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V and Film Technology assignment

By Harry Burbidge

Task 1: T.V and Film technology glossary

Analogue devices scan physical data, such as voltage, from media devices
including record players and tapes.
For example a record player would read the 'bumps' and 'dips' in a records
groove, in order to output the music, we hear from it.
Below is an image of a records groove, where the stylus (needle object below)
bumps up and down in each grove.

The bumps and dips store the music on the disc. Each bump represents a
musical note.
This information (I.e. the bumpy lines in the record) is translated into an
audio signal, by being recorded from one linear (straight) point to another.
This is achieved by the stylus vibrating in the groove, causing microscopic
bounces to be transmitted through the styluses metal bar.
Below is a picture.

This bar connects to the end of a cartridge. An electromagnetic device

containing a piezoelectric crystal, which when pressed against the bar,
generates an electrical signal, which goes toward the amplifier,
increasing the signals power, resulting in the sound you hear through
the record players speaker.
Thus the information (I.e. sound) is accurately conveyed to the
listener, as the device shall record the actual physical sound

Digital information (e.g. photographs/music) is stored
as a series of binary numbers (I.e. ones and zeros) into Digital devices
including CD recorders and hard drives.

For example, in a Cell phone, calls can be

received and transmitted by having the
persons voice converted into binary numbers.
The numbers are sent from one phone, to the other, in the form of radio
waves. Thusly enabling the listener to interpret the digital information (I.e.
number codes) as the speakers own voice.
However, the digital number codes can only estimate the sound wave. (E.g.
music), but not the accurate version.
However, the digital data can be edited on a computer, to improve the quality
(e.g. sound/image).

This is achieved by a "sampling rate",

which is the number of times a digital
signal is sampled, per second. If it is
sampled more times per second, the
estimation of digital information becomes
higher, resulting in high quality
It can also be skipped, played back, or
forwarded to specific parts of an audio/scene, meaning you do
not have to go through the whole thing and then stop. This saves more time.
The data cannot deteriorate, due to not using natural based sources (e.g.
video tapes - chemicals in the film); making it last longer, no matter how
many times it becomes altered.

This allows almost every continent and even remote areas to have a wide
range of media channels and services played to homes. This is more cost
efficient, as less ground equipment (e.g. cable lines) is required.
Originally broadcast television involved a powerful antenna from a
television/radio station transmitting radio waves to its surrounding area.
Unfortunately, these signals transmit from the broadcast antennae in a
straight line, meaning the viewers receiving antenna had to be in antennas
line of sight. Due to the earths curved shape, the radio waves could easily be
reflected, meaning further areas could not receive
television/radio signals.
With Satellites, broadcast stations transmit
broadcast signals up to satellites orbiting the
enabling wider areas to receive signals.


The satellite reaches a speed of

approximately 22, 200 miles
above the earth, meaning it
revolves around the planet once
every 24 hours, which is the same
duration for the earth to make one
full rotation. The satellite can
therefore keep pace with the planets movements.
This way the satellite dish only has to be directed toward the satellite once
and afterwards can pick up the signal, without needing to be further adjusted.

The Radio signal has to de compressed. This means the overall number of
binary coding (I.e. digital information- program footage and audio) in the
broadcasted program must be reduced, enabling faster transmission of
programs. It can be achieved by reducing
excessive signal
information. For example in a text sentence,
may find the word "hello" has been used
The satellite transmits the received radio
broadcasting station and re broadcasts
signals, to home satellite dishes. The
program contained within the signal has
to the correct size and format for

signals from the

been converted
enabled viewing.

The satellite dish contains a bowl shaped surface (parabolic) and central feed
horn. The signal is sent through the feed horn, so it passes through to the
satellite receiver, which converts the digital signal into an analog format,
which standard television sets recognize.
Next it extracts an individual channel, selected by the viewer, from the larger
satellite signal and displays it onto the T.V.

