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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.

:
z Ancient India
z Medieval India
z Modern India

Chapter 1

History of India
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ANCIENT INDIA
History is a record of time. Ages have come and brought with them their foundations and ruins. The
study of Ancient India begins with the study of the Stone Age.

1. Stone Age
The Stone Age or the stages of early man can be classified into

Paleolithic Age – This period was essentially the stage of hunters and food gatherers. They
used crude tools made of flakes. They had no knowledge of cultivation and house building.
Goat, sheep & other cattle were used. They lived on roots & fruits. By the end of the Paleolithic
Age, the flint industry came up. The important development of this age was the emergence of
Homo-Sapiens.

Mesolithic Age – This age was the transition between the Paleolithic & the Neolithic Ages.
Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing & food gathering. At a later stage, they domesticated
animals. They used microlith - a small raw-stone tool.

Neolithic Age - These people used tools & implements of polished stone. They particularly used stone
axes. Parashurama became an important axe-wielding hero. Dwelling pits, ceramics, a variety of stone
& bone tools & a complete absence of microliths marked this age. Cattle, sheep & goat were
domesticated.

2. Indus Valley Civilization


The most important event of ancient Indian history was the development of Indus Valley Civilization.
This Civilization prospered on the Banks of river Indus. It extended from Jammu in the North to
Ahmednagar in the South, and covered various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have
been found in the excavation are:
• Kalibangan in Rajasthan
• Lothal in Gujarat
• Banwali in Haryana and
• Ropar in Punjab.

The Indus Valley Civilization existed between 2350 BC and 1750 BC. The main cities associated
with the civilization were Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. The main feature of this
civilization was Town Planning. They had great buildings, well-planned roads, cities and drainage
systems. Trade and agriculture were the main sources of livelihood for the people. People of the
Indus Valley were the first to produce cotton. Mother Goddess was the most important deity of
worship.

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3. Vedic Period
This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia
around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindukush Mountains. The period in
which they existed was between 1500-600 BC.

The Main Features of the Aryans were:


i) They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun, Fire and Water.
ii) Indra was an important deity for the Aryans.
iii) Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in 1000 BC.

The following religious books were written during this period

i) Vedas: These were their most sacred books.


(These are also the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization). They were four in
number, viz. :
a) Rig Veda – The oldest, and it contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni.
b) Sam Veda – It dealt with music.
c) Yajur Veda – It dealt with formulae, sacrifices and rituals.
d) Atharva Veda – It dealt with medicines.

ii) The Upanishads: They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in number.

4. Rise of Religions
The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period:

i) Buddhism - Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha, (who later came to
be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in
Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodhana. He went in search of
truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons
at Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P.

The main Buddhist teachings of the eight–fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts,
speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death),
ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists.

ii) Jainism - Initiated by Rishabha (a Kshatriya prince), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana
Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC at Bihar, and
attained perfect knowledge ‘Kaivalya’ after he became an ascetic at the age of 30. He became a
‘Jina’ (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar).

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The major teachings of Jainism were based on the Tri-ratna concept and the Tri-ratna concept
was based on
a) Right knowledge,
b) Right faith and
c) Right conduct.

5. Magadh Empire (6th Century BC - 4th Century BC)


Major dynasties of the Magadh Empire were:

i) Haryanka Dynasty - Bimbisara and Ajata Shatru laid the foundation of this dynasty in 684 BC.

ii) Shishunaga Dynasty - This dynasty was founded by Shishunag in 413 BC after defeating the
last king of the Haryanka dynasty.

iii) Nanda Dynasty – This dynasty was founded in 382 BC by Mahapadma Nanda.

6. Alexander’s Invasion of India


• Alexander, after establishing his Kingdom in present day Pakistan, crossed the river Indus and
invaded India.
• He defeated Porus, the then ruler of Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC and extended
his kingdom till India.
• He founded the city of Alexandria in present day Afghanistan.

7. The Age of Mauryas (321-198 BC)


• Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of Maurya Empire.
• Kautilya was in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and he had written the book titled
Arthashastra.
• Megasthenese was a Greek ambassador who came in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and
wrote the book titled ‘INDICA’.
• Ashoka (273-232 B.C.) was the important king of this dynasty.
• He fought the Kalinga war (261 BC) and after that war he adopted Buddhism.
• He was the first Indian king to talk directly to the people throughout his empire.
• The last king of Maurya empire Brihadratha was killed by his commander in chief
Pushyamitrasingha

8. Kushan Empire
The Kushan empire was started by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezi Confederation around 1st century
BC.

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• The Kushan Empire introduced the largest number of gold coins in India.
• Kanishka was most the important king of the empire. He started the Saka Era in 78 AD.
• His capital was at Pursushpura ( now Peshawar).
• He was responsible for organizing the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir.
• Both Gandhar and Mathura art forms developed during Kanishka’s reign.

9. Gupta Empire
It was founded by Chandragupta I (320-325 AD). He started the Gupta Era in 320 AD. Other
important kings of the Gupta empire were

i) Samudra Gupta (335-380 AD) He was known as the Napoleon of India. He was a great
exponent of Veena.

ii) Chandragupta II (380-412 AD) also known as Vikramaditya


• Chinese Pilgrim, Fa-hien came in his court.
• Aryabhatta and Kalidas were in the court of Chandragupta II. He was responsible for the start
of the Vikram Era.

iii) Kumaragupta I of this dynasty had constructed the Nalanda University (in present
day Bihar).

iv)Harshvardhana was the last important king of North India.


• His capital was at Kannauj.
• Hiuen-Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim came to his court.
• Harshcharita, a book on the life of Harshvardhana was written by Banabhata, who had also
written Kadambari.
• He was defeated by Pulshekin II of the Chalukya dynasty.

10. South Indian Dynasties

10.1 The Sathavanas


• This dynasty was founded by Simuka. (65 BC)
• Satakarni was an important king.
• They constructed many buddhist worshipping sites- the important ones being at Amaravati and
Nagarjuna Konda.
• They issued the maximum number of lead coins.

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• Sangam Literature relates primarily to Pandyan kingdom but also contains information about
Cholas and Cheras.
• Tolkkapiyam is the oldest book of Tamil grammar.

Three Major Southern Kingdoms

Famous Important
Kingdom Capital Emblem
Port King
Cholas Uraiyar Tiger Puhar Karikala

Cheras Vanji’ Karur Bow Tondi, Bandar Udiyanjeral

Pandyas Madurai Carp Korkai Nedunjdiyan

10.2 The Chalukyas (6th - 7th Century AD)


• Pulkeshin I bounded the Chalukya dynasty and established its capital at Vatapi.
• Pulkeshin II (609 AD - 642 AD) was the most important king.
• According to the Aihole inscriptions, he defeated Harshvardhana on the banks of river Narmada
in 619 AD.
• Narasimharaman I defeated and killed Pulkeshin II and captured Vadani.
• Most of the Buddhist cover at Ajanta and Ellora was structured during the reign of the
Chalukyas.
• Aihole was the temple town of this period.

10.3 The Pallavas (560 AD – 903 AD)


• The Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavishnu in 560 AD.
• Their Capital was at Kanch.
• Mahendranarman I was defeated by Pulkeshin II.
• Narasimhavarma I was the greatest king, and because he defeated Pulkeshin II and captured
Badan, he was known as Vatapi-Konda.
• Narshimhavarma II constructed the shore temple of Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath Temple
of Kanchi.
• He was also a worshipper of Vishnu. He built the Vaikunthaperumal Temple at Kanchi.
• Aparajita Pallav was the last ruler and was defeated by Aditya Chola.

Administrative Units of the Pallavas Names of the Chiefs


Mandal (Province) Rastrik
Nadu (District) Deshatric
Village (Kottam - Group of Villages) Gram Bhojak

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10.4 The Rashtrakutas


Founded by Dantedurga in Deccan, their capital was located at Manyakhet or Malkhed. Greatest
kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were:
i) Govind III (796 AD - 814 AD)
ii) Amoghavarha I (814 AD - 978 AD) - He had written the first Kannada book - ‘Kabirajamarga.’
and Ratnamalika in Kannada.
iii) Kailash I built the Kailash Temple at Ellora (in 9th century).

