do not
include crossed helical gears, wormgearing, hypoid
gears, or offset face gears.
4.5.1 Pitch surfaces
Pitch surfaces are the imaginary planes, cylinders,
or cones that roll together without slipping. For a
constant velocity ratio, the pitch cylinders and pitch
cones are circular, see figures 25 and 26.

Cylindrical
pitch surfaces

Figure 23 -- Central plane


4.4 Principal directions
These are directions in the pitch plane, and correspond to the principal cross sections of a tooth.
4.4.1 Axial direction
The axial direction is a direction parallel to an axis,
see figure 24.

Rack pitch surface

Figure 25 -- Pitch surfaces

Transverse direction
Normal direction

Axial direction

Direction of tooth

Figure 24 -- Principal directions

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Figure 26 -- Pitch cones

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

4.5.3 Cylindrical gear terms (surfaces and


dimensions)

4.5.1.1 Equivalent pitch radius


Equivalent pitch radius is the radius of the pitch circle
in a cross section of gear teeth in any plane other
than a plane of rotation. It is properly the radius of
curvature of the pitch surface in the given cross
section. Examples of such sections are the transverse section of bevel gear teeth and the normal
section of helical teeth, see figure 27.

4.5.3.1 Pitch cylinder


A pitch cylinder is the imaginary cylinder in a spur or
helical gear that rolls without slipping on a pitch plane
or pitch cylinder of another gear, see figure 25.
4.5.3.1.1 Pitch circle (operating)
A pitch circle (operating) is the curve of intersection
of a pitch surface of revolution and a plane of
rotation. It is the imaginary circle that rolls without
slipping with a pitch circle of a mating gear, see figure
28.

Equivalent pitch radius


(equals back cone distance)

Bevel gear

4.5.3.1.2 Pitch line


The pitch line corresponds, in the cross section of a
rack, to the pitch circle (operating) in the cross
section of a gear, see figure 28.
4.5.3.1.3 Pitch point

Figure 27 -- Back cone equivalent

The pitch point is the point of tangency of two pitch


circles (or of a pitch circle and pitch line) and is on the
line of centers, see figure 28.

4.5.1.2 Equivalent number of teeth, Ne

4.5.3.2 Line of centers

Equivalent number of teeth is the number of teeth


contained in the whole circumference of a pitch circle
corresponding to an equivalent pitch radius.

The line of centers connects the centers of the pitch


circles of two engaging gears; it is also the common
perpendicular of the axes in crossed helical gears
and wormgears. When one of the gears is a rack, the
line of centers is perpendicular to its pitch line, see
figure 28.

4.5.2 Gear center


A gear center is the center of the pitch circle, see
figure 28.

Line of centers

4.5.3.3 Outside (tip or addendum) cylinder


The outside (tip or addendum) cylinder is the surface
that coincides with the tops of the teeth of an external
cylindrical gear, see figure 29.
Outside cylinder

Pitch point

Pitch circle

Gear center

Pitch line
Root cylinder

Figure 28 -- Pitch circles and line

10

Figure 29 -- Cylindrical surfaces

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4.5.3.3.2 Top land

4.5.3.3.1 Outside diameter, Do, da


Outside diameter is the diameter of the addendum
(tip) circle, see figure 30. In a bevel gear it is the
diameter of the crown circle, see figure 36. In a
throated wormgear it is the maximum diameter of the
blank, see figure 31. The term applies to external
gears (for internal gears, see 4.5.3.5).

Top land is the surface of the top of a tooth, see figure


32.

Top land

Bottom land
Outside diameter

Figure 32 -- Tooth lands


Pitch diameter

4.5.3.4 Inside cylinder


The inside cylinder is the surface that coincides with
the tops of the teeth of an internal cylindrical gear,
see figure 33.
Root diameter

4.5.3.5 Inside diameter, Di


Inside diameter is the diameter of the addendum
circle of an internal gear, see figure 33.

Figure 30 -- Diameters, external gears

Root
circle

Root diameter

Gear throat
form radius
Inside
diameter
Throat
diameter
Addendum
circle

Figure 33 -- Diameters, internal gear


4.5.3.6 Root cylinder
Outside
diameter

The root cylinder is the imaginary surface that


coincides with the the bottoms of the tooth spaces in
a cylindrical gear.
4.5.3.6.1 Root circle

Figure 31 -- Wormgear diameters

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The root circle coincides with the bottoms of the tooth


spaces, see figures 33 and 34.

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Working depth

Addendum circle

Root circle

Addendum

Dedendum
Clearance

Figure 34 -- Root circle

Whole depth

Figure 35 -- Principal dimensions

4.5.3.6.2 Root diameter, DR, df


Root diameter is the diameter of the root circle, see
figures 30 and 33.
4.5.3.6.3 Bottom land
Bottom land is the surface at the bottom of a tooth
space adjoining the fillet, see figure 32.
4.5.3.7 Standard (reference) pitch circle
The circle which intersects the involute at the point
where the pressure angle is equal to the profile angle
of the basic rack.
4.5.3.7.1 Standard reference pitch diameter, D, d
The standard reference pitch diameter is the diameter of the standard pitch circle. In spur and helical
gears, unless otherwise specified, the standard pitch
diameter is related to the number of teeth and the
standard transverse pitch. It is obtained as:
zp
mn
d=zm= =z
cos
Np
N
D= N = =
Pd
P nd cos

(2M)

4.5.3.10 Dedendum, b, hf
Dedendum is the depth of a tooth space below the
standard (reference) pitch circle or pitch line; also,
the radial distance between the pitch circle and the
root circle, see figure 35.
4.5.4 Crossed axis gear terms (surfaces and
dimensions)
4.5.4.1 Pitch cone
A pitch cone is the imaginary cone in a bevel gear
that rolls without slipping on a pitch surface of
another gear, see figure 26.
4.5.4.2 Face (tip) cone
The face (tip) cone is the imaginary surface that
coincides with the tops of the teeth of a bevel or
hypoid gear, see figure 36.

(2)

4.5.3.8 Addendum circle

Face
cone

Back cone

The addendum circle coincides with the tops of the


teeth and is concentric with the standard (reference)
pitch circle and radially distant from it by the amount
of the addendum, see figures 33 and 34. For
external gears, the addendum circle lies on the
outside cylinder while on internal gears the
addendum circle lies on the internal cylinder.

Front
cone

4.5.3.9 Addendum, a, ha
Addendum is the height by which a tooth projects
beyond (outside for external, or inside for internal)
the standard pitch circle or pitch line; also, the radial
distance between the pitch circle and the addendum
circle, see figure 35.

12

Root
cone

Crown circle

Figure 36 -- Conical surfaces

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4.5.4.3 Root cone

4.5.4.6 Front angle

The root cone is the imaginary surface that coincides


with the bottoms of the tooth spaces in a bevel or
hypoid gear, see figure 36.

Front angle, in a bevel gear, is the angle between an


element of the front cone and a plane of rotation, and
usually equals the pitch angle, see figure 37.
4.5.4.7 Crown circle

4.5.4.4 Back cone


The back cone of a bevel or hypoid gear is an
imaginary cone tangent to the outer ends of the
teeth, with its elements perpendicular to those of the
pitch cone. The surface of the gear blank at the outer
ends of the teeth is customarily formed to such a
back cone, see figure 36.
4.5.4.4.1 Back cone distance

The crown circle in a bevel or hypoid gear is the circle


of intersection of the back cone and face cone, see
figure 36.
4.5.4.8 Apex to back
Apex to back, in a bevel gear or hypoid gear, is the
distance in the direction of the axis from the apex of
the pitch cone to a locating surface at the back of the
blank, see figures 37 and 38.

Back cone distance in a bevel gear is the distance


along an element of the back cone from its apex to
the pitch cone, see figure 37.

Mounting
distance

Mounting
distance

Back angle
Front angle
Crossing
point
Cone
distance

Back cone
distance

Apex to back
Hypoid Gear and Pinion

Figure 38 -- Mounting distance


4.5.4.9 Mounting distance
Apex of pitch cone
Apex to back

Figure 37 -- Apex to back

Mounting distance, for assembling bevel gears or


hypoid gears, is the distance from the crossing point
of the axes to a locating surface of a gear, which may
be at either back or front, see figure 38.
4.5.4.10 Crossing point

Back angle, in a bevel gear, is the angle between an


element of the back cone and a plane of rotation, and
usually is equal to the pitch angle, see figure 37.

Crossing point is the point of intersection of bevel


gear axes; also the apparent point of intersection of
the axes in hypoid gears, crossed helical gears,
wormgears, and offset face gears, when projected to
a plane parallel to both axes, see figure 38.

4.5.4.5 Front cone

4.5.4.11 Throat diameter, dt

4.5.4.4.2 Back angle

The front cone of a bevel or hypoid gear is an


imaginary cone tangent to the inner ends of the
teeth, with its elements perpendicular to those of the
pitch cone. The surface of the gear blank at the inner
ends of the teeth is customarily formed to such a
front cone, but sometimes may be a plane on a
pinion or a cylinder in a nearly flat gear, see figure 36.

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Throat diameter is the diameter of the addendum


circle at the central plane of a wormgear or of a
double--enveloping wormgear, see figure 31.
4.5.4.12 Throat form radius, rt
Throat form radius is the radius of the throat of an
enveloping wormgear or of a double--enveloping
worm, in an axial plane, see figure 31.

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4.6 Terms related to gear teeth

4.6.2.2 Base radius

4.6.1 Involute teeth

Radius of a base circle.

Involute teeth of spur gears, helical gears, and


worms are those in which the profile in a transverse
plane (exclusive of the fillet curve) is the involute of a
circle, see figure 39.

4.6.2.3 Base cylinder


The base cylinder corresponds to the base circle,
and is the cylinder from which involute tooth surfaces
are developed, see figure 41.

Involute

Involute
surface

Base
cylinder
Spur

Base circle

Figure 39 -- Involute teeth

Helical

Figure 41 -- Base cylinder

4.6.2 Base circle


The base circle is the circle from which involute tooth
profiles are derived, see figure 39.
4.6.2.1 Base diameter, Db, db
Base diameter is the diameter of the base circle of an
involute gear, see figure 40.

Involute

Base
circle

Involute
teeth

4.6.2.4 Cone gear base diameter


Cone gear base diameter, is the diameter of the
base circle in a Cone double--enveloping wormgear. The base circle is tangent to straight line
extensions of the worm tooth profiles in the central
plane of the wormgear.
4.6.3 Crowned teeth
Crowned teeth have surfaces modified in the lengthwise direction to produce localized contact or to
prevent contact at their ends, see figure 42.
Crowning can be applied to all types of teeth.
4.6.4 Pressure angle, ,

Base diameter

Figure 40 -- Base diameter

14

Pressure angle is in general the angle at a pitch point


between the line of pressure which is normal to the
tooth surface, and the plane tangent to the pitch
surface. The pressure angle gives the direction of
the normal to the tooth profile, see figure 43. The
pressure angle is equal to the profile angle at the
standard pitch circle and can be termed the standard pressure angle at that point.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05
Crown
magnitude

terms that indicate the direction of the plane in which


the profile angle or the pressure angle lies, such as
transverse profile angle, normal pressure angle,
axial profile angle.
4.6.6 Standard profile angles
In tools and gages for cutting, grinding, and gaging
gear teeth, the profile angle is the angle between a
cutting edge or a cutting surface, and some principal
direction such as that of a shank, an axis, or a plane
of rotation, see figure 43.

Figure 42 -- Crowned gear


Profile
angle
Pressure
angle

Cutting
tool

Profile
angle

Standard profile angles are established in connection with standard proportions of gear teeth and
standard gear cutting tools. Involute gears operate
together correctly after a change of center distance,
and gears designed for a different center distance
can be generated correctly by standard tools. A
change of center distance is accomplished by
changes in operating values for pitch diameter,
circular pitch, diametral pitch, pressure angle, and
tooth thicknesses or backlash. The same involute
gear may be used under conditions that change its
operating pitch diameter and pressure angle.
Unless there is a good reason for doing otherwise, it
is practical to consider that the pitch and the profile
angle of a single gear correspond to the pitch and the
profile angle of the hob or cutter used to generate its
teeth, see figure 44.
Profile
angle

Figure 43 -- Pressure and profile angles


4.6.5 Profile angle

Standard
pitch
circle

Profile angle is in general the angle at a specified


pitch point between a line tangent to a tooth surface
and the line normal to the pitch surface (which is a
radial line of a pitch circle). This definition is
applicable to every type of gear for which a pitch
surface can be defined. The profile angle gives the
direction of the tangent to a tooth profile, see figure
43.
In spur gears and straight bevel gears, tooth profiles
are considered only in a transverse plane, and the
general terms profile angle and pressure angle are
customarily used rather than transverse profile
angle and transverse pressure angle. In helical
teeth, the profiles may be considered in different
planes, and in specifications it is essential to use

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Figure 44 -- Standard profile angle


4.6.7 Transverse pressure angle and transverse
profile angle, t, t
Transverse pressure angle and transverse profile
angle are the pressure angle and the profile angle in
a transverse plane, see figure 45.

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4.6.8 Normal pressure angle and normal profile


angle, n, n
Normal pressure angle and normal profile angle are
the pressure and profile angles in a normal plane of a
helical or a spiral tooth, see figure 45. In a spiral
bevel gear, unless otherwise specified, profile angle
means normal profile angle at the mean cone
distance.

ambiguous, and for this reason it is preferable to use


specific designations such as transverse circular
pitch, normal base pitch, axial pitch, see figure 48.
Point
P

Pressure
angle

r
A

Transverse
profile angle
Polar
angle

Axis

Involute

B
rb
O

Normal
profile angle

Figure 46 -- Involute polar angle


Axial
profile angle

Point
Involute

Figure 45 -- Profile angles


4.6.9 Axial pressure angle and axial profile
angle, x, x
Axial pressure angle and axial profile angle are the
pressure angle and the profile angle in an axial plane
of a helical gear or a worm, or of a spiral bevel gear,
see figure 45.

Roll
angle

Cusp

Base
circle

Roll
angle

4.6.10 Involute polar angle,


Involute polar angle is the angle between a radius
vector to a point, P, on an involute curve and a radial
line to the intersection, A, of the curve with the base
circle, see figure 46.
4.6.11 Involute roll angle,
Involute roll angle is the angle whose arc on the base
circle of radius unity equals the tangent of the
pressure angle at a selected point on the involute,
see figure 47.

Figure 47 -- Involute roll angle


Pitch

Circular pitch

4.6.12 Pitch
Pitch is the distance between a point on one tooth
and the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. It
is a dimension measured along a line or curve in the
transverse, normal, or axial directions. The use of
the single word pitch without qualification may be

16

Figure 48 -- Pitch

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4.6.13 Circular pitch, p


Helical rack

Circular pitch is the arc distance along a specified


pitch circle or pitch line between corresponding
profiles of adjacent teeth, see figure 48.