Cable television transmits programs to paying
customers/subscribers, via radio frequency
signals, which go through a coaxial cable, with
the ability to carry hundreds of megahertz
(frequency unit, equal to one million hertz)
signals per second.
The Coaxial cable has a controlled conductor interior, allowing it to transport
radio frequencies (signals from broadcast stations) at around two-thirds the
speed of light.
Coaxial cable lines are installed between a head end (main receiving point for
television signals) and local T.V station, which uses a modulator, to transmit
program signals to the Cable TV head end. This receives the signal with a
demodulator, which extracts the signal, transporting it to the Cable T.V head
end and over to paying subscribers.

Pay per view:

This is a television service in which a
customer purchases programs to view via
private broadcast, meaning the program is
only shown to subscribers whom
specifically have ordered it.
Customers have to pay periodically. Either
monthly or yearly.
This means, they have to pay a subscription fee each month or year, for
having access to to a subscription package (e.g. Virgin Media +)
Cable and Satellite T.V providers use this service to distribute varied
programs to subscribers.
For example a Satellite with access to different broadcasted outputs can offer
the pay per view customers 'Warner Bros' features and T.V programs.
Customers pay for this service using telephone systems and customer
services to address any queries.
Typical output, from this service includes sporting events, entertainment
programs and feature films.
Streaming content:
This is where an end user (I.e., Human user of a product) constantly receives
multimedia (I.e., Images, animation and audio), which meanwhile is delivered
by the provider.
For example, a media player can play the data (e.g., film), before the entire
file has been transmitted to the service. This mean watching a video, or
listening to music in real time, which is more time convenient than having to
download a video file and watch it later.
To achieve this, a media player downloads the next 10 seconds, for which the
customer will soon come too. When the pre downloaded 10 seconds come up,
the previously watched footage is deleted, so there is more room for the rest
of the footage to be downloaded.
Streaming requires a fast broadband connection, to show the data in real
time. Therefore, video and music files online are highly compressed to reduce
the amount of bit-rate (data storage) from consumed information.

This is beneficial, as it reduces waiting times for online content. Internet

stations such as YouTube and Netflix are good examples for streaming
content, as you simply going on a site, click a video and immediately watch
On-demand viewing:
Allows customers to watch any video/audio
program they wish and at any time, meaning they dont have to wait
for specific broadcast times.
BBC I Player includes all of the BBCs outputs and additionally from its
subsidiaries too (e.g. BBC 2) On Demand systems stream content to a set up
box (digital video recorder) computer.
It uses a system called Internet Protocol Television,' which delivers television
services using the Internet Protocol Suite. This involves breaking the file
(e.g. a program from the BBC) into very small sizes, which can then be sent
to a specific location (e.g. BBC I Player).

Digital recorders:
This records video in a
digital format, to a Disk
drive, U.S.B or flash drive.
Types of recorders include
Set-top boxes, which
connect to a T.V, allowing
the displayed output to be
displayed onto the screen.
This function is achieved by a T.V tuner, which transports the television signal
(from via cable, antenna or satellite) into the digital video recorder, which
goes through an MPEG-2 encoder (converts the analogue signal into digital),
and transports the digital data to the hard drive, for storage, and then over to
the MPEG-2 decoder (converts signal to analogue, to be recognized by T.V),
where it is sent to the television for audiences to view.

New Consumer products:

Smart T.V: A television set
incorporating the Internet,
social network sites and
It also provides Internet T.V,
allowing digital television
shows/interactive media (e.g. games/video on demand) to be available to the
Internet, using streaming technology.
This means the owner of a Smart T.V, or other similar service, can download
and use content, without having to permanently store it.