Administrative Units of the Rashtrakutas


Rashtras - the provinces
Visaya - the districts
Bhukti - the villages

10.5 The Cholas (850 -1200 AD)


• The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya in 850 AD.
• Early capital was situated at Uraiyar.
• Later the capital was shifted to Tanjore.
• Raja Raja I (985 AD - 1014 AD) was an important king.
- He constructed the Siva Temple at Tanjore which is also famous as Raja Rajeshvar Temple.
• Rajendra I (1014 AD- 1044AD) was called the Napolean of South India.
• The Cholas were famous for naxal power and for their village administration.

Administrative Units of the Cholas


• Mandlam the provinces
• Valanadusnadus the districts
• Taniyur the large villages
• The Village Assembly was constituted of
Urs- the assembly of common people.
Abha - the assembly of brahmins.
Nagaram - the assembly of merchants.

MEDIEVAL INDIA
It is marked by the beginning of the Sultanate of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of
Muhammad Ghori. The period of the Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. It is also considered
as the beginning of Muslim rule in India.

Important Dynasties
1. The Slave Dynasty period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutab–ud-din Aibak
whose capital was at Lahore. He started the Persian festival of ‘NAVROZ’ in India. The Qutub

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Minar at Delhi was also built by Qutab–ud-din Aibak. Later Iltutmish got three more stories
added to the Minar. Razia Sultana, the only woman ruler of India, and Balban were the important
rulers of the Slave Dynasty.

2. The Khilji Dynasty was founded by Jalal-ud-din Khilji and its period ranges
from AD 1290-1320. Ala-ud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty.
He started branding of horses and constructed Siri Fort at Delhi and Alai Darwaja near
Qutub Minar.

3. The Tughlak dynasty was founded by Ghiasuddin Tughlak and the period ranges
from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Batuta was an important African traveller who visited India in 1333.
Feroz Shah Tughlak was another important king and he constructed many tombs.
Mohammed-Bin-Tughlak introduced coins of brass and copper.

4. The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of this dynasty ranges
from AD 1451–1526. Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers
belonging to this dynasty. Sikander established Agra City and transferred his capital from
Agra to Delhi.

5. Mughal Dynasty (AD 1526-1857)

5.1 Babar - He is credited with the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi
in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. His tomb is built at Kabul, and his autobiography
Baburnama is written in Turkish.

5.2 Humayun - He was the next emperor of the Mughal empire after Babur. His tomb is in Delhi,
his biography Humayunama was written by Guladan Begum.

5.3 Akbar - He was the most successful Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated
religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi. He established Fatehpur Sikri and
Buland Darwaja near Agra. He abolished the Jazia Tax. Bairam Khan, Akbar’s General, fought the
Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 & defeated Hemu. Two important books Akbarnama and
Ain-e-Akbari were written during Akbar’s tenure by Abul Fazal. His tomb is built at Sikandara
near Agra.

5.4 Jehangir - The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar’s death, known for his
administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of Noor Jahan Begum and had
built Shalimar and Nishant Bagh. His autobiography is Tuzk-e-Jahangiri and his tomb is
built at Lahore.

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5.5 Shahjahan - Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built the Taj Mahal at Agra, in the
memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Jama Masjid and Red Fort are the other two famous
monuments that were built by him. He had transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi.

5.6 Aurangzeb - A very cruel ruler and son of Shahjahan, who demolished several religious
structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. He constructed the ‘Moti Masjid’ in the Red
Fort at Delhi and ‘Bibi ka Makbara’ at Aurangabad.

5.7 Sher Shah Suri (1540-1555) - He was a brilliant administrator who issued the Rupiah and
Paisa coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. He constructed
the Old Fort of Delhi.

The Mughal empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took with him the famous
Kohinoor Diamond to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the
leadership of Shivaji.

MODERN INDIA

Coming of the Europeans


• Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498 and he belonged to Portugal. So
Portugal was the first European country to start trade with India.
• The East India Company (EIC) of England came to India in 1602.
• The first officer of the EIC, Captain Hawkins came to India in 1608 in the court of Jahangir,
the then ruler of India.
• The EIC established its first factory at Surat in 1613.
• The first English Ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, came to India in 1615 in the court
of Jahangir.

Important Battles of Modern India

i) Battle of Plassey (1757)


Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal was defeated by the East India Co., under the leadership
of Lord Clive, the first governor of Bengal. It is also known as the Black Hole Episode of the
Indian history.

ii) Battle of Wandiwash (1760)


It was the decisive battle fought between the English and the French. The French rule in India
came to an end.

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iii) Battle of Buxar (1764)


The joint army of Mir Quasim, former Nawab of Bengal Suja-ud-Daulah, Nawab of
Awadh and Shah Alam II was defeated by the English army under the leadership of
Captain Hector Munro.

The Regulating Act (1773)


In1773, the British Parliament initiated a series of administrative and economic reforms in
India. The post of Governor General for Bengal was created. Warren Hastings became the
first Governor General of Bengal. The Governor General and his council had all the legislative
powers. Supreme Court was established at Calcutta and Sir Elijah Impey became the Chief
Justice of India.

Governor Generals of India (1774 - 1858)

1. Warren Hastings (1774 - 1785)


Warren Hastings was the first Governor General of India. The foundation of the British empire
was laid down by Lord Clive (first Governor of Bengal) and Warren Hastings consolidated it.

2. Lord Cornwallis (1786 - 1793)


Lord Cornwallis is known as the father of Indian Civil Services. He introduced the system of the
Permanent Settlement, also called the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, in 1703. It was an agreement
between East India Company and the Bengali landlords (zamindars) for effective agricultural
methods and productivity in the empire.

3. Lord Wellesely (1797 - 1805)


Lord Wellesely adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance. He established the Fort William College
at Calcutta.

4. Lord William Bentinck (1828 - 1835)


Lord William Bentinck was a famous social reformer. He abolished the Sati system in 1829. He
introduced engineering education in India.

5. Lord Dalhousie (1845 - 1856)


Lord Dalhousie laid the foundation of railways in India. The first railway line was laid
between Bombay and Thane and began operating in 1853. He also started the first telegram
line in India between Agra and Calcutta. He introduced the Widow Remarriage Act, opened
post offices throughout India, established the Public Works Department, and introduced
The Doctrine of Lapse.

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Viceroys of India

1. Lord Cunning (1858 - 1862)


Lord Cunning was the first Viceroy of India. He abolished The Doctrine of Lapse and also established
three major Indian universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.

2. Lord Litton (1876 - 1880)


Lord Litton introduced The Vernacular Press Act, to curb the freedom of Indian Press.

3. Lord Rippon (1880 - 1884)


Lord Rippon was known as the father of Local Self Government. He started census for the
first time in India in 1881.He abolished The Vernacular Press Act and introduced Illbert Bill.

4. Lord Curzon (1899 - 1904)


Lord Curzon was responsible for the partition of Bengal and Bengal was divided into East and
West Bengal in 1905. He passed Indian University Act in 1904 and also passed The Indian
Monuments Act.

5. Lord Minto (1905 -1910)


During his tenure there was great unrest in India because of the the Indian Council Act or the
Minto Morley reforms passed in 1909.

6. Lord Hardinge (1910 - 1916)


During his tenure a Durbar was held at Delhi in 1911 to greet the King of England, George V.
Bengal was unified and Delhi was made the capital in place of Calcutta in 1911.

7. Lord Chelmsford (1916 - 1921)


Under Lord Chelmsford, The Government of India Act of 1919, popularly know as Montague-
Chelmsford reform was passed. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April 1919.
Rowlatt Act, also called the Black Bill, was passed in 1919. The Non - Cooperation movement
started in the year 1919.

8. Lord Reading (1921 - 1925)


The visit of the Duke of Connaught and the Prince of Wales to India was boycotted under Lord Reading.

9. Lord Irwin (1926 - 1931)


During Lord Irwin’s reign, the Simon commission visited India in 1928. Civil Disobedience
movement was started in India by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi - Irwin pact was signed in 1931. The
First Round Table Conference was held at London.

