AP Calculus Goals 3.1 to 3.7 and 3.9

# SECTION 3.

1: EXTREMA ON AN INTERVAL

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of Extrema on an Interval, and be able to distinguish between absolute maxima and minima Apply the Extreme Value Theorem to a closed interval State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of Relative Extrema, and be able to distinguish between relative maxima and minima Visually identify on a graph where relative extrema exist (at cusps, nodes, “hills” or “valleys”) State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of a Critical Number Apply the definition of Critical Number to specific functions, in order to locate potential extrema on an interval

Determine extrema on a closed interval by evaluating all critical numbers and both endpoints in the original function

Analyze non-equation based graphs for presence of relative and absolute extrema

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc

SECTION 3.2: ROLLE’S THEOREM AND MEAN VALUE THEORM

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
State symbolically, understand and apply Rolle’s Theorem State symbolically, understand and apply the Mean Value Theorem Recognize the inherent fact that Rolle’s is a Corollary of (special instance of) the Mean Value Theorem – and how and why this is the case.

SECTION 3.3: INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS AND THE FIRST DERIVATIVE TEST

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of and increasing or increasing function on an interval Apply the first derivative to a function as a test to whether it is increasing, decreasing or constant on a closed interval

Set up a number line for f ′ , place critical numbers and domain restrictions on it, and test intervals for + or – (increasing or decreasing)

Understand and apply the First Derivative Test, in locating relative maxima and minima
Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00 28675813.doc

SECTION 3.4: CONCAVITY AND THE SECOND DERIVATIVE TEST

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
Define Concavity based on the increasing/decreasing nature on the first derivative Visually identify portions of a graph which display upward or downward concavity Apply the second derivative as a test for concavity

′ Set up a number line for f ′ , place critical numbers (PPI’s) and domain restrictions on it, and test intervals for + or – (upward or downward concavity for f )

Define, understand, identify and algebraically locate Points of Inflection Connect the analogous concepts of Critical Number for the first derivative to Possible Point of Inflection for the second derivative

Understand and apply the Second Derivative Test, in locating relative maxima and minima

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc

SECTION 3.5: LIMITS AT INFINITY

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of a Limit at Infinity State symbolically, understand and apply the definition of a Horizontal Asymptote Apply a limit at infinity to various rational functions Understand when an indeterminate form exists

Recognize when it is appropriate to use L’Hôpital’s Rule, and how to apply it (Section 8.7)

Apply limits at infinity to trigonometric functions

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc

SECTION 3.6: A SUMMARY OF CURVE SKETCHING

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
Synthesize the complete set of Algebraic and Calculus concepts to produce an accurate sketch of a curve

Locate y-intercepts by setting x = 0, and locate x-intercepts by setting y = 0

Utilize the concept of symmetry for even or odd functions whenever appropriate Establish the correct domain and range of a function Locate any discontinuities, and intervals of continuity

Locate any Vertical, Horizontal or Slant Asymptotes

Determine non-differentiable points, and intervals of differentiability Identify increasing/decreasing intervals Identify Relative extrema

Identify intervals of concavity and points of inflection

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc

SECTION 3.7: OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:
Recognize and explain the importance of optimization in multiple real-world contexts Set up a “Primary Equation”, which will be maximized, and do so in a variety of problem contexts Develop a “Secondary Equation”, which will allow for the establishment of the Primary Equation in terms of 1 variable Observe feasible domain restrictions Locate possible optimal values for the Primary Equation, by utilizing the concepts of relative extrema

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc

SECTION 3.9: DIFFERENTIALS

Goals: The Student Will Be Able To:

Understand that Calculus can be used to create a tangent line approximation to a function at a specific point (c, f(c)) in the general form: also known as
y = f (c ) + f ′(c )( x − c )

y − f (c) = f ′(c)( x − c )

 Understand and appreciate the somewhat controversial overall concept of LOCAL LINEARITY

Understand what a differential is derivative
dy dx

( ) and write a derivative in differential form.

( dy ) and

how it is different from a

Interconnect the seemingly disparate algebraic expressions:
y − f (c ) = f ′(c)( x − c )

- Linear Approximation Formula Point Slope Form

y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) f ′( x ) = dy dx

- Two alternate symbolic ways to write a derivative Algebra Slope

m=

y2 − y1 ∆y f (b) − f (a ) f ( x + ∆x) − f ( x ) = = = x2 − x1 ∆x b−a ∆x
dy = f ′( x )dx

- Differential form of a derivative - The “real” change in y approximated by dy

∆y = f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x ) ≈ f ′( x )dx

Use differentials to approximate a function value. Use the concept that f ( x + ∆x) ≈ f ( x) + f ′( x)dx

Created on 29/11/2007 16:55:00

28675813.doc