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Give examples of any five items in a 500 bedded hospital. Definition :- Inventory control is a supervision of the supply and storage and accessibility of items in order to insure an adequate supply without excessive oversupply It can also be referred as internal control - an accounting procedure or system designed to promote efficiency or assure the implementation of a policy or safeguard assets or avoid fraud and error etc Techniques :There are several techniques a person can use to increase profitability and streamline workflow via proper inventory control. Through research, competitive analysis and experience, an effective business leader can balance costs versus benefits to storing and ordering the necessary supplies to ensure business vitality. The supply chain is made of all materials that help you to produce, market and supply your product. Inventory control means that you have identified every facet of your supply chain and its logistics. FIFO 1. If you deal in perishable items, FIFO (first in, first out) is an important concept to understand and maintain throughout the supply chain. If a grocery store did not rotate their stock, new stock coming in would get taken immediately and older stock would expire, causing great loss. Stock must be arranged by date received. Cutting Edge Control 2. For a great deal of stock that needs constant management, consider bar codes or RFID (radio frequency identification) where hand-held readers can immediately tell you where valuable merchandise is. Many IT inventory programs on the market provide a wealth of features including tie-ins to USPS,
Fed-Ex and/or UPS to track merchandise and provide real-time logistics. Costs versus Convenience
A Business owner must balance space available for extra stock versus speed of product turnover, fees for storage, cost in bulk versus regular ordering, and whether clients/end users would be willing to wait. Stock Levels
4. Defining your minimum stock level will allow you to set up regular inspections and re-ordering of supplies. Take into account emergencies and vendors taking longer than average to replenish stock. This will aid you in arriving at JIT (just in time) ordering, where stock is held for a minimum amount of time before moving on to the next stage in the supply chain. Security
Stock security is a necessary cost. Many experts recommend separating staff that is responsible for stock management from staff that has financial responsibility. Many times, shoplifting and thievery is committed by employees rather than a stranger. Security guards, cameras, bar codes and security devices are used by most businesses since the cost of security is minimal compared to the millions of dollars that U.S. businesses lose each year to stolen goods. Training staff in identifying potential security issues and having a clear method of reporting violations is important in reducing crime. Often, shoplifters and thieves use standard techniques to distract employees and take stock. Stock on Hand
6. Having a great deal of stock on hand has both positive and negative consequences. Having an immediate supply means that end users get their product that much sooner. Speed and immediate gratification for a client can make the difference not only in a sale, but recommendations, repeat business and client loyalty. In the modern business environment where every business is a global business, an emergency or unforeseen circumstance anywhere in the world can render competition without resources you have on hand. Of course, one must take
into account using capital in bulk buys, management and insurance costs as well as goods perishing or becoming obsolete The aim of inventory control in hospital is to:a. Maintain availability of item anywhere anytime in the hospital at optimum cost b. Optimize cost by analyzing holding cost, ordering cost and stock out cost to have minimum cost of inventory. c. Minimize dead stock and obsolesce. The whole principle is availability of items keeping cost to minimum; hence type of inventory cost is to be understood by all students. Process for keeping track of objects or materials. In common usage, the term may also refer to just the software components. Modern inventory control systems rely upon barcodes, and potentially RFID tags, to provide automatic identification of inventory objects. In an academic study performed at Wal-Mart, RFID reduced Out of Stocks by 30 percent for products selling between 0.1 and 15 units a day. Inventory objects could include any kind of physical asset: merchandise, consumables, fixed assets, circulating tools, library books, or capital equipment. To record an inventory transaction, the system uses a barcode scanner or RFID reader to automatically identify the inventory object, and then collects additional information from the operators via fixed terminals (workstations), or mobile computers. Applications of Inventory System :An inventory control system may be used to automate a sales order fulfillment process. Such a system contains a list of order to be filled, and then prompts workers to pick the necessary items, and provides them with packaging and shipping information. Real time inventory control systems use wireless, mobile terminals to record inventory transactions at the moment they
occur. A wireless LAN transmits the transaction information to a central database. Physical inventory counting and cycle counting are features of many inventory control systems which can enhance the organization. Techniques of Inventory Control in Hospital :The inventory control is a scientific system by which to decide as to how much to order, when to order and how often to order ensuring availability of vital and essential drugs all the time but keeping cost minimum. The basic technique to calculate it are ABC, VED and EOQ which are discussed as follows:1. ABC analysis This is based on Pareto’s Law where 20% items may be accounting for 80% of total cost annually. The analysis focuses on cost of items and need to control these items. There are significant few require most attention. The ABC analysis states:a. 10% of drugs would cost 70% of the total of drugs A) b. 20% of drugs would cost 20% of total drug cost B) c. 70% of drugs would cost 10% of total cost C) (Group (Group ( Group
The figure shows percentage of inventory items and percentage of average inventory usage value. The demand multiplied by unit price giving inventory worth of annual consumption. It can be seen from the figure 10% items are consuming 70% of annual usage value which are ‘A’ class items(significant few) another 20% of items account for 20% annual usage value and another 70% items account for 10% expenditure on material consumption which constitute “insignificant money” are called “C” items. To prepare ABC analysis we may follow following steps:-
a. Calculate annual usage value of each drugs.( Annual usages value = Annual demand X unit cost) b. Keep in order according to annual usage value. That means most expensive items to be kept at top and cheapest at bottom c. A cut off point where there is perceptible sudden change of cost which can also be found out by a graph and it would approximately be at 10% items,20% items are where change can be observed, however there may be variation of up to 5%. Let us imagine medical store of a small hospital has 100 items on its inventory and the total annual expenditure is Rs. 10, 00,000. The items can be arranged in the descending value of their annual cost in the following manner:-
Name of the Items
Annual Consumpti on in Rs.
Cumulati ve Total in Rs. 91000 180000 263000 344000 415000
Cumulati ve Percenta ge 9.1 18 26.3 34.4 41.5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Inj. Ampicillin 91000 Inj. Ciprofloxacin Inj. Dextrose 5% 540 ml 89000 83000
Inj. Normal 81000 saline 540 ml Inj. Cefatoxim 1 gm Inj. Streptokinas e 71000
7 8 9 10
Tab Ciproflaxacin Inj. Haemaccel Fluothane Inj. Dexamethas one 2 ml --------------Inj. Urograffin Acriflavine
63000 63000 51000 47000
543000 543000 653000 700000
54.3 54.3 65.3 70 A(70%)
11 12 30 100
------------90 100 B( 20% ) C( 10% )
The idea of doing ABC analysis is to keep strict financial control and it implies that ‘A’ items have to be under strict control of higher management since it consume 70% of consumption cost its safety stocks to be low and need high turn over and frequent procurement and requirement of these items need to audited. ‘B’ items fall in between A and C items and need moderate control by middle management since consumption cost is 20% ‘C” items are consuming 10% of cost hence need control by lower management, can have high safety stock and procurement could be less frequent. Statement showing one month analysis of items for a 500 bedded hospital Item Code UOM Issue Qty Tota Sol l d Sale 8210 Net Amt 8210 Total Cost
SD00130 Face Mask-
4 DM0031 29
Sterile [1x50] Adrenor Inj.
r Numbe r 296 3848 0 3486 0 750 7125 3848 0 3486 0 750 7125
5 30784 80
Three SD00076 Way[Polymed Numbe 6 ] r 581 SD00059 Intracath No- Numbe 1 22 [Poly] r 10 DM0073 61 Pentowok Inj Numbe r 114
4166.3 30693. 5 65 77 673
88 90 73
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