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10. Lord Willingdon (1931 - 1936)


Under Lord Willingdon, the second and third round table conferences were held at London. The
Poona pact was signed between Dr. B R Ambedker and Mahatma Gandhi.

11. Lord Linlithgow (1936 - 1943)


Under him elections were held for the first time in 11 Indian states. Congress ministries were
formed in eight out of 11 provisions but subsequently resigned because India was being dragged
into the Second World War.

12. Lord Wavell (1943 - 1947)


Under him the Cabinet Mission came to India from London. The first meeting of the Constituent
Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946.

13. Lord Mountbatten (March 13, 1947 to 14 August 1947)


Under him an act for Indian independence was passed by British Parliament. He was the last
British Governor General of independent India.

Presidents of Indian National Congress (Important Sessions)

Session No. Year Place President


1 1885 Bombay W C Bannerjee
3 1887 Madras BadurddinTyabji
4 1888 Allahabad George Yule
9 1893 Lahore Dadabhai Naoroji
21 1905 Banaras G K Gokhale
22 1906 Kolkata Dadabhai Naoroji
23 1907 Surat Dr Rash Behari Ghosh
33 1917 Kolkata Mrs.Annie Besant
35 1918 Delhi (Annual Session) M M Malyviya
36 1919 Amritsar Lala Lajpat Rai
57 1939 Tripura S C Bose

Important Milestones of Modern India

Event Year Related Facts

First War of Independence 1857 Mangal Pandey was a prominent figure. He killed
two British sepoys at Barrackpore.

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Government of India Act 1858 Direct governance of British Crown over India.

Formation of Indian National 1885 A. O. Hume was the founder. W.C. Banerjee was
Congress the first president of Indian National Congress.

Partition of Bengal 1905 Bengal was divided on the basis of religion.

Swadeshi Movement 1905 Indian National Congress adopted a resolution on


7th August 1905 to boycott all foreign goods.

Formation of Muslim League 1906 Founded by Aga Khan and Salimuddin at Dhaka.

Morley–Minto Reforms 1909 Under these reforms, a separate electorate was


made for Muslims during the leadership of Lord
Minto.

Home Rule Movement 1915-16 Annie Besant started the movement in September
1916.

Lucknow Pact 1916 Congress and Muslim League held their sessions
at Lucknow, which strengthened the Hindu–
Muslim unity.

Rowlatt Act 1919 It gave unstoppable powers to the government to


arrest and imprison suspects, without even having
a trial.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 1919 Because of firing, under the orders of General
O ’ D y e r, m a n y p e o p l e w e r e k i l l e d , w h i l e
attending a public meeting at Jallianwala Bagh
in Amritsar.

Khilafat Movement 1920 This was an anti–British movement started by two


brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali.

Non-Cooperation Movement 1920 Gandhiji pioneered the movement which included


the boycott of foreign goods and refusing
government work.

Simon Commission 1927 For assessing the extent of forming a


representative government in India, Britishers
sent Simon Commission which was furiously
boycotted by Indians and Lala Lajpat Rai ( a
Prominent Indian leader) who died due to lathi

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charge in a procession against the


commission.

Dandi March (Salt Satyagraha) 1930 Gandhiji marched from his Sabarmati Ashram,
which was basically a form of protest against
t h e t a x o n s a l t i mp o s e d b y t h e B r i t i s h
Government.

Government of India Act 1935 Passed on the basis of the Simon Commission
report, it envisaged the structure of the
government under the direct governance of the
‘British Crown’.

Quit India Movement 1942 Mahatma Gandhi led this movement and asked the
Britishers to leave India.

Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 This envisaged forming an interim government in


India

Formation of the Constituent 1946 Without the Muslim league’s participation under
Assembly the Assembly predisency of Dr. Rajendra Prasad,
the Constituent Assembly was formed.

Partition of India 1947 Indian Independence Act of 1947 was responsible


for the partition of India.

Constitution Enforcement 1950 The Constitution came into force on 26th Jan, 1950.

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z World Wars
z Major Revolutions
z The Great Depression

Chapter 2

History of The World


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THE WORLD WARS

World War I (Aug 14, 1914 to Nov 11, 1919)

Major Participants
1. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey formed a group known as the Central powers.
2 . England, France, Belgium and Serbia later joined by Russia and Italy, were known as the
Allied powers.

Causes of War
The First World War was a consequence of
1. Archduke of Austria, Francis Ferdinand was assassinated,
2. Austria initiated a war against Serbia, and
3. Russia mobilized its forces against Austria-Hungary.

Outcome
The Allied forces won the war, Treaty of Versailles was signed, which curbed the power of the
German Empire and led to the creation of many new countries in Eastern Europe.

World War II (1939 to 1945)

Major Participants
1. Allied Powers - Britain, Russia, USA, and France.
2. Axis Powers (central powers) - Germany, Italy and Japan.

Causes of War
The Second World War was a consequence of
1. Rise of the Nazi party in Germany.
2. Treaty of Versailles which was against Germany.
3. The expansion policy of Japan.

Outcome
The Allied forces won the war and Germany was divided into two parts. Russia and the US

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became the biggest powers in the World. The end of war led to the Cold War amongst the
industrialised countries.

The Cold War (1947-1991)


The Cold War refers to the period of geopolitical and economic struggle that emerged after the
World War II between the US and its allies and Russia and its allies. The phase lasted from
1947 till the division of erstwhile Soviet Union in 1991. This stage was referred to as the Cold
War because members of both the blocs were faced with a fear of hostile attack from its
enemies. The era of cold war led to a large scale development of weapons including nuclear
weapons. It also led to economic warfare and trade embargoes between nations. Japan had
full support of the US and Russia supported all the erstwhile Soviet Union members. The war
finally came to an end in 1991 with the dissolution of Warsaw Pact which led to the division of
the Soviet Union.

MAJOR REVOLUTIONS

I. The Russian Revolution (1917)


The main cause of the Russian Revolution was the autocratic rule of the Czars. This revolution led
to the establishment of the rule of Lenin in Russia. In this way Russia became the first communist
state of the World.

II.French Revolution (1789 - 1793)


The autocratic rule of the king of France led the country to financial bankruptcy. The philosophers
and intellectuals inspired the people of France to change the face of the society. “Liberty, Equality
and Fraternity” became the slogan of the revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as a great
military general of France.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

The worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted till the late 1930’s. It was the most
severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized economies of the West, which brought about
drastic changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policies, and economic theory. The depression
started in the United States, but caused drastic decline in output, severe unemployment, and acute

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deflation in almost every country of the world. The social and cultural effects of the downturn were no
less staggering, especially in the United States, where the harshest effects of the depression were felt
after the Civil War.

The worst hit were the United States and Europe while milder impacts of the depression were felt in
Asia, especially Japan and the South Americas.

The worst depression faced by the World economy was a consequence of decline in consumer demand,
financial panic, and misguided government policies that caused economic output to fall in the United
States. The gold standard, which was used to fix currency exchange rates between the countries,
played a key role in transmitting the economic downturn to countries other than the United States. The
recovery from the Great Depression was spurred largely by the abandonment of the gold standard and
the ensuing monetary expansion. The economic impact of the Great Depression was enormous, including
both extreme human suffering and profound changes in economic policy .

End of Chapter

18 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The Structure of the Earth
z The Shape and Composition of the Earth
z The Internal Structure of the Earth
z Important Geographical Terms

Chapter 3

Structure of the Earth


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THE EARTH
Earth is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest in
size. It is also the largest amongst its planetary system’s terrestrial planets, making it the largest solid
body in the solar system, and it is the only planet in the universe known to support life. The Earth was
formed around 4.57 billion years ago and its largest natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly
thereafter, around 4.533 billion years ago.