Internet television:
Internet T.V allows digital distribution of T.V, over to the Internet, by allying
with a wide variety of companies and individuals, which can assist in
broadcasting Internet T.V, using video streaming technology.
For example, BBC I Player uses Adobe Flash Player, to stream video clips and
also uses additional 'Adobe' software to incorporate downloading
applications, for viewers to use.
Sky Players service, has been expanded to Xbox 360 and Windows Media
Centre too, enabling 'Sky' customers to now have access to online gaming
content and other applications.
It also allows for independently produced programs for specific audiences.
For example, it may produce web series, such as 'Husband' (distributed on
platforms including YouTube, Roku and Blip). Other distributions include
'Netflix', '' and 'Newgrounds'.
Chrome cast:
A media-streaming device, which can be plugged into the HDMI port from a
consumer TV. Next, the Wi-Fi needs to be connected.
Simply afterward, people can display films/programs they are watching on
their tablets, computers or I pads onto their television screen.
As well as films, they can even display websites and put up apps and play
lists onto their T.V

It works with a variety of apps, including Netflix,' YouTube Now T.V and

Film-based technologies:
3D: This is now a commonly used technique in todays films. It involves
capturing 3 dimensional objects/characters, so they appear out of the
This requires the viewer to wear a pair of 3D glasses, which give the illusion.
In typical blue and red 3D glasses, the red side simultaneously joins the other
side. The viewers eyes are approximately 2 inches apart, meaning they can
see the same picture. The brain combines the two images to see them as
one. This is known as 'Binocular vision'.
Thus the image on screen has more depth and the audience is convinced the
characters and objects are coming out of the screen, creating a more life like
and engaging experience for the viewer.

48 frames per second: Frame rates are the frequency of which a camera
produces each still image.
There are 3 main rates currently used today. They are 24p, 25p and 30p.
48 Frames per second has been trialed in the film industry. The Hobbit: An
Unexpected Journey was the first film to use this frame rate.
It was twice the frame rate of 24 frames per second, giving a slower realistic
motion to movements.
This ensured no blurs in running scenes, would occur.
This gave the film a more life like tone, which some audiences argued was
breaking the suspension of belief.
Despite the frame rate providing a life like factor, there are negative ethics,
for a film should be an imaginary place, audiences can escape to and become
embroiled in. If it is too real, though, then it is difficult for audiences to be
Motion Capture:
This enables actors to perform movements, which can then be applied to a
pre made 3D computerized character/object.

The actor has a special suit, which contains marker points. These are near to
skin areas, where bony landmarks can be identified.
Marker points can be infrared reflective. This works with infrared optical
systems, comprising of a series of cameras, with infrared light, which is
reflected toward the marker point. A particular marker point position is
analyzed and shown back onto the 3D software, containing the digital
This enables each marker points movement (e.g. from legs to arms) to be
relayed back to the computer and move the digital character on the
Each marker point is placed next to specific areas, where the actors bone
ligaments and key skeletal features exist.
The marker information is translated onto the computer and develops the
skeleton system of the character, giving muscle texture, to give the
appearance of a life like character.
Afterwards further animation is used to develop elements, such as skin
texture and facial expressions.

High definition:
4K: A display device with 4,000 distinct pixels being displayed on the screen.
This is used in digital television and cinematography.
8000 HD: Cinemas currently use projectors. Recently though, cinemas such
as the Odeon, have started using digital projection systems, at a 8000 HD
capacity, which assists in creating stunning quality, depth and realist tones to
their films.

Task 2: 1000 word online article:

The legacy from Digital technology
Over the past five years Media technology has took a significant turn.
Back in the day, computer networks were limited, due to less network
connectivity between service providers and consumers.
During the 2000s though, computers began using increased Internet
networks, allowing live programs to be displayed to audiences online quickly.
Thus assisting media industries in advertising, as browsing online is a

common activity for people of nearly all ages to do.