Base
pitch

Axis

4.6.14 Transverse circular pitch, pt


Transverse circular pitch is the circular pitch in the
transverse plane, see figure 49.
Normal
base
pitch

Transverse
circular pitch

Axial pitch

Figure 50 -- Base pitch relationships


Base pitch

Axis
Normal
circular pitch

Circular
pitch

Axial pitch
Base
pitch
Base
circle
Base tangent

Figure 49 -- Tooth pitch

Figure 51 -- Principal pitches


4.6.15 Normal circular pitch, pn, pe

4.6.18 Base pitch, normal, pN, pbn

Normal circular pitch is the circular pitch in the


normal plane, and also the length of the arc along the
normal pitch helix between helical teeth or threads,
see figure 49.

Normal base pitch in an involute helical gear is the


base pitch in the normal plane. It is the normal
distance between parallel helical involute surfaces
on the plane of action in the normal plane, or is the
length of arc on the normal base helix. It is a constant
distance in any helical involute gear, see figure 50.

4.6.16 Axial pitch, px


Axial pitch is linear pitch in an axial plane and in a
pitch surface. In helical gears and worms, axial pitch
has the same value at all diameters. In gearing of
other types, axial pitch may be confined to the pitch
surface and may be a circular measurement, see
figures 49 and 50.

4.6.19 Diametral pitch (transverse), Pd

The term axial pitch is preferred to the term linear


pitch. The axial pitch of a helical worm and the
circular pitch of its wormgear are the same.

4.6.20 Normal diametral pitch, Pnd

4.6.17 Base pitch, transverse, pb, pbt

Pd
cos
4.6.21 Module (transverse), mt

Base pitch in an involute gear is the pitch on the base


circle or along the line of action. Corresponding
sides of involute gear teeth are parallel curves, and
the base pitch is the constant and fundamental
distance between them along a common normal in a
transverse plane, see figures 50 and 51.

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Diametral pitch (transverse) is the ratio of the


number of teeth to the standard pitch diameter in
inches.

P d = N = 25.4
m =p
D

(3)

Normal diametral pitch is the value of diametral pitch


in a normal plane of a helical gear or worm.
P nd =

(4)

Module (transverse) is the ratio of the pitch diameter


in millimeters to the number of teeth.
25.4
mt = D
z = P
d

(5)

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4.6.22 Normal module, mn

Profile

Normal module is the value of the module in a normal


plane of a helical gear or worm.
m n = m t cos

Tip

Transverse
plane

(6)

4.6.23 Angular pitch, N,

Root

Angular pitch is the angle subtended by the circular


pitch, usually expressed in radians.
2
= 360
z degrees or z radians
4.6.24 Tooth surface (flank)

(7)

Fillet
curve
Tooth
surface

The tooth surface (flank) forms the side of a gear


tooth, see figure 52.
4.6.25 Left or right flank
It is convenient to choose one face of the gear as the
reference face and to mark it with the letter I. The
other non--reference face might be termed face II.

Figure 52 -- Profile (spur gear)


For an observer looking at the reference face, so that
the tooth is seen with its tip uppermost, the right flank
is on the right and the left flank is on the left.
Right and left flanks are denoted by the letters R
and L respectively. See figures 53 and 54.

30R

2L
tip

left
flank

right
flank
30

29

I
I is reference face
30 R = pitch No. 30, right flank
2 L = pitch No. 2, left flank
Figure 53 -- Notation and numbering for external gear
30R
1L
tip

left flank

right
flank
2

29
1

30

I is reference face
1 L = pitch No. 1, left flank
30 R = pitch No. 30, right flank
Figure 54 -- Notation and numbering for internal gear

18

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4.6.26 Profile
A profile is one side of a tooth in a cross section
between the outside circle and the root circle.
Usually a profile is the curve of intersection of a tooth
surface and a plane or surface normal to the pitch
surface, such as the transverse, normal, or axial
plane, see figure 52.

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

curve has a varying radius of curvature, f, see figure


56.
Involute

Tip relief

4.6.26.1 Tip radius, rT, ra


Tip radius is the radius of the circular arc used to join
a side--cutting edge and an end--cutting edge in gear
cutting tools. Edge radius is an alternate term, see
figure 55.
Hob or tool

Figure 57 -- Tip relief


4.6.27.2 Undercut

Tip radius

Figure 55 -- Tip radius


4.6.26.2 Profile radius of curvature,
Profile radius of curvature is the radius of curvature
of a tooth profile, usually at the pitch point or a point
of contact, see figure 56. It varies continuously along
the involute profile.

Undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth when


any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line drawn
tangent to the working profile at its point of juncture
with the fillet, see figure 58. Undercut may be
deliberately introduced to facilitate finishing operations. With undercut the fillet curve intersects the
working profile. Without undercut the fillet curve and
the working profile have a common tangent.
Working profile
(involute of circle)

Profile radius
of curvature

Fillet
radius

Lowest point of working


profile on which contact
may occur
UNDERCUT

Figure 56 -- Fillet radius


Base circle

4.6.26.3 Tip relief


Tip relief is a modification of a tooth profile whereby a
small amount of material is removed near the tip of
the gear tooth, see figure 57.

Fillet curve
Tangent at
lowest point
of working
profile

Radial line of base circle

Figure 58 -- Undercut
4.6.27 Fillet curve (root fillet)
The fillet curve (root fillet) is the concave portion of
the tooth profile where it joins the bottom of the tooth
space, see figure 52.
4.6.27.1 Fillet radius, rf
Fillet radius is the radius of a circular arc approximating the root fillet curve. In generated teeth, the fillet

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4.6.27.3 Form diameter


Form diameter is the diameter of a circle at which the
trochoid (fillet curve) produced by the tooling intersects, or joins, the involute or specified profile.
Although these terms are not preferred, it is also
known as the true involute form diameter (TIF), start
of involute diameter (SOI), or when undercut exists,

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as the undercut diameter. This diameter cannot be


less than the base circle diameter, see figure 59.

4.6.29 Left hand helical gear or left hand worm


A left hand helical gear or left hand worm is one in
which the teeth twist counterclockwise as they
recede from an observer looking along the axis, see
figure 60.
4.6.30 Cylindrical gear terms (related to teeth)
4.6.30.1 Helix angle, ,

Start of
active profile
(SAP)

x0
y0

Helix angle is the angle between any helix and an


axial line on its cylinder. In helical gears and worms,
it is at the standard pitch circle unless otherwise
specified, see 4.5.3.7 and figure 61.

Limit diameter
Profile control diameter
Form diameter

Helix

y
Base diameter

Tooth

Helix angle
Axis

(Undercut tooth)

Figure 59 -- Form diameter


Figure 61 -- Helix angle
4.6.28 Right hand helical gear or right hand
worm
A right hand helical gear or right hand worm is one in
which the teeth twist clockwise as they recede from
an observer looking along the axis, see figure 60.
The designations, right hand and left hand, are the
same as in the long established practice for screw
threads, both external and internal.

4.6.30.2 Pitch helix


The pitch helix is the intersection of the tooth surface
and the pitch cylinder of a helical gear or cylindrical
worm, see figure 62.
Outside helix
Helical tooth
Pitch
circle

Pitch
helix
Base
helix
angle

Two external helical gears operating on parallel axes


must be of opposite hand. An internal helical gear
and its pinion must be of the same hand.

Straight line element


of base cylinder
Base helix

Base circle

Figure 62 -- Tooth helix


4.6.30.3 Base helix
Right hand
helical gear

Left hand
helical gear

The base helix of a helical, involute gear or involute


worm lies on its base cylinder, see figure 62.
4.6.30.3.1 Base helix angle, b, b
Base helix angle is the helix angle on the base
cylinder of involute helical teeth or threads, see
figure 62.

Right hand worm

Left hand worm

Figure 60 -- Helical and worm hand

20

4.6.30.3.2 Base lead angle, b


Base lead angle is the lead angle on the base
cylinder. It is the complement of the base helix angle.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05
Cylinder

4.6.30.4 Normal helix


A normal helix is a helix on the pitch cylinder, normal
to the pitch helix, see figure 63.
Axis

Pitch helix

Helix

90
Lead

Pitch
cylinder

Figure 64 -- Lead

Normal
helix

Lead

Figure 63 -- Normal helix


Helix angle

4.6.30.5 Outside (tip or addendum) helix


The outside (tip or addendum) helix is the intersection of the tooth surface and the outside cylinder of a
helical gear or cylindrical worm, see figure 62.
4.6.30.5.1 Outside helix angle, o, a

Lead angle

Figure 65 -- Lead angle


4.6.30.8 Face width, F, b

Outside helix angle is the helix angle on the outside


cylinder.
4.6.30.5.2 Outside lead angle, o
Outside lead angle is the lead angle on the outside
cylinder. It is the complement of the outside helix
angle.

Face width is the length of teeth in an axial plane, see


figure 66. For double helical, it does not include the
gap.
Face width
Gap

4.6.30.6 Lead, L, pz
Lead is the axial advance of a helix for one complete
turn, as in the threads of cylindrical worms and the
teeth of helical gears, see figure 64.
z mn
pz = px z = d =
tan
sin

(8)

Total face width

4.6.30.7 Lead angle,


Lead angle is the angle between any helix and a
plane of rotation. It is the complement of the helix
angle, and is used for convenience in worms and
hobs. It is understood to be at the standard pitch
diameter unless otherwise specified, see figure 65.

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Effective face width

Figure 66 -- Face width

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4.6.30.9 Total face width, Ft


Total face width is the actual dimension of a gear
blank including the portion that exceeds the effective
face width, see 4.7.11, or as in double helical gears
where the total face width includes any distance or
gap separating right hand and left hand helices, see
figure 66.

gear. The hypoid pinion is then larger in diameter


than an equivalent bevel pinion.

Left hand
Right hand

4.6.31 Crossed axis gear terms (related to teeth)


4.6.31.1 Right hand spiral bevel gear
A right hand spiral bevel gear is one in which the
outer half of a tooth is inclined in the clockwise
direction from the axial plane through the midpoint of
the tooth as viewed by an observer looking at the
face of the gear, see figure 67.

Zerol bevel gears

Zerol bevel pinions

Left hand

Right hand

Figure 68 -- Zerol hand


Left hand

4.6.31.3 Spiral angle, ,

Right hand

Spiral bevel gears

Spiral bevel pinions

Spiral angle in a spiral bevel gear is the angle


between the tooth trace and an element of the pitch
cone, and corresponds to the helix angle in helical
teeth. Unless otherwise specified, the term spiral
angle is understood to be the mean spiral angle, see
figures 69 and 70.

Left hand

Right hand

Figure 67 -- Spiral bevel hand


4.6.31.2 Left hand spiral bevel gear
A left hand spiral bevel gear is one in which the outer
half of a tooth is inclined in the counterclockwise
direction from the axial plane through the midpoint of
the tooth as viewed by an observer looking at the
face of the gear, see figure 67.
A spiral bevel gear and pinion are always of opposite
hand, including the case when the gear is internal.
The designations right hand and left hand are
applied similarly to spiral bevel gears, zerol bevel
gears, skew bevel gears, hypoid gears, and oblique
tooth face gears, see figure 68.
In hypoid gear design, the pinion and gear are
practically always of opposite hand, and the spiral
angle of the pinion is usually larger than that of the

22

Spiral angle

Figure 69 -- Spiral angle


4.6.31.4 Mean spiral angle, m, m
Mean spiral angle is the specific designation for the
spiral angle at the mean cone distance in a bevel
gear, see figure 70.
4.6.31.5 Outer spiral angle, o, e
Outer spiral angle is the spiral angle of a bevel gear
at the outer cone distance, see figure 70.

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4.6.31.9 Outer cone distance, Ao


Tooth
spiral

Mean cone distance


Inner spiral angle
Mean spiral angle

Outer cone distance in bevel gears is the distance


from the apex of the pitch cone to the outer ends of
the teeth. When not otherwise specified, the short
term cone distance is understood to be outer cone
distance, see figure 72.

Outer spiral angle


Outer cone
distance
Inner cone
distance

Figure 70 -- Spiral angle relationships


4.6.31.6 Inner spiral angle, i, i
Inner spiral angle is the spiral angle of a bevel gear at
the inner cone distance, see figure 70.

Mean cone
distance

4.6.31.7 Shaft angle,


Shaft angle is the angle between the axes of two
non--parallel gear shafts. In a pair of crossed helical
gears, the shaft angle lies between the oppositely
rotating portions of two shafts. This applies also in
the case of wormgearing. In bevel gears, the shaft
angle is the sum of the two pitch angles. In hypoid
gears, the shaft angle is given when starting a
design, and it does not have a fixed relation to the
pitch angles and spiral angles, see figure 71.
Crossing point of axes

Shaft angle

Figure 72 -- Cone distance


4.6.31.10 Mean cone distance, Am
Mean cone distance in bevel gears is the distance
from the apex of the pitch cone to the middle of the
face width, see figure 72.
4.6.31.11 Inner cone distance, Ai
Inner cone distance in bevel gears is the distance
from the apex of the pitch cone to the inner ends of
the teeth, see figure 72.
4.6.31.12 Heel
The heel of a tooth on a bevel gear or pinion is the
portion of the tooth surface near its outer end, see
figure 73.

Helical gears

Heel
Apex of
pitch cones

Toe
Bevel gears

Figure 71 -- Shaft angle


4.6.31.8 Cone distance, A
Cone distance in a bevel gear is the general term for
the distance along an element of the pitch cone from
the apex to any given position in the teeth, see figure
72.

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Bevel gear

Figure 73 -- Heel and toe

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4.6.31.13 Toe

4.6.31.17 Addendum angle,

The toe of a tooth on a bevel gear or pinion is the


portion of the tooth surface near its inner end, see
figure 73.

Addendum angle in a bevel gear, is the angle


between elements of the face cone and pitch cone,
see figure 75.

4.6.31.14 Pitch angle,

4.6.31.18 Dedendum angle,

Pitch angle in bevel gears, is the angle between an


element of a pitch cone and its axis. In external and
internal bevel gears, the pitch angles are respectively less than and greater than 90 degrees, see figures
74 and 75.

Dedendum angle in a bevel gear, is the angle


between elements of the root cone and pitch cone,
see figure 75.
4.6.32 Terms related to tooth thickness
4.6.32.1 Circular thickness, t
Circular thickness is the length of arc between the
two sides of a gear tooth, on the specified datum
circle, see figure 76.