Since it’s formation, the Earth has changed through geological and biological processes that have
hidden traces of the original conditions. The outer space is divided into several tectonic plates that
gradually migrate across the surface over geologic time spans. The interior of the planet remains
active, with a thick layer of convecting yet solid Earth mantle and an iron core that generates a magnetic
field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which
create an ecological balance that modifies the surface conditions. About 71% of the surface is covered
in water in the form of oceans, seas, and other water bodies and the remainder majorly consists of land
masses in the form of continents and islands.

There is significant interaction between the Earth and its space environment. The relatively
large moon leads to ocean tides and has gradually modified the length of the planet’s rotation
period. A cometary bombardment during the early history of the planet is believed to have
played a role in the formation of the oceans. Later, asteriod impacts are understood to have
caused significant changes to the surface environment. The changes in the orbit of the planet
are also attributed to the ice age, in which significant portions of the surface were covered in
glacial sheets.

THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH


The Earth’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid, with an average diameter of approximately 12,742 km
(~ 40,000 km /π). The rotation of the Earth causes the equator to bulge out slightly so that the equatorial
diameter is 43 km larger than the pole to pole diameter.

THE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH


The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98 ×10 24 kg. Most of it forms iron (35.1%), oxygen
(28.2%), silicon (17.2%), magnesium (15.9%), nickel (1.6%), calcium (1.6%) and
aluminum (1.5%).

THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH


The interior of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is chemically divided into layers. The
Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less

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viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. The geologic component layers of the Earth are at the
following depths below the surface :

Depth ( Kilometers) Layer

0–35 Crust (locally varies between and 70 km)

35–60 Uppermost part of the Mantle

35–2890 Mantle

2890–5100 Outer Core

5100–6378 Inner Core

1. Earth’s Hydrosphere
The abundance of water on Earth is a unique feature that distinguishes ‘The Blue Planet’ from the
other planets in the Solar System. Approximately, 71% of the Earth is covered by water and only
29% is solid land.

The Earth’s hydrosphere mainly consists of oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in
the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters. The average depth of the
oceans is 3,794 m (12,447 ft), more than five times the average height of the continents.

2. Earth’s Atmosphere
The Earth’s atmosphere has no definite boundary, and is slowly becoming thinner and fading into
outer space. Three-quarters of the atmosphere’s mass is contained within the first 11 kms of the
planet’s surface. This lowest layer is called the Troposphere. Further up, the atmosphere is usually
divided into the Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere. An important part of the atmosphere
for life on Earth is the Ozone layer.

The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages at 101.325 KPa (Kilo Pascal), with
a scale height of about 6 kms. Its composition is 78.09 % nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon
and 0.03% minor gases and vapors. The atmosphere protects the Earth’s life forms by absorbing
ultraviolet solar radiation, moderating temperature, transporting water vapor, and providing useful
gases. The atmosphere is one of the principal components determining weather and climate.

The Atmospheric Layers

1. Troposphere - The Troposphere is the lowermost portion of the Earth’s atmosphere extending
up to a height of 15 kms (at tropics) and 8 kms (at poles). It is the densest layer of the

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atmosphere and contains approximately 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all the
water vapor and particulate matter. The Troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere
and is that part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena are seen. The Troposphere
extends from the Earth’s surface up to the tropopause where the Stratosphere begins.

2. Stratosphere - The Stratosphere is situated between about 10 kms and 50 kms above
surface at tropics, while at the poles it starts at a height of about 8 kms. The Stratosphere sits
directly above the Troposphere and directly below the Mesosphere.The Stratosphere is layered
in temperature because it is heated from above by absorption of ultraviolet radiation from the
Sun. Within this layer, the temperature increases as the altitude increases; the top of the
Stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 Kelvin; about the same as the ground level
temperature. This top is called the Stratopause, above which temperature again decreases
with height.

3. Mesosphere - The Mesosphere is directly above the Stratosphere and directly below the
Ionosphere. The Mesosphere is located about 50-80 kms above the Earth’s surface. Within this
layer, the temperature decreases with increasing altitude. Since it lies between the maximum altitude
for most aircrafts and the minimum altitude for most spacecrafts, this region of the atmosphere is
only directly accessible through the use of sounding rockets. As a result, this region is one of the
most poorly understood in the atmosphere.

4. Ionosphere – This layer lies between the Mesosphere and the outermost layer of the atmosphere,
the Exosphere. It extends from 80-500 kms above the earths surface. The middle layer of the
region is called Thermosphere where the temperature is above 100 degress celcius. Within this
layer, the ultraviolet radiation causes ionization.

5. Exosphere - The Exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. On Earth, its
lower boundary (exobase), at the edge of the thermosphere is estimated to be 500-1000
kms above the Earth’s surface, and its upper boundary at about 10,000 kms. It is only from
the Exosphere that the atmospheric gases, atoms, and molecules can, to any appreciable
extent, escape into outer space. The main gases within the Exosphere are the lightest gases,
mainly hydrogen and helium, with some oxygen near the exobase. The atmosphere in this
layer is sufficiently rarefied for satellites to orbit the Earth, although they still receive some
atmospheric drag.

KINDS OF ROCKS
Rocks are naturally occuring aggregate of minerals. The Earth’s crust and mantle are formed of
rocks. The study of rocks is called Petrology. Rocks are classified by their mineral and chemical

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composition, texture of the constituent particles and the process by which they are formed.
The transformation of one rock type to another through geographical process is called the
Rock Cycle.

Types of Rocks

i. Igneous Rocks – Igneous rocks are formed when the molten magma or lava slowly cools and
crystallises within the Earth’s crust. Examples of the Igneous rock are granite,basalt, etc.

ii. Sedimentary Rocks – Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of organic and non-
organic matter over a period of time. The process of deposition is called sedimentation. Commonly
known sedimentary rocks are coal, limestone, sandstone etc.

iii.Metamorphic Rocks – Pressure and change in temprature under the Earth’s surface cause
Igneous and Sedimentary rocks to undergo change. This change leads to the formation of
Metamorphic Rocks.

IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS

i. Latitude and Longitude - In order to locate a point on the face of the earth, we look at the
latitude and the longitude of the point. The latitude of a place is its angular distance, north or south
of the Equator as measured from the centre of the Earth. Latitudes are, therefore, lines drawn
parallel to the Equator which represents 0 degree latitude. They are marked up to 90 degrees to the
North and to the South of the Equator.

The longitudes show the angular distance of a point East or West of the Prime Meridian, which is
at 0 degrees passing through Greenwich near London. The meridians or longitudes are drawn,
joining the two poles through 360 divisions of the Equator. They are 180 degrees to the East and
180 degrees to the West of Greenwich.

Longitude is represented by imaginary lines extending from pole to pole and crossing all parallels
at right angles. These lines are called Meridians. They are farthest apart at the Equator, becoming
increasingly close together northward and southward and finally converging completely at the
poles. Among the latitudes, only the Equator is a great circle.

An imaginary line drawn through the centre of the Earth from the North Pole to South Pole is
called the Earth’s axis. The axis of the Earth is always tilted at an angle of 66½ to the plane of the

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ecliptic. The actual plane of the Earth’s movement around the Sun in space is called the plane of
ecliptic. The seasons occur because the earth is tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic. An
imaginary plane that passes through the Earth half-way between the poles and is perpendicular to
the axis of rotation is the plane of the Equator.

Some lines of latitude have significance. For example, the latitude of 0 degree is called the Equator,
while those of 23 1/2 degrees North and South of the Equator, are known as the Tropics of
Cancer and Capricorn, respectively . Similarly are the Arctic and the Antarctic circles, with latitudes
of 66 1/2 degrees North and South of the Equator respectively.