Since the 2000s Digital media made digital cable available, which uses digital
video compression to decrease the excessive amount of digital data in
Television signals.
In 2003 Satellite and Cable providers introduced dual-tuner digital video
recorders, which enables one program to be recorded and another watched
simultaneously, meaning viewers can occupy themselves, while waiting to
record a program.
Digital video recorders eventually became integrated into LCD and LED TVsets, which use high definitions, such as 4K resolutions (4096 x 2160 pixels),
which are also being used on digital Television and online outputs including
It has also been used on documentaries, such as 'Life in the Sky'.
These resolutions are used on large screen televisions, such as LG.
Below is a picture.

Audiences can see intricate detail in the image, from an animals skin texture
to every detail of an insect, which is based on how we would see them in real
life. Both the resolution and television size can make audiences feel like they
are really encountering the animal, creating a life like experience for
It would not work well for fictional programs. Audiences like to be drawn away
into a story, but may be distracted by noticing a characters facial hair or
mistakes with a set. Thus being distracted away from the story.
During the 200s, Internet streaming allowed Internet only channels (e.g.
'YouTube' 'Netflix' and '') to distribute the web series (e.g.
'Husbands') online.
Unfortunately Internet streaming has recently led to programs being shared
online between people, for free, preventing media industries from earning
D.V.Ds are more costly (around
8.00 - 12.00 - dependent on T.V service/shop type), resulting in streaming
being preferable.
Despite being free, the video quality is poor, long pauses occur in between
and there are non-skip able advertisements.
Internet streaming should be used for web-based videos (e.g. YouTube'),
which are intended to be reached to viewers purposely online.

Internet streaming uses telecommunication networks (information

transmission) to transfer digital messages to telephone networks and the
Internet, allowing Cable T.V and Satellite, to provide services, from pay per
view programming, to cable Internet access.
Cable Internet
Access connects individual mobile devices (e.g. tablets) and computers from
the Internet service provider (e.g. service provider offering internet access) to
the end user (I.e., service subscriber).

Satellite Television
As the cable television industry developed, so did satellite television.
Todays satellites transmit multiple programs, simultaneously from the same
television/digital radio station, using a process called 'Multi-plexing', which
compresses the data, reducing excessive information from a programs signal
into smaller signals. These signals are combined into one signal granting
audiences more options for watchable content, reducing broadcasting
competition, between different media industries for what gets to be
broadcast daily.
For example, the BBC and I.T.V may be able to combine some of their output,
to be broadcast on the same satellite, but in separate signals so they reach
their desired channels.
Satellites have also allied with advanced microwave (electromagnetic waves
for point-to-point telecommunications) and semi-conductor (conduction of
electricity) technology, significantly reducing the level of white noise from
broadcasted material.
Now audiences do not have to try listening too tentatively to the program.
Internet Protocol Television
This has become increasingly popular (since internet streaming), as it allows
video on demand services (e.g. BBC I Player) to be available toward products,
including computers and I pads.
To specify how the data should be transmitted, Packet switching (digital
networking communication) is used to transmit the data into suitable sizes,
transmitted from a medium (e.g., television service) and shared by multiple
communication sessions.
It also allows different computer based applications to operate on the same
network. For example BBC I Player includes a Twitter account, allowing people
to comment on programs they have watched.

The BBC has also worked with Microsoft and Inside secure to enable 'BBC I
Player' in launching mobile downloads toward current smart phone and tablet
Audiences require Wi-Fi connections on a plane/train. Mobile downloads do
not require a Wi-Fi connection and download many programs onto the
device, which can be stored for 30 days and when played, can be watched for
seven more days.
This demonstrates innovative collaboration with different media companies,
as many ages commonly use tablets and can watch content where and when
ever they wish.
Film based technologies
Motion capture, 48-frame
rate and 3D technology
have become more
currently used in todays
films. One notable example
is ' The Hobbit: An
unexpected journey'.
Motion capture has
significantly developed
with more marker tracks
placed around the actors facial features. For example 'Gollum' had extra
markers placed around his eyes, to allow more
expression. Software used in creating the digital character included a wider
variety of facial controls, to enable the actor (Andy Serkis) to
convey a bigger range of facial expressions.
Software for creating the digital character 'Gollum'
enabled the rise of a tissue system, which the animators
used to stimulate the digitally created skeletal and muscle
systems. This applied changes in the shape of different skin
areas. For example, if Gollums hand were clenched tightly, the exterior skin
would suddenly show crease markings
around the fingers or hands.
The use of 48 frames per second
'Gollum' to have more fidelity, when he
quickly, or quivering
audiences to easily process his

allowed scenes with

was speaking
angrily, enabling

The use of both motion capture and the 48-frame rate has helped make

Gollum's presence seem more real.

However, some audiences have commented the 48-frame rate made scenes
too realistic.
Films and fictional T.V programs usually have the intention to create a
separate world from ours, which we can escape to. If the frame rate is much
too similar to how we see everyday life, the so-called 'escapism', audiences
rely on, is broken, as the smooth frame rate can resemble everyday life,
which they are already used to.
48 frames per second is more acceptable in 'sports' programs, which give
audiences the opportunity to view events, they cannot go to in real life (I.e. a
football stadium). The 48-frame rate makes sport programs have a smooth
realistic movement. In addition to high definition (e.g. 4K resolution) and
Wide screen T.Vs, audiences would feel like they are actually witnessing a
football match, in person.
3.D technology is mainly used in films and programs, incorporating a lot of
action. For example, Disneys 'Big Hero' six uses intense scenes where
characters are flying over skyscrapers, giving more audience appeal, as they
feel like the characters are flying out of the screen, or that the audience is
part of the action. Therefore, 3.D should be used for films/T.V programs
incorporating sequences, with a high amount of action and unbelievable
scenarios (e.g. being onto of a sky scraper).
3.D would not be suitable for genres excluding action (e.g. East enders/The
Railway Man), as nothing visually extravagant happens. Audiences would
receive no extra appeal from watching it in 3.D, as there is nothing
worthwhile in the content, which captivating enough, to make audiences
wanting to be part of the scene.

Technologies likely to appear in five years time

Voice command applications may be incorporated into later T.V systems,

enabling the consumer to not have to press the remote.
Eventually, interactive films or T.V programs may even be made, involving
audiences being able to move their heads, moving the scene on screen too.
Additionally, satellite and Internet protocol T.V may ally to form high-speed
access and more reliable networks.

Piracy is a big issue, as streaming media enables poor quality films/T.V

programs to be downloaded and shared on different websites for online users
to share among others.
Entertainment industries and the ISP (Internet Service Provider) have
attempted to inform people suspected of downloading films illegally, using a
4 letter warning system.
They will start as educationally
informative and state possible measures taken.
Unfortunately, no official legal action can be taken and customers may not
show a lot of awareness, as streaming is so common in todays society.
However, on demand services, such as Netflix offer a variety of programs
and films from industries, all into one service.
'Netflix' include content exclusive to their channel. For example, 'Better Call
Saul', a spin of to the popular 'Breaking Bad series' was recently put onto
'Netflix'. Fans of 'Breaking Bad' will want to
watch it, but may turn to streamed episodes,
due to them being free.
A temporary free preview of Netflix is
allocated for anyone to try the service out.
Thus seeing the beneficial sides without a
charge. Thus, they will see it to be more
convenient to purchase services like 'Netflix',
rather than streamed films/programs online,
which produce poor quality and pauses in
between the film. Netflix though simply
involves pressing play and watching without
buffering interruptions.
According to the Chief Content Officer of Netflix Ted Sarandos, Internet
Service Providers have found several decreases in Bit Torrent traffic (sharing
of digital media files) each time Netflix became launched into a new territory.
From this, we can see that online streaming devices such as Netflix offer
better and legal options to customers. From this, people have less reason to
illegally download films/programs online.
In five years time, it may be likely that future programs and films may
become only exclusive to on demand/internet T.V services, like 'Netflix', This
will allow audiences to receive better quality films and media industries to
earn their rightfully earned profit.

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