Face angle
Pitch angle
Root angle

Circular
thickness, t

Chordal
addendum

Datum
circle

Axis
Apex of pitch cone

Apex to back

Chordal
thickness

Figure 74 -- Angle relationships


Figure 76 -- Tooth thickness
Face cone

4.6.32.2 Transverse circular thickness, tt, s

Root cone
Pitch angle
Addendum angle

Transverse circular thickness is the circular thickness in the transverse plane, see figure 77.

Dedendum angle
Normal circular thickness
Axial thickness
Axis

Transverse circular
thickness

Apex of pitch cone

Figure 75 -- Angles

Helical rack tooth

4.6.31.15 Face (tip) angle, o


Face (tip) angle in a bevel or hypoid gear, is the angle
between an element of the face cone and its axis,
see figure 74.

Transverse circular
thickness
Axial
plane

4.6.31.16 Root angle, R


Root angle in a bevel or hypoid gear, is the angle
between an element of the root cone and its axis, see
figure 74.

24

Spiral crown gear tooth


Sections in pitch surfaces

Figure 77 -- Thickness relationships

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4.6.32.3 Normal circular thickness, tn


Normal circular thickness is the circular thickness in
the normal plane. In a helical gear it may be
considered as the length of arc along a normal helix,
see figure 77.
4.6.32.4 Axial thickness, tx
Axial thickness in helical gears and worms is the
tooth thickness in an axial cross section at the
standard pitch diameter, see figure 77.
4.6.32.5 Base circular thickness, tb
Base circular thickness in involute teeth is the length
of arc on the base circle between the two involute
curves forming the profile of a tooth.
4.6.32.6 Chordal thickness, normal, tnc, sc
Chordal thickness is the length of the chord that
subtends a circular thickness arc in the plane normal
to the pitch helix. Any convenient measuring
diameter may be selected, not necessarily the
standard pitch diameter, see figure 78.

Circular
thickness

backlash.
factor, x.

See AGMA 913--A98 for profile shift

4.6.32.9 Rack shift


The rack shift is the displacement of the tool datum
line from the reference cylinder, made non-dimensional by dividing by the normal module. It is
used to specify the tooth thickness. See AGMA
913--A98.
4.6.32.10 Measurement over pins
Measurement over pins is the measurement of the
distance taken over a pin positioned in a tooth space
and a reference surface. The reference surface may
be the reference axis of the gear, a datum surface or
either one or two pins positioned in the tooth space or
spaces opposite the first. This measurement is used
to determine tooth thickness, see ANSI/AGMA
2002--B88 and figure 79.

Chordal
addendum

Normal chordal
thickness

Datum
circle

Normal plane

Figure 78 -- Chordal thickness


4.6.32.7 Chordal addendum (chordal height), ac,
hca
Chordal addendum (chordal height) is the height
from the top of the tooth to the chord subtending the
circular thickness arc. Any convenient measuring
diameter may be selected, not necessarily the
standard pitch diameter, see figure 78.
4.6.32.8 Profile shift
The profile shift is the displacement of the basic rack
datum line from the reference cylinder, made
non--dimensional by dividing by the normal module.
It is used to specify the tooth thickness, often for zero

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Figure 79 -- Tooth thickness measurement over


pins
4.6.32.11 Span measurement
Span measurement is the measurement of the
distance across several teeth in a normal plane. As
long as the measuring device has parallel measuring
surfaces that contact on an unmodified portion of the
involute, the measurement will be along a line
tangent to the base cylinder. It is used to determine
tooth thickness, see ANSI/AGMA 2002--B88 and
figure 80.
4.6.32.12 Modified addendum teeth
Teeth of engaging gears, one or both of which have
non--standard addendum, see AGMA 913--A98.

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see figure 81. For additional information, see AGMA


913--A98 annex B, under addendum modification.

4.7 Terms related to gear pairs


4.7.1 Conjugate gears
Conjugate gears transmit uniform rotary motion from
one shaft to another by means of gear teeth. The
normals to the profiles of these teeth, at all points of
contact, must pass through a fixed point in the
common centerline of the two shafts.
4.7.2 Center distance (operating), C, a
Figure 80 -- Span measurement
4.6.32.13 Full--depth teeth
Full--depth teeth are those in which the working
depth equals 2.000 divided by the normal diametral
pitch.

Center distance (operating) is the shortest distance


between non--intersecting axes. It is measured
along the mutual perpendicular to the axes, called
the line of centers. It applies to spur gears, parallel
axis or crossed axis helical gears, and wormgearing,
see figure 82.
Center distance

4.6.32.14 Stub teeth


Stub teeth are those in which the working depth is
less than 2.000 divided by the normal diametral
pitch.
4.6.32.15 Equal addendum teeth
Equal addendum teeth are those in which two
engaging gears have equal addendums, see figure
81.
a

Internal
External
Figure 82 -- Center distance
4.7.3 Offset, E

Equal addendum teeth

Offset is the perpendicular distance between the


axes of hypoid gears or offset face gears, see figures
12, 18, and 83.

Long and short addendum teeth

In figure 83, for hypoid gears, (a) and (b) are referred
to as having an offset below center, while those in (c)
and (d) have an offset above center. In determining
the direction of offset, it is customary to look at the
gear with the pinion at the right. For below center
offset the pinion has a left hand spiral, and for above
center offset the pinion has a right hand spiral.

aP

aG

Figure 81 -- Long and short addendum


4.6.32.16 Long and short--addendum teeth
Long and short addendum teeth are those in which
the addendums of two engaging gears are unequal,

26

4.7.4 Operating pressure angle


The operating pressure angle is determined by the
base circles of two gears and the center distance at
which the gears operate. Various other pressure
angles may also be considered in gear calculations.

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4.7.10 Backlash, B, j
Backlash is the amount by which the width of a tooth
space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth
on the operating pitch circles, see figure 84.
As actually indicated by measuring devices, backlash may be determined variously in the transverse,
normal, or axial planes, and either in the direction of
the pitch circles, or on the line of action. Such
measurements may be converted to corresponding
values on transverse pitch circles for general comparisons.

Offset

Operating pitch circles


Hypoid gears

Figure 83 -- Offset
Backlash
(transverse operating)

4.7.5 Clearance, c
Clearance is the distance between the root circle of a
gear and the addendum circle of its mate, see figure
35.
4.7.6 Working depth, hk, hw
Working depth is the depth of engagement of two
gears, that is, the sum of their operating addendums,
see figure 35.
4.7.7 Whole depth, ht, (tooth depth), he
Whole depth (tooth depth) is the total depth of a tooth
space, equal to addendum plus dedendum, also
equal to working depth plus clearance, see figure 35.
4.7.8 Pitch diameter
Pitch diameter is the diameter of a pitch circle, see
figure 30.
A bevel gear pitch diameter is understood to be at the
outer ends of the teeth unless otherwise specified.
4.7.9 Operating pitch diameters, dP, dw1, and dG,
dw2
Operating pitch diameters are the pitch diameters
determined from the numbers of teeth and the center
distance at which gears operate. Example for pinion:
2a
dw = 2 a =
z2
u+1
z1 + 1

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Figure 84 -- Backlash
4.7.10.1 Backlash, minimum
Minimum backlash is the minimum transverse
backlash at the operating pitch circle allowable when
the gear tooth with the greatest allowable functional
tooth thickness is in mesh with the pinion tooth
having its greatest allowable functional tooth thickness, at the tightest allowable center distance, under
static conditions, see ANSI/AGMA 2002--B88.
4.7.10.2 Backlash variation
Difference between the maximum and minimum
backlash occurring in a whole revolution of the larger
of a pair of mating gears.
4.7.11 Effective face width, Fe
For cylindrical gears, effective face width is the
portion that contacts the mating teeth. One member
of a pair of gears may engage only a portion of its
mate, see functional face width, 5.1.6 and figure 66.
For bevel gears, different definitions for effective
face width are applicable.
4.8 Terms related to tooth contact in a gear
pair
4.8.1 Point of contact

(9)

A point of contact is any point at which two tooth


profiles touch each other, see figure 85.

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Point of contact

4.8.4 Line of action


Pitch point

The line of action is the path of action for involute


gears. It is the straight line passing through the pitch
point and tangent to both base circles, see figure 87.
Base circle

Line of action

Path of action

Figure 85 -- Path of action


Base circle

4.8.2 Line of contact


A line of contact is a line or curve along which two
tooth surfaces are tangent to each other, see figures
86 and 88.

Figure 87 -- Line of action


4.8.5 Surface of action

4.8.3 Path of action


The path of action is the locus of successive contact
points between a pair of gear teeth, during the phase
of engagement. For conjugate gear teeth, the path
of action passes through the pitch point. It is the
trace of the surface of action in the plane of rotation,
see figures 85 and 88.

The surface of action is the imaginary surface in


which contact occurs between two engaging tooth
surfaces. It is the summation of the paths of action in
all sections of the engaging teeth.
4.8.6 Plane of action
The plane of action is the surface of action for
involute, parallel axis gears with either spur or helical
teeth. It is tangent to the base cylinders, see figure
88.

Line of contact

Plane of action

Tangent plane
Helical line of contact

Base cylinder

Figure 88 -- Plane of action


Spur line of contact

Figure 86 -- Line of contact

28

4.8.7 Zone of action (contact zone)


Zone of action (contact zone) for involute, parallel-axis gears with either spur or helical teeth, is the

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rectangular area in the plane of action bounded by


the length of action and the effective face width, see
figure 89.

Zone of
action

Length of
action

Line of
action

Face
width

Line of contact
Length of
action

Figure 91 -- Length of action


4.8.10 Arc of action, Qt

Figure 89 -- Zone of action

Arc of action is the arc of the pitch circle through


which a tooth profile moves from the beginning to the
end of contact with a mating profile, see figure 92.

4.8.8 Path of contact

4.8.11 Arc of approach, Qa

The path of contact is the curve on either tooth


surface along which theoretical single point contact
occurs during the engagement of gears with
crowned tooth surfaces or gears that normally
engage with only single point contact, see figure 90.

Arc of approach is the arc of the pitch circle through


which a tooth profile moves from its beginning of
contact until the point of contact arrives at the pitch
point, see figure 92.
4.8.12 Arc of recess, Qr
Arc of recess is the arc of the pitch circle through
which a tooth profile moves from contact at the pitch
point until contact ends, see figure 92.

Lines of contact
(before surface is crowned)

Path of contact
(after surface is crowned)
Arc of action
Points of contact
(after surface is crowned)

Arc of recess

Arc of
approach

Figure 90 -- Lines of contact (helical gear)


4.8.9 Length of action, Z
Length of action is the distance on the line of action
through which the point of contact moves during the
action of the tooth profile, see figure 91.

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Direction
of motion

Figure 92 -- Arc of action

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4.8.13 Contact ratio, mc,


Contact ratio in general is the number of angular
pitches through which a tooth surface rotates from
the beginning to the end of contact.

Maximum
addendum
circle

Line of
action

4.8.14 Transverse contact ratio, mp,


Transverse contact ratio is the contact ratio in a
transverse plane. It is the ratio of the angle of action
to the angular pitch. For involute gears it is most
directly obtained as the ratio of the length of action to
the base pitch.
4.8.15 Face contact ratio, mF,
Face contact ratio is the contact ratio in an axial
plane, or the ratio of the face width to the axial pitch.
For bevel and hypoid gears it is the ratio of face
advance to circular pitch.

Minimum
operating
center
distance
Base
circle
Limit
diameter

4.8.16 Total contact ratio, mt,


Total contact ratio is the sum of the transverse
contact ratio and the face contact ratio.
= +

(10M)
(10)

mt = mp + mF

4.8.17 Modified contact ratio, mo


Modified contact ratio for bevel gears is the square
root of the sum of the squares of the transverse and
face contact ratios.
m o = m 2p + m 2F

Figure 93 -- Limit diameter

0.5

(11)

4.8.18 Limit diameter


Limit diameter is the diameter on a gear at which the
line of action intersects the maximum (or minimum
for internal pinion) addendum circle of the mating
gear. This is also referred to as the start of active
profile, the start of contact, the end of contact, or the
end of active profile, see figures 93 and 59.

5 Inspection definitions
The following definitions are used in AGMA
2000--A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook, Tolerances and Measuring Methods for
Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears (Including
Metric
Equivalents)
and
in
ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01, Accuracy Classification System -Tangential Measurements for Cylindrical Gears.
NOTE: ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 replaces AGMA
2000--A88. For bevel and wormgear inspection nomenclature, see ANSI/AGMA 2009--B01 and ANSI/
AGMA 2011--A98 respectively.

Face advance

4.8.18 Start of active profile (SAP)


The start of active profile is the intersection of the
limit diameter and the involute profile, see figure 59.
4.8.19 Face advance, QF
Face advance is the distance on a pitch circle
through which a helical or spiral tooth moves from
the position at which contact begins at one end of the
tooth trace on the pitch surface to the position where
contact ceases at the other end, see figure 94.

30

Figure 94 -- Face advance

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5.1 Reference datum

5.1.10 Gear form filter cutoff, g

5.1.1 Datum circle, Dc

The wavelength at which either involute profile or


helix measurement data are segregated by the low
pass filter, thereby including only longer wavelength
deviations. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

A datum circle is a circle on which measurements are


made.
5.1.2 Datum axis
The datum axis of the gear is defined by the datum
surfaces. It is the axis to which the gear details, and
in particular the pitch, profile, and helix tolerances
are defined. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.1.3 Datum tooth
A datum tooth is the designated tooth used as the
starting point for measuring other teeth.

This filter cutoff should be stated in terms of roll path


length.
5.1.11 Roll path length
The linear distance along a base tangent line from its
intersection with the base circle to the given point on
the involute curve in the transverse plane, see 4.6.11
and figure 47.
NOTE: Roll path length is an alternative to roll angle for
specification of selected diameter positions on an involute profile.

5.1.4 Profile control diameter

5.1.12 Start of tip break

A specified diameter of the circle beyond which the


tooth profile must conform to the specified involute
curve.
See functional profile.
(ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)

Minimum specified diameter at which the tip break


can occur. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

5.1.5 Eccentricity
Eccentricity is the distance between the center of a
measurement circle and a datum axis of rotation.

5.1.13 Transmission error


The deviation of the position of the driven gear, for a
given angular position of the driving gear, from the
position that the driven gear would occupy if the
gears were geometrically perfect. (ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)

5.1.6 Functional face width

5.1.14 Adjusted number of teeth, Ni

The functional face width is that portion of the face


width less the edge round or chamfer at each end.

This number represents an editorial device for


tabular convenience to allow use of spur gear tables
in a regular progression for an infinite combination of
helical gears (see AGMA 2000--A88)

5.1.7 Gear blank


A gear blank is the work piece used for the
manufacture of a gear, prior to machining the gear
teeth.
5.1.8 Inspection chart
An inspection chart is the generated recording or
trace from an inspection machine used to display a
measured variation of gear geometry.