Earth’s axis is an imaginary line, which passes through the centre of the Earth. It spins round its
axis, which is always inclined at an angle of 66½ degrees to the plane of Earth’s orbit.

ii. International Date Line – It is the line that passes through 180 degrees East or West
meridian of longitude which falls on the opposite side of the Greenwich meridian. One day is
added when this line is crossed East to West and a day is deducted when the line passes West
to East.

iii.Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) – GMT refers to the 0 degree longitude that passes through
Greenwich near London.

iv. Indian Standard Time (IST) - IST refers to the 82 1/2 degree longitude that passes through
Allahabad and is 5 1/2 hours ahead of the GMT.

v. Solstice - It is the date on which the Sun shines vertically over a tropic when the days &
nights are the longest & the shortest. On the 22nd of June the sun shines vertically over the
Tropic of Cancer & this date is termed as Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere & Winter
Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, on December 22nd, the Sun shines vertically
over the Tropic of Capricorn. Hence it is Summer Solstice for Southern Hemisphere & Winter
Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere.

vi. Equinox - It means two days during the year when the day & night are almost equal throughout
the World because the Sun shines vertically over the Equator. March 21st is called the Vernal
Equinox & September 23rd is called the Autumnal Equinox.

vii. Equator - The Equator represents the imaginary line passing around the Earth midway between
the North & South poles. It divides the Earth into two equal parts.

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viii. Meridians - They represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map from pole to
pole & perpendicular to the Equator. Prime Meridian is the 0 degree meridian, which passes
through Greenwich, a place near London.

ix. Aphelion - Aphelion refers to that position of the Earth in its orbit, when it is at the greatest
distance from the Sun (about 152 million kms). The Earth reaches this position during the northern
summer. This term also refers to the position of any other planet or a comet, when it is at its
greatest distance from the Sun.

x. Perihelion - Perihelion refers to the nearest point of a heavenly body in its orbit around the
Sun. The Earth at perihelion is at a distance of about 147 million kms from the Sun.

xi. Apogee - Apogee refers to the position of the orbit of the moon when it is at its greatest
distance from Earth. This is approximately 406,000 kms for the Earth.

xii. Perigee - Perigee refers to the point of the moon when it is at its minimum distance from the
Earth. This distance is approximately 364,000 kms.

xiii. Cyclone - Any area of low pressure around which the air turns in the same direction as the
Earth is a cyclone. In the Indian Ocean, a tropical storm with masses of air turning rapidly round
a low pressure area is called a tropical cyclone.

xiv. Typhoon - It is the name given to a tropical cyclone in the Far East.

xv. Hurricane - It is a tropical storm in the Caribbean or West Pacific Ocean, with extremely
strong winds. The wind force reaches 12 on the Beaufort scale.

xvi. Tornado - It is a type of whirlwind which is formed by rising air currents associated with
large cumulonimbus clouds. It rotates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere
and in a clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

xvii. Estuary - It is the tidal mouth of a river where the salt water of the tide meets the fresh
water of the river current.

xviii. Isobars - Lines on the map denoting places experiencing equal pressure.

xix. Isobaths - Lines denoting equal depths in the Sea.

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xx. Isobronts - Lines joining places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time.

xxi. Isochrones - Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre.

xxii. Isogonics - Lines joining places with the same magnetic declination.

xxiii. Isorymes - Lines denoting places experiencing equal frost.

xxiv. Isoseismics - Lines denoting places experiencing equal seismic activity.

End of Chapter

26 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z India at a glance
z Indian Agriculture
z Major Rivers of India
z India’s Mineral Wealth
z Major Industries and Industrial Regions
z Important Monuments and Historical Sites
z States/Union Territories and Capital

Chapter 4

Geography of India
Temple of Learning

INDIA AT A GLANCE
India, the seventh largest country of the world, accounts for about 2.4% of the total world area. It is bounded
by the great Himalayas and other snowy mountains in the north. The country stretches southwards and at the
Tropic of Cancer, narrows down and ends into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the East and
the Arabian Sea on the West.

Location
India lies on the Northern Hemisphere between parallels of latitude 37o6’ and 8o4’ North and between the
Meridians of longitude 68o7’ E and 97o25’ East.

Dimensions
The land area covered by Indian mainland is 32, 87,780 Sq Kms. It measures about 3214 Kms from North to
South and 2933 Kms from East to West. The length of the Indian coastline is 7615 Kms. It is bounded by
Arabian Sea in the West, the Indian Ocean in the South and the Bay of Bengal in the East. The coastline of
India is not indented and the sea on the coast is not very deep. The Western coast is rocky while the Eastern
coast is shallow. Therefore, India does not have many good harbours. Only Mumbai and Goa are natural
harbours while all the other are artificial.

Population
India is the second largest country in the World in terms of population. According to the 2001 census, the
population of India was about 10270 crore (16.87% of the World population). The number of males in 2001
was 53.13 crore while the number of females was 49.57 crore. The density of population in India is about 324
persons per square km. The life expectancy is 64 years and the present literacy rate in 2005 was 65.38 percent.

Neighbours
To the North of the country lie China, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan, in the East the country is surrounded
by Myanmar and Bangladesh. Towards the West of India lies Pakistan and in the South, the Indian mainland
is surrounded by Sri Lanka.

INDIAN AGRICULTURE
India primarily has an agrarian economy. About 2/3rd of the population is engaged in agricuture and it provides
livelihood to about 54 percent of the population. About 47 percent of the total land area in India is under
agricultural cultivation. It is also the largest contributor to the national income, and contributes 26 percent to
the national income.

Major Soil Types


The major types of soil found in India are

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i. Alluvial Soil – Alluvial soil is formed due the deposition of particles such as silt, gravel and sand by
the rivers in the plains. It is the most fertile soil form found in India and is generally found in regions of
UP, Punjab, Bihar, Haryana and parts of West Bengal. This soil type facilitates the cultivation of cereals,
pulses, sugarcane and wheat.

ii. Black Soil - Also known as the cotton soil, this soil type is rich in iron, lime and alluminium. It
covers 30 percent of the total area of the country. Black soil is generally found in Madhya Pradesh,
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of cotton, wheat,
oil seeds and tobacco.

iii. Red Soil – This soil is red in colour because of the presence of Iron oxides. It is mainly found in
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Chattisgarh and facilitates the cultivation of wheat, millets,
potato and chillies.

iv. Laterite Soil – Laterite soil is highly leached and the least fertile soil type found in India. It is mainly
found in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of tea, coffee, and cashewnut.

RIVERS OF INDIA
There are four major river routes found in India. These are

1) Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers are snow fed and have water throughout the year.
During monsoon heavy rainfall in the Himalayan region causes frequent floods in these rivers. The
major Himalayan rivers are
• The Indus and its tributaries- Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.
• The Ganges and its tributaries- Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Sone, Ghagra, Gandak, Gomti etc.
• Brahmaputra and its tributaries.

2) Peninsular Rivers - The Peninsular rivers are only rain fed and fluctuate in volume and a large
number of streams dry up after monsoon. The major peninsular rivers are
• Mahanadi
• Krishna
• Kaveri
• Godavri
• Narmada
• Tapi (also known as Tapti)

3) Coastal Rivers - The coastal rivers, especially on the West Coast, are short and have limited catchment
areas. Most of these are non-perennial as well. River Periyar, Mithi River and River Mandovi are major
coastal rivers of India.

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4) Rivers of the inland drainage basin - The rivers on the inland drainage basin consists of those in
Western Rajasthan which are very few and short lived, like the Sambhar, which is lost in the desert
sands, and the Loni that drains into the Rann of Kutch.

Major River Projects

Name of the Project River

Bhakra Nangal Project Satluj

Damodar Valley Project Damodar

Farakka Barrage Project Ganga

Hirakund Dam Project Mahanadi

Nagarjunasagar Project Krishna

Tehri Dam Project Bhilangana, Bhagirathi

INDIA’S MINERAL WEALTH


India as a country is not one of the richest in the world but it does have certain basic and useful minerals such
as iron and coal. India is very rich in iron, coal, aluminium, limestone, manganese, titanium, thorium and mica
but does not have large reserves of mineral oil, sulphur, lead and tin.

India is the largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings, ranks third in the production
of coal, fourth in iron ore, sixth in bauxite & manganese ore, tenth in aluminium and eleventh in
crude steel.

1. Iron
Ranked fourth in the world in iron ore production, India has almost one-fourth of the world’s iron ore
reserves. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are major iron
bearing areas. Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Keonjhar, Bonai and Mayurbhanj (all Orissa) are areas with
richest iron deposits in the world. The major iron ore mines are at Chanda, Bastar and Durg districts
in Chhattisgarh.

2. Manganese
Ranked sixth in the world for production of manganese, India is a major exporter of manganese and
possesses one-third of the world’s reserves. It is an important mineral used for the production of steel.
A major portion of the deposits is found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and
Jammu & Kashmir.

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3. Mica
India’s is the world’s largest producer of Mica. The majority of this product (almost 60%) comes
from Jharkhand. Apart from Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major producers of
Mica in the country. Since the domestic consumption is not very large most of the Mica produce
is exported.

4. Coal
Ranked third in the production of coal, 80 per cent of the coal is extracted from the mines in West
Bengal and Jharkhand. Huge coal reserves exist in Rani Ganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand).
Other coal bearing areas are in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

5. Bauxite
Bauxite is an aluminium ore which is mainly found in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra
Pradesh and Gujarat. These are also the largest aluminium producing areas of the country.

Major Indian Industries and Industrial Regions


• Aircraft - Bangalore and Kanpur.
• Cement - Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Tamil Nadu.
• Cotton Textile - Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
• Glass - Firozabad, Jabalpur, Amritsar, Ambala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.
• Jute - West Bengal
• Leather - Kanpur, Batanagar, Dighaghat, Deonar, Chembur, Chennai, Agra, Coimbatore and Bangalore.
• Paper - Nepanagar, Pune, Saharanpur, Orissa, and Mumbai.
• Rail Engine and Coaches - Chittaranjan Locomotives Works at Chittaranjan, Diesel
Locomotives at Varanasi, Rail Coaches at Integral Coach Factory at Perambur and Rail Coach
Factory at Kapurthala.
• Silk - Karnataka, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir.
• Sugar - Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

IMPORTANT MONUMENTS/HISTORICAL SITES

Historical Site / Monument Location

Ajanta Caves Aurangabad

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Anand Bhawan Allahabad

Buland Darwaza Fatehpur Sikri near Agra

Char Minar Hyderabad

Dilwara Temples Mount Abu

Elephanta Caves Mumbai

Ellora Temples Aurangabad

Gol Gumbaz Bijapur

Golden temple Amritsar

Jama Masjid Delhi

Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu

Khajuraho Bhopal

Meenakshi Temple Madurai

Sabarmati Ahmedabad

Sanchi Stupa Madhya Pradesh

Shantiniketan Kolkata

Sarnath Varanasi

Victoria Memorial Kolkata

INDIAN STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES

States/Union Territories Capital Since Former Capital

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair 1956 —

Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 1972 —

Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad 1956 —

Assam Guwahati 1972 Shillong (1874-1972)

Bihar Patna 1936 —

Chhattisgarh Raipur 2000 —

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Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966 —

Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa 1961 —

Daman and Diu Daman 1987 —

Delhi (NCT) Delhi 1956 —

Goa Panaji 1961 —

Gujarat Gandhinagar 1970 Ahmedabad (1960-1970)

Haryana Chandigarh 1966 —

Himachal Pradesh Shimla 1948 —

Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer) 1948 —

Jammu (Winter)

Jharkhand Ranchi 2000 —

Karnataka Bengaluru 1956 —

Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 1956 Kochi (1949-1956)

Lakshadweep Kavaratti 1956 —

Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 1956 —

Maharashtra Mumbai 1960 —

Manipur Imphal 1947 —

Meghalaya Shillong 1970 —

Mizoram Aizawl 1972 —

Nagaland Kohima 1963 —

Orissa Bhubaneshwar 1948 Cuttack (1936-1948)

Puducherry Puducherry 1954 —

Punjab Chandigarh 1966 Lahore (1936-1947)

Shimla (1947-1966)

Rajasthan Jaipur 1948 —

Sikkim Gangtok 1975 —

Tamil Nadu Chennai 1956 —

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Tripura Agartala 1956 —

Uttaranchal Dehradun 2000 —

Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 1937 —

West Bengal Kolkata 1905 —

End of Chapter

34 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z Continents of the World z Countries and Parliaments
z The Largest and the Smallest z National Emblems of Countries
countries of the World z New Names of Countries, State and
z Seas and Oceans Cities
z Peaks of the World z Sobriquets
z Least and Most populous countries of z Famous International Boundaries
the World z International Days
z Countries, Capitals and Currenncies

Chapter 5

Geography of the World


Temple of Learning

CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD

Size Largest
Population Number of Tallest
Continents (Mn. Sq Major River Country (Area
(millions) Countries Mountain
km) Mn. Sq km)
Nile,
Africa 30 877.5 53 Mt. Kilimanjaro Sudan, 2.37
6825 km
Antarctica 13.2 — — Vinson Massif — —

Chang Jiang
Asia 44.5 3879 44 Mt. Everest (Yangtze), China, 9.32
6380 km
Australia / Murray,
7.7 32 14 Puncak Jaya Australia, 7.6
Oceania 3370 km
Volga,
Europe 9.9 727 46 Mt. El’brus Russia, 17.07
3690 km
North Mississippi,
24.2 501.5 23 Mt. McKinley Canada, 9.33
America 5971 km
South Amazon,
17.8 379.5 12 Mt. Aconcagua Brazil, 8.45
America 6437 km

THE LARGEST AND SMALLEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

The 10 Largest Countries

Country Area (Mn. Sq km) Continent


Russia 17.09 Europe
Canada 9.97 North America
China 9.64 Asia
USA 9.62 North America
Brazil 8.51 South America
Australia 7.74 Australia/Oceania
India 3.16 Asia
Argentina 2.78 South America
Kazakhstan 2.72 Asia
Sudan 2.50 Africa

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The 10 Smallest Countries

Country Area (Sq km) Continent


Vatican City 0.44 Europe
Monaco 1.95 Europe
Nauru 21.2 Oceania
Tuvalu 26 Oceania
San Marino 61 Europe
Liechtenstein 160 Europe
Marshall Islands 181 Oceania
St. Kitts and Nevis 261 North America
Maldives 298 Asia
Malta 316 Europe

THE SEAS OF THE WORLD

The 10 largest seas of the World and the area covered by them

Sea Area (Mn. Sq km)


South China Sea 2.97
Caribbean Sea 2.515
Mediterranean Sea 2.512
Bering Sea 2.26
Gulf of Mexico 1.5
Sea of Okhotsk 1.39
Sea of Japan 1.01
Hudson Bay 0.73
East China Sea 0.66
Andaman Sea 0.56

The world’s largest salt water lake, which can be called an Inland sea, is Russia’s Caspian Sea. It
has an area of 372,000 Sq. Km.
The largest fresh water lake is Lake Superior, Canada, with an area of 82,100 Sq Km.

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THE OCEANS OF THE WORLD

The 5 largest oceans of the World are

Oceans Size (Mn.Sq km)


Pacific Ocean 155
Atlantic Ocean 76.7
Indian Ocean 68.55
Southern Ocean 20.32
Arctic Ocean 14.05

THE PEAKS OF THE WORLD


The Tibetan name for Mt. Everest is Chomolungma, which means “Goddess mother of the world”.
The 10 highest peaks of the World, all of which are in the Himalayas, are as follows

Peaks Height (in meters)


Everest 8848
K2 (Godwin Austen) 8611
Kanchenjunga 8598
Lhotse 8511
Yalung Kang 8502
Makalu 8481
Dhaulagiri 8172
Mansalu 8156
Cho Oyu 8153
Nanga Parbat 8126

THE LEAST AND MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES OF


THE WORLD
Most Populous Countries

Country Population (in millions)


China 1306.3
India 1080.2
USA 295.7
Indonesia 241.9
Brazil 186.1

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Pakistan 162.4
Bangladesh 144.3
Russia 143.4
Nigeria 128.7
Japan 127.4

Smallest Countries
Country Population (Numbers)
Vatican City 920
Tuvalu 11640
Nauru 13050
Palau 20300
San Marino 28880
Monaco 32410
Liechtenstein 33720
St. Kitts 38960
Marshall Islands 59070
Antigua & Barbuda 68720

COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND CURRENCIES


Country Capital Currency
Afganishtan Kabul Afghani
Albania Tirana Lek
Algeria Algiers Dinar
Principality of An Dorra Andorra La Vieille Franc
Angola Luanda Kwanza
Argentina Buenos Aires Peso
Australia Canberra Australian Dollar
Austria Vienna Schilling
Bahrain Manama Bahraini Dinar
Bangladesh Dhaka Taka
Barbados Bridgetown Barbados Dollar
Belgium Brussels Euro
Belize Belmopan Belize Dollar
Benin Porto Novo Franc
Ngultrum (fixed at par
Bhutan Thimphu
with Indian rupee)

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Bolivia La paz The Boliviano


Botswana Gaborone Pula
Brazil Brasilia Real
Bulgaria Sofia Lev
Burundi Bujumbura Burundi Franc
Cambodia Phnom-Penh Riel
Cameroon Yaounde CFA Franc
Canada Ottawa Dollar
Central African
Bangui CFA Franc
Republic (CAR)
Chad N’Djamena CFA Franc
Chile Santiago Peso

China Beijing Renmimbi (Yuan)

Colombia Bogota Colombian Peso


Congo Kinshasa Congolese Franc
Costa Rica San Jose Costan Rican Colon
Cuba Havana Peso
Cyprus Nicosia Cyprun Pound
Czech Republic Prague The Koruna
Denmark Copenhagen Danish Krone
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Franc
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Peso
Ecuador Quito US Dollar and Sucre
Egypt Cairo Egyptian Pound
El Salvador San Salvador Colon
Equatorial Guinea Malabo CFA Franc
Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr
Fiji Suva Dollar
Finland Helsinki Euro
France Paris Euro
Gabon Liberville CFA Franc
The Gambia Banjul Dalasi
Germany Berlin Euro
Ghana Accra Cedi
Greece Athens Euro
Grenada St. George’s East Carribean Dollar
Guatemala Guatemala City Quetzal

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Guyana Georgetown Guyana Dollar


Honduras Tegucigalpa Lempira
Hong Kong Victoria HK Dollar
Hungary Budapest Forint
Iceland Reykjavik Krona
India New Delhi Rupee
Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah
Iran Teheran Rial
Iraq Baghdad Iraqi Dinar
Ireland Dublin Euro
Israel Jerusalem New Shekel
Italy Rome Euro
Jamaica Kingston Dollar
Japan Tokyo Yen
Jordan Amman Dinar
Kenya Nairobi Shilling
Korea (North) Pyongyang Won
Korea (South) Seoul Won
Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti Dinar
Laos Vientiane Kip
Lebanon Beirut Pound
Libya Tripoli Libyan Dinar
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Ringgit
Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha
Maldives Male Rufiya
Mauritius Port Louis Maurituan Rupee
Mongolia Ulan Bartor Tugrik
Myanmar (Burma) Yangon Kyat
Namibia Windhoek Dollar
Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese Rupee
Netherlands Amsterdam Euro
New Zealand Wellington NZ Dollar
Nigeria Abuja Naira
Norway Oslo Krone
Oman Muscat Rial
Pakistan Islamabad Rupees
Peru Lima New Sol
Philippines Manila Peso

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Poland Warsaw Zloty


Portugal Lisbon Euro
Puerto Rico San Juan US Dollar
Qatar Doha Riyal (QAR)
Romania Bucharest Leu
Russia Moscow Rouble
Rwanda Kigali Franc
Riyadh (Royal),
Saudi Arabia Rial
Jeddah (Administrative)
Seychelles Victoria Rupee
Singapore Singapore City Singapore Dollar
Pretoria
South Africa (Administrative), Rand
Cape Town (Legislative)
Spain Madrid Euro
Sri Lanka Colombo Rupee
Sudan Khartoum Dinar
Sweden Stockholm Krona
Switzerland Berne Franc
Syria Damascus Syrian Pound
Taiwan Taipei New Taiwan Dollar
Tanzania Dodoma Shilling
Thailand Bangkok Baht
Tunisia Tunis Dinar
Turkey Ankara Turkish Lira
Uganda Kampala Uganda Shilling
United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi Dirham
(UAE)
United Kingdom (UK) London Pound Sterling
United States of
Washington D.C. Dollar
America
Uruguay Montevideo Peso
Venezuela Caracas Bolivar
Yemen Sana’a Rial
Zambia Lusaka Kwacha
Zimbabwe Harare Dollar

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COUNTRIES AND THEIR PARLIAMENTS


Country Name of Parliament
Afghanistan Shora
Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad
Bhutan Tsongdu
Bulgaria Narodna Subranie
Myanmar (Burma) Pyithu Hluttaw
Denmark Folketing
Ethiopia Shergo
Finland Eduskusta
Germany Bundestag (Lower House)
Bundestag (Upper House)
Greenland Landstraad
Iceland Althing
India Lok Sabha (Lower House)
Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
Indonesia Majlis
Iran Majlis
Israel Knesset
Japan Diet
Malaysia Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara
Maldives Majlis
Mongolia Great People’s Khural
Nepal National Panchayat
The Netherlands The Staten General
Norway Storting
Poland Sejm
Russia Duma
Spain Cortes
Surinam Staten
Swaziland Liblandla
Sweden Riksdaq
Switzerland Federal Assembly

NATIONAL EMBLEMS OF COUNTIRES

Country Emblem
Australia Kangaroo
Canada Maple Tree

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Denmark Beach
France Lily
Germany Corn Flower
India Lion Capital
Iran Rose
Ireland Shamrock
Italy White Lily
Japan Chrysanthemum
Pakistan Crescent
Spain Eagle
United Kingdom Rose
USA Golden Rod

NEW NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND STATES

Old Name New Name


Abyssinia Ethiopia
Angora Ankara
Batavia Jakarta
Burma Myanmar
Cape Canaveral Cape Kennedy
Ceylon Sri Lanka
Christina Oslo
Congo Zaire
Constantinople Istanbul
Dacca Dhaka
Dutch East Indies Indonesia
East Pakistan Bangladesh
Egypt United Arab Republic of Egypt
Ellice Island Tuvalu
Formosa Taiwan
French West Africa Mali

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Gold Coast Ghana


Holland The Netherlands
Kampuchea Cambodia
Leopoldville Kinshasa
Malaya Malaysia
Mesopotamia Iraq
Nippon Japan
Northern Rhodesia Zambia
Peking Beijing
Petrograd Leningrad
Persia Iran
Rangoon Yangon
Southern Rhodesia Zimbabwe
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City
Salisbury Harare
Sandwich Island Hawaiian Islands
Siam Thailand
South West Africa Namibia
Stalingrad Volgograd
Tanganyika and Zanzibar Tanzania
Trucial Oman United Arab Emirates

SOBRIQUETS

Distinctive Name Country/Town/Port/River


Britain of the South New Zealand
The Battlefield of Europe Belgium
City of the Golden Gate San Francisco
City of Magnificent Distances Washington D.C.
City of Popes Rome

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City of Seven Hills Rome


City of Skyscrapers New York
Cockpit of Europe Belgium
Dark Continent Africa
Dairy of Northern Europe Denmark
Emerald Island Ireland
Empire City New York
Eternal City Rome, Italy
Forbidden City Lhasa (Tibet)
Garden of England Kent
Granite City Aberdeen (Scotland)
Gift of Nile Egypt
Herring Pond Atlantic Ocean
Hermit Kingdom Korea
Holy land Palestine
Island of Cloves Madagascar
Island of Pearls Bahrain
The Isle of Spring Jamaica
Key to the Mediterranean Gibraltar
Land of the Golden Pagoda Myanmar (Burma)
Land of Kangaroos Australia
Land of Lilies Canada
Land of the Midnight Sun Norway
Land of Morning Calm Korea
Land of the Rising Sun Japan
Land of a Thousand Lakes Finland
Land of Thunderbolt Bhutan
Land of White Elephants Thailand
Little Venice Venezuela

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Playground of Europe Switzerland


Queen of the Adriatic Venice
Rich Port Puerto Rico
Roof of the World Pamir (Tibet)
Sorrow of China River Hwang Ho
The Saw Mill of Europe Sweden
Sick Man of Europe Turkey
Sugar Bowl of the World Cuba
The Down Under Australia
Venice of the North Stockholm
Venice of the East Bangkok
Yellow River Hawang Ho (China)
White City Belgrade
Windy City Chicago
City of the Arabian Nights Baghdad
The Imperial City Rome

IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES

Durand Line : Boundary between India & Afghanistan.

Hindenburg Line : Boundary between Germany & Poland.

McMohan Line : Boundary between China & India.

Maginot Line : Boundary between France & Germany.

Radcliffe Line : Boundary between India & Pakistan.

17th parallel : Defined the boundary between North Vietnam & South Vietnam
before the two were united.

38th parallel : Boundary line between North Korea & South Korea.

49th parallel : Boundary line between USA & Canada.

Siegfried Line : The line between Germany and France

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International Days

International Customs Days January 26


World Leprosy Day January 30
International Women’s Day March 8
World Disabled day March 15
World Health Day April 7
Earth day April 22
International Labor Day May 1
Mother’s Day May (2nd Sunday)
World Red Cross Day May 8
World Telecommunication Day May 17
Commonwealth Day May 24
Anti Tobacco Day May 31
World Environment Day June 5
World Diabetes Day June 27
World Population Day July 11
World Peace Day (Hiroshima day) August 6
Nagasaki Day August 9
International Literacy Day September 8
World Tourism Day September 27
World Postal Day October 9
World Food Day October 16
U.N. Day October 24
World AIDS day December 1
Human Rights Day December 10

End of Chapter

48 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The India Constitution
z Indian Legislature
z Indian Judiciary
z Indian Defence

Chapter 6

Civics
Temple of Learning

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Salient Features
1. The Constituent Assembly was formed by the order of The Cabinet Mission in 1946.
2. Sachida Prasad Sinha was the temporary President of the Constituent Assembly.
3. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.
4. Dr. B.R. Ambedker was the chairman of the Drafting Committee.
5. B.N. Rao was the legal advisor of the Constituent Assembly.
6. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to prepare the largest written
constitution in the World.
7. Rs. 64 lakhs were spent on the making of the Constitution.
8. The original Constitution consisted of 22 parts, 395 articles but at present it has 22 parts, 444
articles and 12 schedules.
9. It was adopted by the Government of India on the 26 th of November, 1949.
10. It was enforced by the Government of India on the 26th of January, 1950.

Fundamental Rights
1. Part III (Articles 12 - 35) of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Rights.
2. Originally, seven Fundamental Rights were listed, but after the 44th Amendment, only six
Fundamental Rights are existent. These are
a) Right to Equality (14 - 18)
b) Right to freedom of speech (19)
c) Right against Exploitation (23-24)
d) Right to freedom of Religion (25-28)
e) Culture and Educational Right (29-30)
f) Right to Constitutional Remedies (32-33)
3. Right to Property used to be a Fundamental Right but after the 44th Amendment it became a
legal right.

Fundamental Duties
Article (51-A) included in the Constitution in the 42nd Amendment, lays down 10 Fundamental Duties
that citizens have towards the state. These are:
a) To abide by the Constitution, show respect to the National Flag and the National Anthem.
b) To follow the noble ideas of the freedom struggle.
c) To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
d) To defend one’s country.
e) To promote common brotherhood and establish dignity of women.
f) To preserve our heritage and culture.

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g) To protect the natural environment.


h) To develop a scientific temper.
i) To safeguard public property.
j) To strive for excellence in all spheres of activity.

Kinds of Bills
i. Ordinary Bill - An ordinary bill can be introduced in either of the Houses and can be passed by
a simple majority in both the Houses. In case of a deadlock a joint sitting of both the houses is
possible.
ii. Money Bill (Article 110) – A money bill is concerned with taxation and government spending.
It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha after prior recommendation of the President. Speaker
of the Lok Sabha is the deciding authority whether the introduced bill is a Money bill or not.
iii. Financial Bill - A bill which is related with revenue and expenditure of the government but is
not a money bill is a financial bill.
iv. Constitutional Amendment Bill (Article 368) - This bill can be introduced in either of the
Houses of the Parliament. It can be passed only by a special majority.
(Constitutional Amendments and Articles in the Annexure)

INDIAN LEGISLATURE
India is the second largest democracy in the world. The Indian legislature is bicameral i.e. the Indian
Parliament is made up of the Lower House – Lok Sabha, and the Upper House – Rajya Sabha.

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha


Features
(Lower House) (Upper House)
Term Five years It is continual in nature
Term of Members Five Years Six Years
No. of Members 545 (maximum 552) 250
2 members
Nomination by President 12
(Anglo-Indian)
Election of Members Directly elected by people Not elected by people

INDIAN JUDICIARY

Salient Features
1. The Constitution contains provisions related to the Union Judiciary in Articles 124–127.

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2. Supreme Court is the apex court of India. Supreme Court has 26 judges including the Chief
Justice. The salary of the Chief Justice is Rs.33000 per month and each judge gets Rs. 30000 per
month. The retirement age of the judges of the Supreme Court is 65 years.
3. High Courts are at the top of hiearchy in the State Judicial System. Presently there are 21 High
Courts in the country. The retirement age of the judges of a High Court is 62 years.

INDIAN DEFENCE
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. It is on his behalf that the
Defence Minister looks after all the matters concerning the Defence Services. The Defence Minister is
responsible before the Parliament for all matters concerning the Defence. However, the responsibility
of national defence rests with the Cabinet of Ministers. The three services of Defence i.e. Army, Navy
and Air Force, function under their respective Chiefs of Staff.

Army
Indian Army is responsible for the defence and security of India’s territorial area. The Army is organised
into five operational commmands – Northern, Eastern, Western, Central and Southern and one Training
Command – each headed by a Commander-in-Chief of the rank of Lieutenant General. The Army, with
its headquarters at New Delhi, consists of a number of services such as armoured corps, regiment of
artillery, engineer corps, infantry, army services corps, army medical corps, intelligence corps, etc.
The Chief of the Army is of the designation Major General and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

Navy
The Indian Navy is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian waters. The Navy is organised
into three operational commands – Western, Eastern, and Southern – headquartered at Mumbai,
Vishakhapatnam, and Cochin respectively. The Western and the Eastern commands have under them
operational fleets like warships, submarines, aircrafts and other support ships. The Southern Naval
Command is responsible for all the training activities of the Navy. The Chief of the Navy is of the
designation Admiral and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

Air Force
The Indian Air Force is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian airspace. The fourth largest
Air Force in the World, it is organised into five operational commands – Western Command, South-
Western Command, Central Air Command, Eastern Air Command, and Southern Air Command and two
functional commands - a Maintainance and a Training command. It is headquartered at New Delhi. The
Chief of the Air Force is of the designation Air Chief Marshall and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

End of Chapter

52 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z Who’s Who of the Union Government, the Judiciary and the
Armed Forces
z The Governors and Chief Ministers of States and Union Territories
z The Heads of Important Government Offices
z The Election Commission of India

Chapter 7

Indian Polity
Temple of Learning

THE LATEST WHO’S WHO OF POLITICS

The Union Government


Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam : President
Mr. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat : Vice-President

The Council of Cabinet Ministers

Dr. Manmohan Singh: Prime Minister; in charge of the Ministry of Personnel,


Public Grievances & Pensions; Planning; Atomic Energy;
Space and other Ministries/Departments that are not
specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister.
Mr. A.K. Antony Defence
Mr. Pranab Mukherjee External Affairs
Mr. Arjun Singh Human Resource Development
Mr. Sharad Pawar Agriculture; Food & Public Distribution;
Consumer Affairs
Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav Railways
Mr. Shivraj V. Patil Home Affairs
Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan Chemicals & Fertilisers; Steel
Mr. S. Jaipal Reddy Urban Development
Mr. Sis Ram Ola Mines
Mr. P. Chaidambaram Finance
Mr. Mahavir Prasad Small Scale Industries, Agro & Rural Industries
Mr. P. R. Kyndiah Tribal Affairs
Mr. T. R. Baalu Road Transport & Highways; