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Perspectives on curriculum development / curriculum delivery model

Content

Ralph Tyler

Theorist
Curriculum is:

Consist of

Focus

Emphasize -

Education is seen as:

Learners
expectanci
es

Evaluation

Outcome/
Product

Process

Praxis

-Ralph Tyler,
Nicholls and
-Lester Frank
-Franklin Bobbit
Nicholls
In a linear fashion - Based on
- Interrelated and
- Is considered
and following a
assumption that
interactive.
a
fixed sequence
knowledge is
development
negotiable, and that
of the process
the study of certain
curriculum
bodies of knowledge
as the main focus of
education
State objectives
- Formulating
- Situation analysis,
- Aims goals
,select relevant
objectives, selecting
selection of
and objectives
objectives
content ,specifying
objectives, selection
,content
,organise learning
teaching and
and organisation of
,learning
experiences and
learning strategies
content , selection
activities,
evaluation.
and specifying
and organisation of
instructional
learning assessment
teaching methods
evaluation,
strategies
and evaluation.
situation
analysis
Curriculum
- The acquisition of
- Meaningfulness of
- Dynamic of
organisation.
skills and
the learning
learning
Objectives driven
understanding that
experience.
through
are required for
learning
modern ways of life
discovery
should be the focal
,dialogue and
point of learning and
critical
teaching.
reflection
Content to be
- Product.
- Interaction of a
- Human
transmitted.
teacher student
emancipation
and knowledge.
Social
Stated hierarchy
- Subjects and
- Involving the
process and
of objectives
disciplines.
structure of the
learning
curriculum and that
the social context of climate
characterized
a curriculum has
been acknowledged. by dialogue.
- Intellectua
Planned to ensure - Interdependant
- interdependent
l responses
that step by step
to the
procedures are
actions.
followed to effect
- Dialog and
learning.
negotiation
Demonstrate
competencies
-Reciprocally
Open to
- Continuous
- Continuous
related and
measurement so
evaluation and use
assessment

Purpose

Known as
Dangers

that learning can


of pre-set criteria to
be quantified.
assess if a learner
- Involves observing has acquired certain
changes in
skills.
behaviour in a
student.
- To change
- To equip the
- To ensure that the
behaviour of
learners with
curriculum is
learners and equip necessary skills to
relevant to the
them with
function in the
society.
knowledge and
society.
skills required to
cope with the
rapidly changing
technological
world.
- Linear-prescriptive - Outcome based
- Cyclic curriculum
curriculum
curriculum
Allows little scope -It disregard the
-Time consuming
for creativity.
fact that curriculum and expensive to
-Curriculum
has philosophical
implement.
content is viewed foundations
in isolation

intergrated
into process

-To contribute
the
emancipation
of learners
and the
development
of their
abilities to
shape their
own destinies
Emancipatory
curriculum
-No emphasis
is put upon
context.