Ni =

N
cos

(12)

5.1.15 Probe path


The path on a tooth by the measuring probe of a
generative profile or other similar inspection apparatus.
5.2 Reference surfaces
5.2.1 Datum surface

5.1.9 Tolerance diameter, dT


For cylindrical gears, the diameter located one
normal module below the design outside diameter,
thereby being approximately at mid--height. (ANSI/
AGMA 2015--1--A01)
For bevel gears, the diameter is where the mean
cone distance and the midpoint of the working depth
intersect. (ANSI/AGMA 2009--B01)

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Datum surface is a surface used as the basis for


measurements. The datum surface is established
by the specific measuring device used. (ANSI/
AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.2.2 Indicated surface
Indicated surface is that surface from which the
variations from a datum surface are measured.
(ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

5.2.3 Mounting surface


Mounting surface is a surface used to locate and
support a gear in its final application. Usually, at least
one axial and one radial surface are involved.
Preferably, these same surfaces should be used for
manufacturing and inspection operations. (ANSI/
AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.2.4 Tip or edge break
Break (corner radius) refers to a rounding or
chamfering of the edges formed by the intersection
of the tooth flank and the end or top surface of a gear
tooth.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD


NOTE: ANSI/AGMA 2015--2--AXX will replace AGMA
2000--A88.

5.3.3.1 Composite action test (double flank)


Composite action test (double flank) is a method of
inspection in which the work gear is rolled in tight
double flank contact with a master gear or a specified
gear, in order to determine (radial) composite
variations (deviations). The composite action test
must be made on a variable center distance
composite action test device, see figure 95.

Work gear
Master gear

5.3 Composite action terms


5.3.1 Master gear

Dial
indicator

Master gear is a gear of known quality and geometry,


used to perform a composite action test.
5.3.2 Single flank measurements
For a description of the application of AGMA single
flank measurements, refer to ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01.
5.3.2.1 Single flank composite test
A test of transmission error, performed where mating
gears are rolled together, at their proper center
distance, with backlash, and with only the driving and
driven flanks in contact. Deviations are measured in
terms of angular displacement and converted to
linear displacement at the pitch radius.
5.3.2.2
Single flank composite deviation,
tooth--to--tooth (filtered), fis
The value of the greatest single flank composite
deviation over any one pitch (360/z), after removal of
the long term component (sinusoidal effect of
eccentricity), during a single flank composite test,
when the gear is moved through one revolution.
5.3.2.3 Single flank composite deviation, total,
Fis
The maximum measured transmission error range,
during a single flank composite test, when the gear is
moved through one revolution.

Figure 95 -- Schematic of composite action test


5.3.3.2
Tooth--to--tooth radial
deviation (double flank), Vq, fid

composite

Tooth--to--tooth radial composite deviation (double


flank) is the greatest change in center distance while
the gear being tested is rotated through any angle of
360 degree/z during double flank composite action
test, see figure 96.
5.3.3.3
Tooth--to--tooth radial
tolerance (double flank), VqT, fidT

composite

Tooth--to--tooth radial composite tolerance (double


flank) is the permissible amount of tooth--to--tooth
radial composite deviation.
5.3.3.4 Total radial composite deviation (double
flank), Vcq, Fid
Total radial composite deviation (double flank) is the
total change in center distance while the gear being
tested is rotated one complete revolution during a
double flank composite action test, see figure 96.

5.3.3 Composite (double flank) action

5.3.3.5 Total radial composite tolerance (double


flank), VcqT, FidT

Composite (double flank) action is the variation in


center distance when two gears are rolled in tight
mesh during a composite action test.

Total radial composite tolerance (double flank) is the


permissible amount of total radial composite
deviation.

32

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1 Revolution (360) of work gear

Total radial
composite
deviation

Maximum
tooth--to--tooth
radial
composite
deviation

360/z

Figure 96 -- Total composite variation trace

5.3.3.6 Test radius, Rr

5.3.3.7 Test radius limits

The test radius is a number used as an arithmetic


convention established to simplify the determination
of the proper test distance between a master and a
work gear for a composite action test. It is used as a
measure of the effective size of a gear. The test
radius of the master, plus the test radius of the work
gear is the set up center distance on a composite
action test device. Test radius is not the same as the
operating pitch radii of two tightly meshing gears
unless both are perfect and to basic or standard
tooth thickness.

The test radius limits define the allowable range of


test radii that takes into account tooth thickness and
total composite variations.
5.4 Index of teeth
5.4.1 Index deviation
The displacement of any tooth flank from its theoretical position, relative to a datum tooth flank, see figure
97. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

+fpt

pt

k pt

Index
deviation

theoretical
actual
Figure 97 -- Pitch deviations

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33

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Distinction is made as to the direction and algebraic


sign of this reading. A condition wherein the actual
tooth flank position was nearer to the datum tooth
flank, in the specified measuring path direction
(clockwise or counterclockwise), than the theoretical
position would be considered a minus (--) deviation.
A condition wherein the actual tooth flank position
was farther from the datum tooth flank, in the
specified measuring path direction, than the theoretical position would be considered a plus (+) deviation. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

teeth, or between corresponding points of adjacent


teeth generated by an angular positioning device.

Datum
circle

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies direction of


tolerancing for index deviation to be along the arc of
the tolerance diameter circle within the transverse
plane.
5.4.2 Cumulative pitch deviation, total, Fp
The largest algebraic difference between the index
deviation values for a specified flank. (ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)
Distinction is not made as to the direction or
algebraic sign of this reading.
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies direction of
tolerancing for total cumulative pitch deviation to be
along the arc of the tolerance diameter circle within
the transverse plane.
5.4.3 Spacing
The term spacing is used as a general term to
reference the accuracy with which teeth are positioned around the gear. Spacing has no numerical
value and refers only to a group of numerically
valued tooth position measurements such as pitch or
index.

Figure 98 -- Schematic of pitch measurement,


two probe device
5.5.3 Pitch variation, Vp
Pitch variation is the algebraic plus or minus (+ or --)
difference in the transverse plane, between the true
position pitch and an actual pitch measurement. If
pitch is measured in a plane other than the transverse plane, a correction using the appropriate helix
angle must be applied to the measured value, see
figures 99 and 100.
+Vp
--Vp

Circular
pitch, p

5.4.4 Spacing variation, Vs


Spacing variation is the difference between any two
(2) adjacent measurements of pitch as obtained by a
two probe device, see figure 98, or is equal to the
difference between two (2) adjacent pitch variation
values obtained from a single probe device.

True
position
pitch

Dashed lines represent


theoretical location

Figure 99 -- Pitch variation (plus and minus)

5.5 Pitch of teeth

5.5.4 Allowable pitch variation, VpA

5.5.1 Pitch range

Allowable pitch variation is the maximum allowable


amount of pitch variation. It is the permissible plus or
minus variation from the true position pitch and it is
the amount shown in the tolerance tables or formulas
of AGMA 2000--A88.

Pitch range is the difference between the longest


and the shortest pitches on a gear.
5.5.2 True position pitch, pm
True position pitch is the circumference of the datum
circle divided by the number of teeth. This can be
determined by the average of all pitch measurements of the entire gear taken on successive pairs of

34

5.5.5 Normal pitch variation, Vpn


Normal pitch variation is the plus or minus pitch
measured in the normal plane.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Sector of three pitches

be along the arc of the tolerance diameter circle


within the transverse plane.
5.6 Runout of teeth

Index variation, Vx

Vap3

--Vp
Vap

0
+Vp

5.6.1 Runout
Runout is the maximum variation of the distance
between a surface of revolution and a datum
surface, measured perpendicular to that datum
surface.
5.6.2 Axial runout (wobble)

--

Axial runout (wobble) is the runout of the teeth


measured in a direction parallel to the datum axis of
rotation.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Tooth number

Figure 100 -- Accumulated pitch variation


5.5.6 Total accumulated pitch variation, Vap

5.6.3 Radial runout, Vr


Radial runout is the runout measured in a direction
perpendicular to the datum axis of rotation.

Total accumulated pitch variation is equal to the


algebraic difference between the maximum and
minimum values obtained from the summation of
successive values of pitch variation and is the same
as total index variation, see figure 100.

5.6.4 Radial runout tolerance, VrT

5.5.7
Total
tolerance

Indicating over pins is the measurement of the


change in radial distance over pins or wires placed in
each tooth space to determine runout with reference
to the rotating axis.

accumulated

pitch

variation

Total accumulated pitch variation tolerance is the


permissible amount of total accumulated pitch
variation.
5.5.8 Total accumulated pitch variation, within a
sector of k pitches, Vapk
Total accumulated pitch variation, within a sector of k
pitches is equal to the algebraic sum of individual
plus or minus adjacent pitch variations within that
sector. The total accumulated pitch variation within a
Sector of three (k = 3) pitches is shown in figure 100.
5.5.9 Single pitch deviation, fpt

Radial runout tolerance is the permissible amount of


radial runout.
5.6.5 Indicating over pins

5.7 Profile of teeth


5.7.1 Functional profile
That portion of the tooth flank between the profile
control diameter and the start of tip break, see figure
101.

Functional
profile

The displacement of any tooth flank from its theoretical position relative to the corresponding flank of an
adjacent tooth, see figure 97.
(ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)
Distinction is made as to the algebraic sign of this
reading. Thus, a condition wherein the actual tooth
flank position was nearer to the adjacent tooth flank
than the theoretical position would be considered a
minus (--) deviation. A condition wherein the actual
tooth flank position was farther from the adjacent
tooth flank than the theoretical position would be
considered a plus (+) deviation.
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies tolerancing direction of measurement for single pitch deviation to

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

External
tooth

Addendum (outside)
diameter
Start of tip break
Pitch diameter
Profile control
diameter
Base circle
Root diameter

Root diameter
Profile control
diameter
Pitch diameter

Functional
profile

Start of tip break

Internal
tooth

Addendum (inside)
diameter
Base circle

Figure 101 -- Functional profile

35

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

5.7.2 Profile variation, V

5.7.4 Design profile

Profile variation is the difference between the


measured and the specified functional profile. If
measured in a normal plane a correction using the
appropriate helix angle must be applied to the
measured value, see figure 102.

The profile specified by the designer as shown on the


design specification. When not specified, it is an
unmodified involute. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.7.5 Functional profile length, Lc
The difference between the roll path lengths at the
points that define the limits of the functional profile.
(ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

True involute

5.7.6 Profile deviation


Plus
profile

Minus
profile

Profile control
diameter

Figure 102 -- Profile (plus and minus)


5.7.3 Profile tolerance, VT
In AGMA 2000--A88, the profile tolerance is the
permissible amount of profile variation in the functional profile; designated by a specified K chart
envelope as shown in figure 103. Plus material at the
tip which increases the amount of variation outside
the functional profile is not acceptable. Minus
material beyond the start of tip break can be
disregarded, see figure 103.
Profile
tolerance
VT

Addendum diameter

Distance between two design profile lines which


enclose the actual profile trace over the functional
profile length. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.7.8 Profile evaluation range
The profile is evaluated over the specified functional
profile length. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

Distance between two facsimiles of the mean profile


line, which are each placed with constant separation
from the mean profile line, so as to enclose the actual
profile trace over the functional profile length.
(ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.7.10 Profile slope deviation, fH
Functional
profile

Space
(+)

Tooth
(--)

Profile
control diameter
0 Reference line

Figure 103 -- Profile K chart

36

5.7.7 Profile deviation, total, F

5.7.9 Profile form deviation, ff

Start of tip break

High point of tooth


chart must be
tangent to
reference line

Amount by which a measured profile deviates from


the design profile. Deviations caused by plus
material beyond the tip break must be included in the
calculation of the profile form deviation and total
profile deviation. Minus material beyond the tip
break may be ignored. ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01
specifies the direction of tolerancing for profile
deviation to be in a transverse plane, on a line
tangent to the base circle.
(ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)

Distance between two design profile lines which


intersect the mean profile line at the endpoints of the
functional profile length. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
The profile slope deviation is deemed to be positive
and the corresponding pressure angle deviation is
deemed to be negative when the mean profile line
shows an increase in material toward the tooth tip,
relative to the design profile.
5.7.11 Profile chart
Chart upon which profile variations are recorded.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

5.8 Alignment of teeth and helix

5.8.3 Tooth alignment tolerance, VT, (formerly,


lead tolerance)

5.8.1 Tooth alignment


Tooth alignment is the alignment, normal to the helix,
between the line of intersection of actual and
theoretical tooth surfaces on the pitch cylinder.
5.8.2 Tooth alignment variation, V, (formerly
lead variation)
Tooth alignment variation (formerly, lead variation) is
the difference between the measured tooth alignment and the specified tooth alignment measured
normal to the specified tooth alignment and the tooth
surface on the functional face width, see figure 104.

Tooth alignment tolerance (formerly, lead tolerance)


is the permissible amount of tooth alignment
variation, designated by the specified K chart
envelope as shown in figure 105. Tolerance values
in AGMA 2000--A88 are normal to the tooth surface.
5.8.4 Tooth alignment trace (formerly measured
lead trace)
Tooth alignment trace (formerly, measured lead
trace) is the trace recorded on an inspection chart
that indicates variations from the reference tooth
alignment generated by an appropriate inspection
machine.
5.8.5 Design helix

Variation, V

Specified

The helix specified by the designer as shown on the


design specification. When not specified, it is an
unmodified helix. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

Measured

5.8.6 Helix deviation


Amount by which a measured helix deviates from the
design helix. Deviations caused by plus material
outside the helix evaluation range must be included
in the calculation of helix form deviation and total
helix deviation. Minus material outside the helix
evaluation range may be ignored. ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01 specifies the direction of tolerancing
for helix deviation to be in a transverse plane, on a
line tangent to the base circle. (ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)

Contact path of
measuring point
+
Gear
axis

5.8.7 Helix deviation, total, F

Figure 104 -- Tooth alignment variation

Distance between two design helix lines which


enclose the actual helix trace over the evaluation
range. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)

Functional
face width
Reference
line

VT

Facewidth

Figure 105 -- Tooth alignment K chart

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

37

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

5.8.8 Helix evaluation range, L


Unless otherwise specified, the helix length of trace
shortened at each end by the smaller of the following
two values: 5% of the helix length of trace, or the
length equal to one module.
(ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)
NOTE: It is the responsibility of the gear designer to assure that the helix evaluation range is adequate for the
application.

5.8.9 Helix form deviation, ff


Distance between two facsimiles of the mean helix
line, which are each placed with constant separation
from the mean helix line, so as to enclose the actual
helix trace over the evaluation range. (ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01)
5.8.10 Helix length of trace
Unless otherwise specified, full facewidth is limited
toward the ends of the teeth by the end faces or, if
present, the start of end chamfers, rounds, or other
modification intended to exclude that portion of the
tooth from engagement. The helix length of trace
should be stated as the axial component of the helix.
(ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.8.11 Helix slope deviation, fH
Distance between two design helix lines which
intersect the mean helix line at the end points of the
evaluation range. (ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
Deviations are deemed to be positive when helix
angles are larger and negative when helix angles are
smaller, than the designed helix angle. The helix
deviations of spur gears if other than zero are
indicated by the subscripts R and L, instead of an
algebraic sign, implying deviations in the sense of
right or left helices respectively.
5.8.12 Mean helix line
A line (or curve) that has the same shape as the
design helix, but aligned with the measured trace. It
is developed by subtracting the ordinates of a
straight--line gradient from the ordinates of the
design helix. Within the evaluation range the
straight--line gradient is found by applying the least
squares method to the deviation of the measured
helix trace from the specified design helix. (ANSI/
AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.8.13 Mean profile line
A line (or curve) that has the same shape as the
design profile, but aligned with the measured trace.

38

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

It is developed by subtracting the ordinates of a


straight--line gradient from the ordinates of the
design profile. Within the functional profile length the
straight--line gradient is found by applying the least
squares method to the deviation of the measured
profile trace from the specified design profile.
(ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01)
5.9 Size of teeth
5.9.1 Tooth thickness variation
Tooth thickness variation is the variation from a
specified value of transverse circular tooth
thickness.
5.9.2 Tooth thickness tolerance, tT
Tooth thickness tolerance is the permissible amount
of tooth thickness variation.
5.9.3 Functional tooth thickness
Functional tooth thickness is the tooth thickness as
determined by meshing with a master gear or
specified gear on a calibrated composite action test
fixture, see figure 95.
5.10 Accuracy grade, A or B
For cylindrical gears, the accuracy grade is an
integer that identifies the accuracy level of the
tolerances according to ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.
The ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 classification system
consists of a prefix letter A identifying the tolerance
source, and an accuracy grade identifying the
specific tolerances.
For bevel gears, the classification system according
to ANSI/AGMA 2009--B01 uses the prefix letter B
for identifying the tolerance source.
5.11 Gear quality
For a description of the application of AGMA gear
tooth quality, refer to AGMA 2000--A88.
NOTE: ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 replaces AGMA
2000--A88.

5.11.1 Quality
Quality is the characteristic properties of a gear
distinguishing the nature of its manufacturing
tolerances.
5.11.2 Quality number, Q
Quality number is a number representative of the
level of quality possessed by a gear, as determined
by AGMA 2000--A88 for cylindrical gears, or AGMA
390.03a for bevel gears.

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ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

5.11.3 Variation

5.11.5 Tolerance, T (subscript)

Variation is the measured plus or minus change from


the specified value, see figure 106.

Tolerance is the amount by which a specific dimension is permitted to vary. The tolerance is the
difference between the maximum and minimum
limits and is an absolute value without sign, see
figure 108.

Specified
distance
Measured
distance

Minimum
limit

Variation

Specified
dimension

Figure 106 -- Variation

Tolerance

Maximum
limit
Tolerance

5.11.4 Allowable variation, A (subscript)


Allowable variation is the permissible plus or minus
deviation from the specified value, see figure 107.

Specified
dimension

Minus
variation

Minimum
limit

Maximum
limit

Figure 108 -- Tolerance

Plus
variation
Allowable
measurement
(minimum)

Allowable measurement
(maximum)

Figure 107 -- Allowable variation

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39

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

(This page is intentionally blank)

40

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Annex A
(informative)
Abbreviations
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA
1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols.]

A. Purpose
This annex is for common abbreviations. In 2.2, it is
indicated that abbreviations must be distinguished
from symbols. The symbol for circular pitch is the
single lower--case italic letter p, whereas the abbreviation is CP. Abbreviations are shortened forms of
words often used on drawings, in correspondence, in
tables, in texts, and for stamping tools, but are not
suitable for use in equations. Accepted abbreviations are given in tables A.1 and A.2.
Table A.1 -- Abbreviations
Abbreviation
ADD
AP
APA
BD
BHA
BP
CD
CP
DED
DP
DIA
FIN
FL
FW
HA
ID
L
LA
LH
NCP
NDP
NPA
OD
OHA
PA
PD
PRE--S
RGH
RH
T
THD
TOP
TR
WD

Term
addendum
axial pitch
axial pressure angle
base diameter
base helix angle
base pitch
center distance
circular pitch
dedendum
diametral pitch
diameter
finishing
flute lead
face width
helix angle
inside diameter; internal diameter
lead
lead angle
left hand
normal circular pitch
normal diametral pitch
normal pressure angle
outside diameter
outside helix angle
pressure angle; profile angle
pitch diameter
preshaving
roughing
right hand
teeth
thread
topping
test radius
whole depth

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

In published material abbreviations are always


printed in Roman (vertical type), whereas symbols
are always in italics. The use of abbreviations is
approved only when there can be no possible
misunderstanding as to their meaning.

Table A.2 -- Other selected abbreviations


Abbreviation
BHN
C
comp
Hz
cw
ccw
deg
db
EP
F
fpm
ft--lb
gal
hp
in
in--lb
kg
lb
max
min
min
No.
psi
rpm
SSU
tir
tiv

Term
Brinell hardness number
degrees Centigrade
compounded
cycles per second
clockwise
counterclockwise
degree
decibel
extreme pressure
degrees Fahrenheit
feet per minute
foot--pounds
gallons
horsepower
inches
inch--pounds
kilograms
pounds
maximum
minimum
microinches
number
pounds per square inch
revolutions per minute
Saybolt Seconds Universal
total indicator runout
total indicator variation

41

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Annex B
(informative)
Glossary of trade terms
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 1012--G05,
Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols.]

B.1 Purpose
This annex is intended to be a reference for trade
terms in AGMA literature.
B.2 Tradenames
The following is a non--inclusive list of tradenames
which are sometimes used to describe gear
geometry.
Beveloid. Gears are general involute helicoids
conjugate to a basic rack. They are characterized by
a tapered depth and a tapered tooth thickness. They
allow backlash adjustment and feature insensitivity
to mismatch and misalignment. They allow meshing
in any geometric configuration and with any conjugate mate, spur, helical, worm, rack, face, internal,
etc.
Cone wormgearing is double enveloping produced by a particular process, see 4.2.4.4.
Coniflex bevel gears. A straight bevel gear that is
generated by a special process which crowns the
teeth and gives localized tooth contact.

42

Formate bevel gears are bevel gears in which the


gear member of the pair has nongenerated teeth,
usually with straight tooth profiles, and in which the
pinion member of the pair has generated teeth that
are conjugate to the mating gear.
Helicon gearing. A helicon gear set is essentially
a Spiroid gear set with no taper in the pinion or gear
face. The pinion is cylindrical and the face of the
gear lies in a plane.
Revacycle gears. A straight bevel gear generated
by a special process with a special tooth form.
Spiroid gearing. A spiroid gear set consists of
tapered worm pinion of unequal pressure angles and
constant lead meshing with a spiral tooth face gear.
Zerol. See 4.2.5.11.
B.3 Other tradenames
Other trade names include Planoid and Spheroid.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Annex C
(informative)
Terms and symbols
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 1012--G05,
Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols.]

C. Purpose
This annex is intended to be a reference for
additional terms and symbols used within AGMA

standards, where meaning is established by their


usage and verbiage within the respective standards.

Table C.1 -- Symbols used in gear rating equations


New
Old AGMA
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
Symbol
A
A
A
A
Ai
AiG
Ri2
Am
Rm
AmG
Rm2
AmP
Rm1
Ao
Re
AoG
Re2
acG
ham2
acP
ham1
aG
ham2
anc
aoG
hae2
aoP
hae1
aP
ham1
B
B
jen
Bn
jn
Bt
jt
b
bG
hfm2
boG
hfe2
boP
hfe1
bP
hfm1
biP
hfi1
bilP
hfi lim1
C
a
Ca
Cc
Ce
Cf
CG

Description

Cone distance
Accuracy grade
Accuracy grade identifier prefix
Inner cone distance
Gear inner cone distance
Mean cone distance
Gear mean cone distance
Pinion mean cone distance
Outer cone distance
Gear outer cone distance
Gear mean chordal addendum
Pinion mean chordal addendum
Gear mean addendum
Normal chordal addendum
Gear outer addendum
Pinion outer addendum
Pinion mean addendum
Backlash
Outer normal backlash allowance
Normal backlash
Transverse backlash
Dedendum
Gear mean dedendum
Gear outer dedendum
Pinion outer dedendum
Pinion mean dedendum
Pinion inner dedendum
Pinion limit inner dedendum
Center distance
Application factor for pitting resistance
Curvature factor at pitch line
Mesh alignment correction factor
Surface condition factor for pitting resistance
Gear ratio factor

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

43

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
CH
CL
CM
KM
Cm
Cma
Cmc
Cmf
Cmt
Cp
Cpf
Cpm
CR
CSF
Cs
CT
Cv
Cx
C
c
c
cp
c1
cham
D
d
D
de2
Db
Dc
Di
Dm
dm2
Do
dae2
Do
DR
d
d
de1
di
dHe ref1
dm
dm1
do
dae1
dp
dT
dt
E
a
E
EG
EP
et
F
b
F
b

44

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Description

Hardness ratio factor for pitting resistance


Life factor for pitting resistance
Material factor
Load distribution factor for pitting resistance
Mesh alignment factor
Lead correction factor
Face load distribution factor
Transverse load distribution factor
Elastic coefficient
Pinion proportion factor
Pinion proportion modifier
Reliability factor for pitting resistance
Service factor for pitting resistance
Size factor for pitting resistance
Temperature factor for pitting resistance
Dynamic factor for pitting resistance
Contact height factor
Helical overlap factor
Clearance
Contact pattern measurement
Mean addendum factor
Reference standard pitch diameter
Outer gear pitch diameter
Base diameter (of an involute gear)
Datum circle
Internal diameter
Gear mean pitch diameter
Gear outside diameter
Outside diameter
Root diameter
Diameter, pitch
Outer pinion pitch diameter
Reference hypoid pinion pitch diameter
Pinion mean pitch diameter
Pinion outside diameter
Operating pitch diameter
Tolerance diameter
Throat diameter
Hypoid offset
Offset of axes
Youngs modulus for gear
Youngs modulus for pinion
Total lead mismatch
Net face width
Face width

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
Fe
Fis
FisT
Fp
FpT
Ft
F
FT
F
FT
ff
ffT
ff
ffT
fH
fHT
fis
fisT
fp
fpt
fptT
FiP
bRi1
FP
b1
FoP
bRe1
G
Go
tGo
GR
tRG
HBG
HBP
h
hmw
ha
hap
hc
he
he max
hk
hk
hew
hm
hm
ht
ht
he
htG
h2
htP
h1
I
J
K

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Description

Effective or active face width


Single flank composite deviation, total
Single flank composite tolerance, total
Cumulative pitch deviation, total
Cumulative pitch deviation tolerance, total
Total face width
Profile deviation, total
Profile tolerance, total
Helix deviation, total
Helix tolerance, total
Profile form deviation
Profile form tolerance
Helix form deviation
Helix form tolerance
Profile slope deviation
Profile slope tolerance
Single flank composite deviation, tooth--to--tooth (filtered)
Single flank composite tolerance, tooth--to--tooth
Pinion surface finish
Single pitch deviation
Single pitch deviation tolerance
Pinion face width from calculating point to inside
Pinion face width
Pinion face width from calculating point to outside
Tooth stiffness constant
Pinion face apex beyond crossing point
Pinion root apex beyond crossing point
Brinell hardness of gear
Brinell hardness of pinion
Mean working depth
Addendum
Chordal addendum
Total case depth for nitrided gears
Effective case depth
Maximum effective case depth
Working depth
Outer working depth
Mean whole depth
Gear tooth whole depth
Outer whole depth
Gear whole depth
Pinion whole depth
Geometry factor for pitting resistance
Geometry factor for bending strength
Contact load factor for pitting resistance

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

45

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
Ka
Kac
KB
Kf
KL
Km
Ko
KR
KS
KF
Ks
KT
Kv
Ky
K1
K1
k
k1
k1
k2
k2
k3
k3
L
pz
LBG
tB2
LBP
tB1
LFG
tF2
LFP
tF1
LG
LP
LW
LXG
tE2
LXP
tE1
Lc
L
M
m
mB
mc
met
mF

mG
mG
u
mN
mn
mn
mo
mt
mp

mt

46

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Description

Application factor for bending strength


Allowable contact load factor
Rim thickness factor
Stress correction factor
Life factor for bending strength
Load distribution factor for bending strength
Overload factor
Factor of safety
Size factor for bending strength
Service factor for bending strength
Size factor
Temperature factor
Dynamic factor
Yield strength factor
Approximate hypoid dimension factor
Number of pitches in a sector
Depth factor
Clearance factor
Circular thickness factor
Lead
Gear back angle distance
Pinion back angle distance
Gear face angle distance
Pinion face angle distance
Lead of gear
Lead of pinion
Lead of worm
Gear crown to back
Pinion crown to back
Functional profile length
Helix evaluation range
Bending moment
Module
Back--up ratio
Contact ratio
Outer transverse module
Face contact ratio
Gear ratio (always > 1.0)
Gear ratio
Load sharing ratio
Normal module
Modified contact ratio
Transverse module
Transverse contact ratio
Total contact ratio

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
m90
u90
N
N
z2
NC
Nc
Nc
zP
Ne
NG
z2
NP
z1
NS
z0
n
n
n
z1
nG
nP
nP
n
P
P
P
Pac
Pat
Pd
Pd
met
Pdm
Pnd
Psc
p
pb
pm
pm
pm
pN
pn
pt
pX
px
Q
Q
Q
Qa
QF
Qr
Qt
Qv
R
R
rmpt2
Rb
Rc
RiG
ript2

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Description

Equivalent 90 ratio
Number of teeth or threads
Number of gear teeth
Number of teeth in crown gear
Number of teeth in cutter
Number of crown gear teeth
Equivalent number of teeth
Number of teeth in gear
Number of teeth in pinion
Number of blade groups
Revolutions per unit of time
Number of pinion teeth
Revolutions per unit of time of gear
Revolutions per unit of time of pinion
Pinion speed
Transmitted power
Power
Allowable transmitted power for pitting resistance
Allowable transmitted power for bending strength
Diametral pitch
Outer transverse diametral pitch
Mean diametral pitch
Normal diametral pitch
Service horsepower
Circular pitch
Base pitch
True position pitch
Mean circular pitch
Normal base pitch
Normal circular pitch
Transverse circular pitch
Axial base pitch
Axial pitch
Quality number
Intermediate variable
Arc of approach
Face advance
Arc of recess
Arc of action
Transmission accuracy level number
Pitch radius of gear
Gear mean pitch radius
Base radius of gear
Pitch radius of cutter
Gear inside pitch radius

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

47

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
RP
rmpt1
RiP
ri1
Ro
RR
Rr
R2P
rmn1
rc
rc0
rc1
lim
r
rb
rf
ro
rR
rt
rT
S
S1
S1
Md
s
sa
sac
sat
say
sc
ss
sw
T
TG
TG
T2
Tn
smn2
Tnc
smn2
TP
T1
s
sb
tG
sn
tn
smn1
tnc
sc
to
tP
tR
tT
tt
tx
Uat

48

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Description

Mean pinion radius


Inner pinion radius
Outside radius of gear
Root radius of gear
Test radius
Approximate pinion mean radius
Cutter radius
Limit curvature radius
Pitch radius of pinion
Base radius of pinion
Fillet radius, when constant
Outside radius of pinion
Root radius of pinion
Throat--form radius
Tip or edge radius of tool
Bearing span
Pinion offset
Crown gear to cutter center distance
Stress
Allowable contact stress number
Allowable contact stress number
Allowable bending stress number
Allowable yield stress number
Contact stress number
Shear stress
Working contact stress number
Torque
Torque of gear
Torque transmitted by the gear
Gear mean normal circular tooth thickness
Gear mean normal chordal tooth thickness
Pinion torque
Circular tooth thickness
Base circular thickness
Circular thickness of gear
Normal circular thickness
Pinion mean normal circular tooth thickness
Normal chordal thickness
Tooth thickness on outside diameter
Circular thickness of pinion
Gear rim thickness
Tooth thickness tolerance
Transverse circular thickness
Axial thickness
Allowable unit load for bending strength

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
Uc
UH
UL
Vap
Vap
FpK
Vapk
Vcq
VcqT
VK
K
Vp
Vp max
fpt max
VpA
Vpn
Vq
VqT
Vr
VrT
Vs
Vx
V
VT
V
VT
V
VT
V
VT
v
vN
vn
vt
vt max
vx
W
Wa
Wd
Wmax
WN
Wn
Wr
Wr
Wr
Wt
Wt
Wt
WtG
Wt2
WtP
Wt1

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Description

Core hardness coefficient


Hardening process factor
Unit load for bending strength
Total accumulated pitch variation
Accumulated pitch variation
Total accumulated pitch variation, within a sector of k pitches
Total composite variation (double flank)
Total composite tolerance (double flank)
Kinematic viscosity
Pitch variation
Maximum pitch variation
Allowable pitch variation
Normal pitch variation
Tooth--to--tooth composite variation (double flank)
Tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (double flank)
Radial runout
Radial runout tolerance
Spacing variation
Index variation
Profile variation
Profile tolerance
Tooth alignment variation
Tooth alignment tolerance
Profile variation
Profile tolerance
Tooth alignment variation
Tooth alignment tolerance
Linear velocity
Velocity normal to surface
Velocity in normal direction in pitch plane
Pitch line velocity
Pitch line velocity maximum
Velocity in axial direction
Load
Allowable tangential load
Incremental dynamic tooth load
Maximum peak tangential load
Load normal to surface
Load component normal to helix in pitch plane
Radial component of load
Radial force
Transverse or tangential component of load
Tangential force
Tangential force at mean diameter of gear
Tangential force at mean diameter of pinion

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

49

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
Wx
Wx
Wx
w
Xo
txo2
xi
xi
xo
txo1
Y
y
Z
Z
tz2
Za
ZiP
tzi1
Zo
tzo2
ZP
tzm1
ZR
tzR2
ZR
Z2
Z1
z

G
a2
P
a1

2
i
int 2
o
o
a2
R
R
f2

1
i
i
o
a1
R
f1
2
int1

B
j
BG
j2
Bi
gxi
Bo
gxe
BP
j1
bRi2
Fi
bRe2
Fo
FoP
bx1

50

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Description

Axial component of load


Axial force
Load per unit length
Gear pitch cone apex to crown (crown to crossing point, hypoid)
Pinion front crown to crossing point
Pinion pitch cone apex to crown
Tooth--form factor for diametral pitch
Tooth--form factor for circular pitch
Length of action in transverse plane
Gear pitch apex beyond crossing point
Approach portion of line of action
Crossing point to inside point along pinion axis
Gear face apex beyond crossing point
Crossing point to mean point along gear axis
Gear root apex beyond crossing point
Recess portion of line of action
Number of teeth in gear
Number of teeth in pinion
Number of teeth
Addendum angle
Gear addendum angle
Pinion addendum angle
Helix angle
Pitch angle
Gear pitch angle
Approximate gear pitch angle
Face tip angle
Gear face angle
Root angle
Gear root angle
Pitch angle of pinion
Pinion pitch angle
Pinion inside pitch angle
Pinion face angle
Pinion root angle
Intermediate pinion pitch angle
Iteration factor
Total change in backlash
Change of backlash for gear
Increment along pinion axis from calculating point to inside
Increment along pinion axis from calculating point to outside
Change of backlash for pinion
Gear face width from point to inside
Gear face width from point to outside
Pinion face width increment

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
G
XG
K
K
P
a1
RP
rmpt1
RP/R
rmpt1--2

t
s
G
f2
P
f1

i
i
i
i
o
o
R
R
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2

b
g
o
p
mG
mP

f
G
n
o
P

D
S
T
U

f
fD
fS
fT
fU

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Description

Axial movement of gear


Increment in hypoid dimension factor
Axial movement of pinion
Pinion mean radius increment
Ratio of pinion mean radius increment to gear mean pitch radius
Shaft angle departure from 90
Thickness change
Gear dedendum angle
Pinion dedendum angle
Involute roll angle
Pinion offset angle in axial plane at inside
Pinion offset angle in pitch plane at inside
Pinion offset angle in face plane
Pinion offset angle in root plane
Pinion offset angle in axial plane
Pinion offset angle in pitch plane
Intermediate pinion offset angle in axial plane
Intermediate pinion offset angle in pitch plane
Involute polar angle
Angular pitch
Lead angle
First auxiliary angle
Angle between the projection of pinion axis into pitch plane and the pitch element
Base lead angle
Gear form filter cutoff
Outside lead angle
Pitch lead angle
Poissons ratio for gear
Poissons ratio for pinion
Lengthwise tooth mean radius of curvature
Profile radius of curvature
Radius of curvature
Profile radius of curvature in gear
Profile radius of curvature in normal plane
Relative radius of curvature
Profile radius of curvature in pinion
Shaft angle
Sum of dedendum angles
Sum of dedendum angles for duplex taper
Sum of dedendum angles for standard taper
Sum of dedendum angles for tilted root line taper
Sum of dedendum angles for uniform depth taper
Dedendum angle
Pressure angle

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

51

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Old AGMA
New
Symbol
AGMA/ISO
Symbol
n

c
n
lim
o
it
Ti
t
x
xW
cv1
1
cx1
2

m
b
G
m2
i
m
iG
i2
iP
i1
o
o
e
oG
e2
oP
1
P
P
m1
s
2P
m int1

G
P
o
o
R
R

o
o
i
i
1
1

0
vet
t

52

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Description

Normal pressure angle at pitch surface


Pressure angle of cutter
Normal pressure angle
Limit pressure angle
Inner transverse pressure angle
Transverse pressure angle
Axial pressure angle
Axial pressure angle of worm
Pressure angle on concave side of pinion
Pressure angle on convex side of pinion
Spiral angle
Mean spiral angle at pitch surface
Base helix angle
Gear spiral angle
Spiral angle at inner cone distance
Spiral angle at mean cone distance
Inner gear spiral angle
Inner pinion spiral angle
Spiral angle at outer cone distance
Outer spiral angle
Outer gear spiral angle
Desired pinion spiral angle
Spiral angle of pinion
Pinion mean spiral angle
Helix angle at standard pitch diameter
Intermediate pinion mean spiral angle
Angular velocity
Angular velocity of gear
Angular velocity of pinion
Auxiliary angle for calculating pinion offset angle in face plane
Auxiliary angle for calculating pinion offset angle in root plane
Gear offset angle at axial plane
Intermediate angle
Gear offset angle at inside
Second auxiliary angle
Lead angle of cutter
Pitch line velocity

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

Index of terms
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of AGMA 1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols.]

abbreviations

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
A.1
-- --

Reference
page
41

accumulated pitch variation, total


accumulated pitch variation tolerance, total
accumulated pitch variation, total, within a sector of k pitches

5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8

100
-- -100

35
35
35

accuracy grade

5.10

-- --

38

action test (double flank), composite


action, arc of
action, composite (double flank)
action, length of
action, line of
action, path of
action, plane of
action, surface of
action, zone of

5.3.3.1
4.8.10
5.3.3
4.8.9
4.8.4
4.8.3
4.8.6
4.8.5
4.8.7

95
92
-- -91
87, 91, 93
85, 88
88
-- -89

32
29
32
29
28
28
28
28
28

active profile, start of

4.8.18

59

30

addendum
addendum angle
addendum circle
addendum teeth, modified
addendum, chordal

4.5.3.9
4.6.31.17
4.5.3.8
4.6.32.12
4.6.32.7

35
75
33, 34
-- -78

12
24
12
25
25

adjusted number of teeth

5.1.14

-- --

31

advance, face

4.8.19

94

30

alignment tolerance, tooth


alignment trace, tooth
alignment variation, tooth
alignment, tooth

5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.2
5.8.1

104, 105
-- --- --- --

37
37
37
37

allowable pitch variation


allowable variation

5.5.4
5.11.4

-- -107

34
39

angle, addendum
angle, axial pressure
angle, axial profile
angle, back
angle, base helix
angle, base lead

4.6.31.17
4.6.9
4.6.9
4.5.4.4.2
4.6.30.3.1
4.6.30.3.2

75
45
45
37
62
-- --

24
16
16
13
20
20

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

53

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

angle, dedendum
angle, face (tip)
angle, front
angle, helix
angle, inner spiral
angle, involute polar
angle, involute roll
angle, lead
angle, mean spiral
angle, normal pressure
angle, normal profile
angle, operating pressure
angle, outer spiral
angle, outside helix
angle, outside lead
angle, pitch
angle, pressure
angle, profile
angle, root
angle, shaft
angle, spiral
angle, standard profile
angle, transverse pressure
angle, transverse profile

Paragraph
number
4.6.31.18
4.6.31.15
4.5.4.6
4.6.30.1
4.6.31.6
4.6.10
4.6.11
4.6.30.7
4.6.31.4
4.6.8
4.6.8
4.7.4
4.6.31.5
4.6.30.5.1
4.6.30.5.2
4.6.31.14
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.31.16
4.6.31.7
4.6.31.3
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.7

75
74
37
61, 65
70
46
47
65
70
45
45
-- -70
-- --- -74, 75
43, 46
43, 44
74
71
69, 70
44
45
45

Reference
page
24
24
13
20
23
16
16
21
22
16
16
26
22
21
21
24
14
15
24
23
22
15
15
15

angular bevel gear


angular pitch

4.2.5.6
4.6.23

14
-- --

6
18

apex to back

4.5.4.8

37, 38

13

approach, arc of

4.8.11

92

29

arc of action
arc of approach
arc of recess

4.8.10
4.8.11
4.8.12

92
92
92

29
29
29

axes, plane of

4.3.2

17

axial pitch
axial plane
axial pressure angle
axial profile angle
axial runout
axial thickness

4.6.16
4.3.1
4.6.9
4.6.9
5.6.2
4.6.32.4

49, 50
19
45
45
-- -77

17
7
16
16
35
25

axis, datum

5.1.2

-- --

31

back angle
back cone

4.5.4.4.2
4.5.4.4

37
36

13
13

Term

54

Figure
number

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

back cone distance


back, apex to

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
4.5.4.4.1
37
4.5.4.8
37, 38

Reference
page
13
13

backlash
backlash variation
backlash, minimum

4.7.10
4.7.10.2
4.7.10.1

84
-- --- --

27
27
27

base circle
base circular thickness
base cylinder
base diameter
base diameter, Cone gear
base helix
base helix angle
base lead angle
base pitch, normal
base pitch, transverse
base radius

4.6.2
4.6.32.5
4.6.2.3
4.6.2.1
4.6.2.4
4.6.30.3
4.6.30.3.1
4.6.30.3.2
4.6.18
4.6.17
4.6.2.2

39, 40, 47
78
41, 88
40, 59
-- -62
62
-- -50
50, 51
-- --

14
25
14
14
14
20
20
20
17
17
14

basic rack

4.1.6

bevel gear
bevel gear, angular
bevel gears, Formate
bevel gear, left hand spiral
bevel gear, right hand spiral
bevel gear, skew
bevel gear, spiral
bevel gear, straight
bevel gear, zerol
bevel gears, Coniflex

4.2.5.4
4.2.5.6
B.2
4.6.31.2
4.6.31.1
4.2.5.9
4.2.5.10
4.2.5.8
4.2.5.11
B.2

13
14
-- -67, 68
67, 68
16
17
16
17
-- --

5
6
42
22
22
6
6
6
7
42

Beveloid

B.2

-- --

42

blank, gear

5.1.7

-- --

31

bottom land

4.5.3.6.3

32

12

break, start of tip


break, tip or edge

5.1.12
5.2.4

-- --- --

31
32

center distance (operating)


center, gear
center, line of
central plane

4.7.2
4.5.2
4.5.3.2
4.3.8

82, 93
28
28
23

26
10
10
9

chart, inspection
chart, profile

5.1.8
5.7.11

-- --- --

31
36

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

55

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

chordal addendum
chordal height
chordal thickness, normal

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
4.6.32.7
78
4.6.32.7
78
4.6.32.6
78

Reference
page
25
25
25

circle, addendum
circle, base
circle, crown
circle, datum
circle, pitch (operating)
circle, root
circle, standard (reference) pitch

4.5.3.8
4.6.2
4.5.4.7
5.1.1
4.5.3.1.1
4.5.3.6.1
4.5.3.7

33, 34
39, 40, 47
36
76, 78
28, 84
33
44

12
14
13
31
10
11
12

circular pitch
circular pitch, normal
circular pitch, transverse
circular thickness
circular thickness, base
circular thickness, normal
circular thickness, transverse

4.6.13
4.6.15
4.6.14
4.6.32.1
4.6.32.5
4.6.32.3
4.6.32.2

48
49
49
76
78
77
77, 78

17
17
17
24
25
25
24

clearance

4.7.5

35

27

composite (double flank) action


composite action test (double flank)
composite deviation, single flank, tooth--to--tooth
composite deviation, single flank, total
composite test, single flank
composite tolerance, tooth--to--tooth radial (double flank)
composite tolerance, total radial (double flank)
composite deviation, tooth--to--tooth radial (double flank)
composite deviation, total radial (double flank)

5.3.3
5.3.3.1
5.3.2.2
5.3.2.3
5.3.2.1
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.5
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.4

-- -95
-- --- --- --- --- -96
-- --

32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

cone distance
cone distance, inner
cone distance, mean
cone distance, outer
Cone gear base diameter
Cone wormgearing
cone, back
cone, back, distance
cone, face (tip)
cone, front
cone, pitch
cone, root

4.6.31.8
4.6.31.11
4.6.3.10
4.6.31.9
4.6.2.4
B.2
4.5.4.4
4.5.4.4.1
4.5.4.2
4.5.4.5
4.5.4.1
4.5.4.3

70
70
70
70
-- --- -36
37
36
36
25, 26
36, 75

23
23
23
23
14
42
13
13
12
13
12
13

Coniflex bevel gears

B.2

-- --

42

conjugate gear

4.7.1

-- --

26

Term

56

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

contact ratio
contact ratio, face
contact ratio, modified
contact ratio, total
contact ratio, transverse
contact zone
contact, line of
contact, path
contact, point

Paragraph
number
4.8.13
4.8.15
4.8.17
4.8.16
4.8.14
4.8.7
4.8.2
4.8.8
4.8.1

-- --- --- --- --- -89


86, 88, 89
90
85, 90

Reference
page
30
30
30
30
30
28
28
29
27

control diameter, profile

5.1.4

59

31

crossed axis gears


crossed helical gears

4.2.5
4.2.5.1

-- -11

5
5

crossing point

4.5.4.10

38

13

crown circle
crown gear

4.5.4.7
4.2.5.7

36
15

13
6

crowned teeth

4.6.3

42

14

cumulative pitch deviation, total

5.4.2

-- --

34

curvature, profile radius

4.6.26.2

56

19

curve, fillet

4.6.27

52, 58

19

cutoff, gear form filter

5.1.10

-- --

31

cylinder, base
cylinder, inside
cylinder, outside (tip or addendum)
cylinder, pitch
cylinder, root
cylindrical gear terms
cylindrical worm

4.6.2.3
4.5.3.4
4.5.3.3
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.6
4.6.30
4.2.4.2

41, 88
33
29
24, 63
-- --- -2, 9

14
11
10
10
11
20
4

datum axis
datum circle
datum surface
datum tooth

5.1.2
5.1.1
5.2.1
5.1.3

-- -76, 78
-- --- --

31
31
31
31

dedendum
dedendum angle

4.5.3.10
4.6.31.18

35
75

12
24

depth, whole
depth, working

4.7.7
4.7.6

35
35

27
27

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Figure
number

57

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

design helix
design profile

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
5.8.5
-- -5.7.4
-- --

Reference
page
37
36

deviation, cumulative pitch, total


deviation, helix
deviation, helix form
deviation, helix slope
deviation, index
deviation, profile
deviation, profile form
deviation, profile slope
deviation, total profile
deviation, single pitch
deviation, tooth--to--tooth radial (double flank) composite
deviation, tooth--to--tooth single flank, composite
deviation, total helix
deviation, total radial (double flank) composite
deviation, total single flank composite

5.4.2
5.8.6
5.8.9
5.8.11
5.4.1
5.7.6
5.7.9
5.7.10
5.7.7
5.5.9
5.3.3.2
5.3.2.2
5.8.7
5.3.3.4
5.3.2.3

-- --- --- --- -97


-- --- --- --- --- -96
-- --- -96
-- --

34
37
38
38
33
36
36
36
36
35
32
32
37
32
32

diameter, base
diameter, Cone gear base
diameter, form
diameter, inside
diameter, limit
diameter, operating pitch
diameter, outside
diameter, pitch
diameter, profile control
diameter, root
diameter, standard (reference) pitch
diameter, throat
diameter, tolerance
diameter, undercut

4.6.2.1
4.6.2.4
4.6.27.3
4.5.3.5
4.8.18
4.7.9
4.5.3.3.1
4.7.8
5.1.4
4.5.3.6.2
4.5.3.7.1
4.5.4.11
5.1.9
4.6.27.3

40, 59
-- -59
33
59, 93
-- -30, 31
30
59
30, 33
-- -31
-- --- --

14
14
19
11
30
27
11
27
31
12
12
13
31
20

diametral pitch (transverse)


diametral pitch, normal

4.6.19
4.6.20

-- --- --

17
17

direction, axial
direction, normal
direction, transverse

4.4.1
4.4.3
4.4.2

24
24
24

9
9
9

distance, back cone


distance, center, (operating)
distance, cone
distance, inner cone
distance, mean cone
distance, mounting
distance, outer cone

4.5.4.4.1
4.7.2
4.6.31.8
4.6.31.11
4.6.31.10
4.5.4.9
4.6.31.9

37
82, 93
70
70
70
38
70

13
26
23
23
23
13
23

Term

58

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

double flank composite action


double flank composite action test
double flank tooth--to--tooth radial composite tolerance
double flank tooth--to--tooth radial composite deviation
double flank total radial composite tolerance
double flank total radial composite deviation

Paragraph
number
5.3.3
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.5
5.3.3.4

-- -95
-- -96
-- --- --

Reference
page
32
32
32
32
32
32

double--enveloping wormgearing

4.2.4.4

10

double helical gear

4.2.3.6

eccentricity

5.1.5

-- --

31

effective face width

4.7.11

66

27

enveloping (hourglass) worm

4.2.4.3

10

equal addendum teeth

4.6.32.15

81

26

equivalent number of teeth


equivalent pitch radius

4.5.1.2
4.5.1.1

-- -27

10
10

error, transmission

5.1.13

-- --

31

evaluation range, helix


evaluation range, profile

5.8.8
5.7.8

-- --- --

38
36

external gear

4.2.1

face (tip) angle


face (tip) cone
face advance
face cone
face contact ratio
face gear
face width
face width, effective
face width, functional
face width, total

4.6.31.15
4.5.4.2
4.8.19
-- -4.8.15
4.2.5.3
4.6.30.8
4.7.11
5.1.6
4.6.30.9

74
36
94
75
-- -12
66, 89
66
-- -66

24
12
30
24
30
5
21
27
31
22

fillet curve (root fillet)


fillet radius
fillet, root

4.6.27
4.6.27.1
4.6.27

52, 58
56
-- --

19
19
19

filter cutoff, gear form

5.1.10

-- --

31

flank measurement, single


flank, left
flank, right

5.3.2
4.6.25
4.6.25

-- -53, 54
53, 54

32
18
18

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Figure
number

59

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

form deviation, helix


form deviation, profile
form diameter (true involute form, TIF)
form filter cutoff, gear

Paragraph
number
5.8.9
5.7.9
4.6.27.3
5.1.10

-- --- -59
-- --

Reference
page
38
36
19
31

Formate bevel gear

B.2

-- --

42

front angle
front cone

4.5.4.6
4.5.4.5

37
36

13
13

full--depth teeth

4.6.32.13

-- --

26

functional face width


functional profile
functional profile length
functional tooth thickness

5.1.6
5.7.1
5.7.5
5.9.3

-- -101
-- --- --

31
35
36
38

gap

-- --

66

21

gear (wheel)
gear blank
gear center
gear form filter cutoff
gear quality
gear ratio
gear, angular bevel
gear, bevel
gear, bevel, Formate
gear, bevel, skew
gear, bevel, spiral
gear, bevel, straight
gear, bevel, zerol
gear, conjugate
gear, crossed axis
gear, crossed helical
gear, crown
gear, double helical
gear, external
gear, face
gear, Formate bevel
gear, helical
gear, herringbone
gear, hypoid
gear, internal
gear, left hand helical
gear, left hand spiral bevel
gear, master
gear, miter
gear, parallel axis

4.1.2
5.1.7
4.5.2
5.1.10
5.11
4.1.9
4.2.5.6
4.2.5.4
B.2
4.2.5.9
4.2.5.10
4.2.5.8
4.2.5.11
4.7.1
4.2.5
4.2.5.1
4.2.5.7
4.2.3.6
4.2.1
4.2.5.3
B.2
4.2.3.3
4.2.3.7
4.2.5.12
4.2.2
4.6.29
4.6.31.2
5.3.1
4.2.5.5
4.2.3

1
-- -28
-- --- --- -14
13
-- -16
17
16
17
-- --- -11
15
8
4
12
-- -7
8
18
4
60
67, 68
-- -13
5

2
31
10
31
38
3
6
5
42
6
6
6
7
26
5
5
6
4
3
5
42
4
4
7
3
20
22
32
6
3

Term

60

Figure
number

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

gear, right hand helical


gear, right hand spiral bevel
gear, single helical
gear, skew bevel
gear, spiral
gear, spiral bevel
gear, spur
gear, straight bevel
gear, zerol bevel
gears

Paragraph
number
4.6.28
4.6.31.1
4.2.3.5
4.2.5.9
4.2.5.1
4.2.5.10
4.2.3.1
4.2.5.8
4.2.5.11
4.1.1

60
67, 68
8
16
-- -17
6
16
17
1

Reference
page
20
22
4
6
5
6
3
6
7
2

generating rack

4.1.7

-- --

grade, accuracy

5.10

-- --

38

heel

4.6.31.12

73

23

height, chordal

4.6.32.7

78

25

helical gear
helical gear, left--hand
helical gear, right--hand
helical rack

4.2.3.3
4.6.29
4.6.28
4.2.3.4

7
58
60
7

4
20
20
4

Helicon gearing

B.2

-- --

42

helix
helix angle
helix angle, base
helix angle, outside
helix deviation
helix deviation, total
helix evaluation range
helix form deviation
helix length of trace
helix line, mean
helix slope deviation
helix, base
helix, design
helix, normal
helix, outside (tip or addendum)
helix, pitch

-- -4.6.30.1
4.6.30.3.1
4.6.30.5.1
5.8.6
5.8.7
5.8.8
5.8.9
5.8.10
5.8.12
5.8.11
4.6.30.3
5.8.5
4.6.30.4
4.6.30.5
4.6.30.2

64
61, 65
62
-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -62
-- -63
62
62, 63

21
20
20
21
37
37
38
38
38
38
38
20
37
21
21
20

herringbone gear

4.2.3.7

hourglass (enveloping) worm

4.2.4.3

10

hypoid gear

4.2.5.12

18

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Figure
number

61

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

index deviation

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
5.4.1
97

Reference
page
33

indicated surface

5.2.2

-- --

31

indicating over pins

5.6.5

-- --

35

inner cone distance


inner spiral angle

4.6.31.11
4.6.31.6

70
70

23
23

inside cylinder
inside diameter

4.5.3.4
4.5.3.5

33
33

11
11

inspection chart

5.1.8

-- --

31

internal gear

4.2.2

involute
involute form diameter, true (TIF)
involute polar angle
involute roll angle
involute teeth

-- -4.6.27.3
4.6.10
4.6.31.20
4.6.1

39
59
46
47
39, 40

14
19
16
16
14

K chart, profile

-- --

103

36

land, bottom
land, top

4.5.3.6.3
4.5.3.3.2

32
32

12
11

lead
lead angle
lead angle, base
lead angle, outside
lead tolerance
lead trace, measured
lead variation

4.6.30.6
4.6.30.7
4.6.30.3.2
4.6.30.5.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.2

64, 65
65
-- --- -104, 105
-- --- --

21
21
20
21
37
37
37

left flank
left hand helical gear
left hand spiral bevel gear
left hand worm

4.6.25
4.6.29
4.6.31.2
4.6.29

53, 54
60
67, 68
60

18
20
22
20

length of action
length of trace, helix
length, functional profile
length, roll path

4.8.9
5.8.10
5.7.5
5.1.11

91
-- --- --- --

29
38
36
31

limit diameter
limits, test radius

4.8.18
5.3.3.7

59, 93
-- --

30
33

Term

62

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

line of action
line of center
line of contact
line, mean helix
line, pitch

Paragraph
number
4.8.4
4.5.3.2
4.8.2
5.8.12
4.5.3.1.2

Figure
number
87, 91 93
28
86, 88, 89, 90
-- -28

Reference
page
28
10
28
38
10

long addendum teeth

4.6.32.16

-- --

26

master gear

5.3.1

-- --

32

mean cone distance


mean helix line
mean profile line
mean spiral angle

4.6.31.10
5.8.12
5.8.13
4.6.31.4

70
-- --- -70

23
38
38
22

measured lead trace

5.8.4

-- --

37

measurement over pins


measurement, single flank
measurement, span

4.6.32.10
5.3.2
4.6.32.11

79
-- -80

25
32
25

minimum backlash

4.7.10.1

-- --

27

miter gear

4.2.5.5

13

modified addendum teeth


modified contact ratio

4.6.32.12
4.8.17

-- --- --

25
30

module (transverse)
module, normal

4.6.21
4.6.22

-- --- --

17
18

mounting distance
mounting surface

4.5.4.9
5.2.3

38
-- --

13
32

normal base pitch


normal chordal thickness
normal circular pitch
normal circular thickness
normal diametral pitch
normal direction
normal helix
normal module
normal pitch variation
normal plane
normal pressure angle
normal profile angle

4.6.18
4.6.32.6
4.6.15
4.6.32.3
4.6.20
4.4.3
4.6.30.4
4.6.22
5.5.5
4.3.7
4.6.8
4.6.8

50
78
49
77
-- -24
63
-- --- -78
45
45

17
25
17
25
17
9
21
18
34
8
16
16

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

63

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

number of teeth
number of teeth, equivalent
number of threads
number, quality

Paragraph
number
4.1.8
4.5.1.2
4.1.8
5.11.2

-----

offset

4.7.3

12, 18, 83

26

operating center distance


operating pitch diameter
operating pressure angle

4.7.2
4.7.9
4.7.4

82, 93
-- --- --

26
27
26

outer cone distance


outer spiral angle

4.6.31.9
4.6.31.5

70
70

23
22

outside (tip or addendum) cylinder


outside (tip or addendum) helix
outside diameter
outside helix angle
outside lead angle

4.5.3.3
4.6.30.5
4.5.3.3.1
4.6.30.5.1
4.6.30.5.2

29
62
30, 31
61
65

10
21
11
21
21

parallel axis gear

4.2.3

path length, roll


path of action
path of contact
path, probe

5.1.11
4.8.3
4.8.8
5.1.15

47
85, 88
90
-- --

31
28
29
31

pinion

4.1.3

pins, indicating over


pins, measurement over

5.6.5
4.6.32.10

-- -79

35
25

pitch
pitch angle
pitch circle (operating)
pitch circle, standard (reference)
pitch cone
pitch cylinder
pitch deviation, cumulative, total
pitch deviation, single
pitch diameter
pitch diameter, operating
pitch diameter, standard (reference)
pitch helix
pitch line
pitch plane
pitch point
pitch radius, equivalent
pitch range

4.6.12
4.6.31.14
4.5.3.1.1
4.5.3.7
4.5.4.1
4.5.3.1
5.4.2
5.5.9
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.5.3.7.1
4.6.30.2
4.5.3.1.2
4.3.3
4.5.3.1.3
4.5.1.1
5.5.1

48
73, 74
28
44
25, 26
24, 63
-- --- -30
-- --- -62, 63
28
19
28
27
-- --

16
24
10
12
12
10
34
35
27
27
12
20
10
7
10
10
34

Term

64

Figure
number
-----

Reference
page
3
10
3
38

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

pitch surfaces
pitch variation
pitch variation tolerance, total accumulated
pitch variation, allowable
pitch variation, normal
pitch variation, total accumulated
pitch variation, total accumulated, within a sector of k pitches
pitch, angular
pitch, axial
pitch, base, normal
pitch, base, transverse
pitch, circular
pitch, diametral (transverse)
pitch, normal circular
pitch, normal diametral
pitch, transverse circular
pitch, true position

Paragraph
number
4.5.1
5.5.3
5.5.7
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.5.8
4.6.23
4.6.16
4.6.18
4.6.17
4.6.13
4.6.19
4.6.15
4.6.20
4.6.14
5.5.2

Figure
number
25, 26
99
-- --- --- -100
100
-- -49, 50
50
50, 51
48
-- -49
-- -49
-- --

Reference
page
9
34
35
34
34
35
35
18
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
34

plane of action
plane of axes
plane of rotation
plane, axial
plane, central
plane, normal
plane, pitch
plane, tangent
plane, transverse

4.8.6
4.3.2
4.3.4
4.3.1
4.3.8
4.3.7
4.3.3
4.3.5
4.3.6

88
19
21
19
23
3, 78
19
21, 66
19, 21, 22, 52

28
7
8
7
9
8
7
8
8

point of contact
point, crossing
point, pitch

4.8.1
4.5.4.10
4.5.3.1.3

85, 90
38
28

27
13
10

polar angle, involute

4.6.10

46

16

position pitch, true

5.5.2

-- --

34

pressure angle
pressure angle, axial
pressure angle, normal
pressure angle, operating
pressure angle, transverse

4.6.4
4.6.9
4.6.8
4.7.4
4.6.7

43, 46
45
45
-- -45

14
16
16
26
15

principal directions

4.4

24

probe path

5.1.15

-- --

31

profile
profile angle
profile angle, axial

4.6.26
4.6.5
4.6.9

52
43
45

19
15
16

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

65

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

profile angle, normal


profile angle, standard
profile angle, transverse
profile chart
profile control diameter
profile deviation
profile deviation, total
profile evaluation range
profile form deviation
profile length, functional
profile line, mean
profile radius of curvature
profile shift
profile slope deviation
profile tolerance
profile variation
profile, design
profile, functional
profile, start of active

Paragraph
number
4.6.8
4.6.6
4.6.7
5.7.11
5.1.4
5.7.6
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.5
5.8.13
4.6.26.2
4.6.32.8
5.7.10
5.7.3
5.7.2
5.7.4
5.7.1
4.8.18

45
44
45
-- -59
-- --- --- -103
-- --- -54
-- --- -103
102
-- -101
59

Reference
page
16
15
15
36
31
36
36
36
36
36
38
19
25
36
36
36
36
35
30

quality
quality number
quality, gear

5.11.1
5.11.2
5.11

-- --- --- --

38
38
38

rack
rack shift
rack, basic
rack, generating
rack, helical
rack, spur

4.1.5
4.6.32.9
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.2.3.4
4.2.3.2

1
-- -3
-- -7
6

2
25
2
3
4
4

radial runout
radial runout tolerance

5.6.3
5.6.4

-- --- --

35
35

radius limits, test


radius, base
radius, equivalent pitch
radius, fillet
radius, profile, curvature
radius, test
radius, throat form
radius, tip

5.3.3.7
4.6.2.2
4.5.1.1
4.6.27.1
4.6.26.2
5.3.3.6
4.5.4.12
4.6.26.1

-- --- -27
56
56
-- -31
55

33
14
10
19
19
33
13
19

range, helix evaluation


range, pitch
range, profile evaluation

5.8.8
5.5.1
5.7.8

-- --- --- --

38
34
36

Term

66

Figure
number

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

ratio, contact
ratio, face contact
ratio, gear
ratio, modified contact
ratio, total contact
ratio, transverse contact

Paragraph
number
4.8.13
4.8.15
4.1.9
4.8.17
4.8.16
4.8.14

-------

recess, arc of

4.8.12

92

29

relief, tip

4.6.26.3

57

19

Revacycle gears

B.2

-- --

42

right flank
right hand helical gear
right hand spiral bevel gear
right hand worm

4.6.25
4.6.28
4.6.31.1
4.6.28

53, 54
60
67, 68
60

18
20
22
20

roll angle, involute


roll path length

4.6.11
5.1.11

47
47

16
31

root
root angle
root circle
root cone
root cylinder
root diameter
root fillet

-- -4.6.31.16
4.5.3.6.1
4.5.4.3
4.5.3.6
4.5.3.6.2
4.6.27

52
74
33
36, 75
-- -30, 33
-- --

18
24
11
13
11
12
19

rotation, plane

4.3.4

21

runout
runout tolerance, radial
runout, axial
runout, radial

5.6.1
5.6.4
5.6.2
5.6.3

-----

-----

35
35
35
35

SAP

4.8.18

59

30

shaft angle

4.6.31.7

71

23

shift, profile
shift, rack

4.6.32.8
4.6.32.9

-- --- --

25
25

short addendum teeth

4.6.32.16

-- --

26

single flank composite deviation, tooth--to--tooth


single flank composite deviation, total
single flank composite test
single flank measurement

5.3.2.2
5.3.2.3
5.3.2.1
5.3.2

-----

32
32
32
32

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Figure
number
-------

-----

Reference
page
30
30
3
30
30
30

67

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

single pitch deviation


single helical gear

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
5.5.9
-- -4.2.3.5
6

Reference
page
35
4

skew bevel gear

4.2.5.9

16

slope deviation
slope deviation, profile

5.8.11
5.7.10

-- --- --

38
36

spacing
spacing variation

5.4.3
5.4.4

-- --- --

34
34

span measurement

4.6.32.11

80

25

spiral angle
spiral angle, inner
spiral angle, mean
spiral angle, outer
spiral bevel gear
spiral bevel gear, left hand
spiral bevel gear, right hand
spiral gear

4.6.31.3
4.6.31.6
4.6.31.4
4.6.31.5
4.2.5.10
4.6.31.2
4.6.31.1
4.2.5.1

69, 70
70
70
70
17
67
67
-- --

22
23
22
22
6
22
22
5

Spiroid gearing

B.2

-- --

42

spur gear
spur rack

4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2

6
6

3
4

standard (reference) pitch circle


standard (refernence) pitch diameter
standard profile angle

4.5.3.7
4.5.3.7.1
4.6.8

44
-- -44

12
12
15

start of active profile


start of tip break

4.8.18
5.1.12

59
-- --

30
31

straight bevel gear


straight line element of base cylinder

4.2.5.8
-- --

16
62

6
20

stub teeth

4.6.32.14

-- --

26

surface of action
surface, datum
surface, indicated
surface, mounting
surface, pitch
surface, tooth (flank)

4.8.5
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
4.5.1
4.6.24

-- --- --- --- -25, 26


52

28
31
31
32
9
18

symbols

C.1

-- --

43

tangent plane

4.3.5

21, 86

Term

68

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

teeth, adjusted number


teeth, crowned
teeth, equal addendum
teeth, equivalent number
teeth, full--depth
teeth, involute
teeth, long addendum
teeth, modified addendum
teeth, number
teeth, short addendum
teeth, stub

Paragraph
number
5.1.14
4.6.3
4.6.32.15
4.5.1.2
4.6.32.13
4.6.1
4.6.32.16
4.6.32.12
4.1.8
4.6.32.16
4.6.32.14

-- -42
81
-- --- -39, 40
81
-- --- -81
-- --

Reference
page
31
14
26
10
26
14
26
25
3
26
26

test radius
test radius limits
test, composite action (double flank)
test, single flank composite

5.3.3.6
5.3.3.7
5.3.3.1
5.3.2.1

-- --- -95
-- --

33
33
32
32

thickness tolerance, tooth


thickness variation, tooth
thickness, axial
thickness, base circular
thickness, chordal, normal
thickness, circular
thickness, functional tooth
thickness, normal circular
thickness, transverse circular

5.9.2
5.9.1
4.6.32.4
4.6.32.5
4.6.32.6
4.6.32.1
5.9.3
4.6.32.3
4.6.32.2

-- --- -77
78
78
76
-- -77
77, 78

38
38
25
25
25
24
38
25
24

threads, number

4.1.8

-- --

throat diameter
throat form radius

4.5.4.11
4.5.4.12

31
31

13
13

TIF

4.6.27.3

59

19

tip
tip (face) angle
tip (face) cone
tip break, start of
tip or edge break
tip radius
tip relief

-- -4.6.31.15
4.5.4.2
5.1.12
5.2.4
4.6.26.1
4.6.26.3

52
74
36
-- --- -55
57

18
24
12
31
32
19
19

toe

4.6.31.13

73

24

tolerance
tolerance diameter
tolerance, lead
tolerance, profile
tolerance, radial runout

5.11.5
5.1.9
5.8.3
5.7.3
5.6.4

108
-- -104, 105
103
-- --

39
31
37
36
35

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Figure
number

69

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

tolerance, tooth alignment


tolerance, tooth thickness
tolerance, total accumulated pitch variation
tolerance, total radial composite (double flank)

Paragraph
number
5.8.3
5.9.2
5.5.7
5.3.3.5

Figure
number
104, 105
-- --- --- --

Reference
page
37
38
35
32

tooth alignment
tooth alignment tolerance
tooth alignment trace
tooth alignment variation
tooth depth
tooth surface (flank)
tooth thickness tolerance
tooth thickness variation
tooth thickness, functional
tooth, datum
tooth--to--tooth radial composite tolerance (double flank)
tooth--to--tooth radial composite variation (double flank)

5.8.1
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.2
4.7.7
4.6.24
5.9.2
5.9.1
5.9.3
5.1.3
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.2

-- -104, 105
-- --- -35
52
-- --- --- --- --- -96

37
37
37
37
27
18
38
38
38
31
32
32

top land

4.5.3.3.2

32

11

total accumulated pitch variation


total accumulated pitch variation tolerance
total accumulated pitch variation, within a sector of k pitches
total radial composite tolerance (double flank)
total radial composite deviation (double flank)
total contact ratio
total cumulative pitch deviation
total face width
total helix deviation
total profile deviation

5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8
5.3.3.5
5.3.3.4
4.8.16
5.4.2
4.6.30.9
5.8.7
5.7.7

100
-- -100
-- --- --- --- -66
-- --- --

35
35
35
32
32
30
34
22
37
36

trace, helix length


trace, measured lead
trace, tooth alignment

5.8.10
5.8.4
5.8.4

-- --- --- --

38
37
37

tradenames

B.2

-- --

42

transmission error

5.1.13

-- --

31

transverse base pitch


transverse circular pitch
transverse circular thickness
transverse contact ratio
transverse diametral pitch
transverse direction
transverse module
transverse plane
transverse pressure angle
transverse profile angle

4.6.17
4.6.14
4.6.32.2
4.8.14
4.6.19
4.4.2
4.6.21
4.3.6
4.6.7
4.6.7

50, 51
49
77, 78
-- --- -24
-- -19, 22, 52
45
45

17
17
24
30
17
9
17
7
15
15

Term

70

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

true involute form


true position pitch

Paragraph
Figure
number
number
4.6.27.3
-- -5.5.2
-- --

Reference
page
19
34

undercut

4.6.27.2

58, 59

19

variation
variation tolerance, total accumulated pitch
variation, allowable
variation, allowable pitch
variation, backlash
variation, lead
variation, normal pitch
variation, pitch
variation, profile
variation, spacing
variation, tooth alignment
variation, tooth thickness
variation, total accumulated pitch

5.11.3
5.5.7
5.11.4
5.5.4
4.7.10.2
5.8.2
5.5.5
5.5.3
5.7.2
5.4.4
5.8.2
5.9.1
5.5.6

106
-- -107
-- --- --- --- -99
102
-- --- --- -100

39
35
39
34
27
37
34
34
36
34
37
38
35

wheel, gear

4.1.2

whole depth

4.7.7

35

27

width, effective face


width, face
width, functional face
width, total face

4.7.11
4.6.30.8
5.1.6
4.6.30.9

66
66, 68
-- -66

27
21
31
22

wobble

5.6.2

-- --

35

working depth

4.7.6

35

27

worm
worm, cylindrical
worm, enveloping (hourglass)
worm, left hand
worm, right hand
wormgear
wormgearing
wormgearing, Cone
wormgearing, double--enveloping
wormwheel

4.1.4
4.2.4.2
4.2.4.3
4.6.29
4.6.28
4.2.4.1
4.2.4
B.2
4.2.4.4
4.2.4.1

2, 9
2, 9
10
60
60
9
9
-- -10
9

2
4
4
20
20
4
4
42
5
4

zerol bevel gear

4.2.5.10

17

zone of action (contact zone)


zone, contact

4.8.7
4.8.7

89
89

28
28

Term

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

71

ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Bibliography
The following documents are either referenced in the text of ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature,
Definition of Terms with Symbols, or indicated for additional information.
AGMA 913--A98, Method for Specifying the
Geometry of Spur and Helical Gears

Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear


Teeth

AGMA 915--3--A99, Inspection Practices -- Gear


Blanks, Shaft Center Distance and Parallelism

ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03, Design Manual for Bevel


Gears

AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and


Inspection Handbook, Tolerances and Measuring
Methods For Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears
(Including Metric Equivalents)
ANSI/AGMA 2001--D04, Fundamental Rating
Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur
and Helical Gear Teeth
ANSI/AGMA
2002--B88,
Tooth
Specification and Measurement

ANSI/AGMA 2009--B01, Bevel Gear Classification,


Tolerances, and Measuring Methods
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A02, Accuracy Classification
System -- Tangential Measurements for Cylindrical
Gears
ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04, Fundamental Rating
Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur
and Helical Gear Teeth (Metric Edition)

Thickness

ISO 1122--1:1998, Glossary of gear terms -- Part 1:


Definitions related to geometry

ANSI/AGMA 2003--F97, Rating the Pitting


Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated

ISO 1122--2:1999, Vocabulary of gear terms -- Part


2: Definitions related to worm gear geometry

72

AGMA 2004 ---- All rights reserved

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
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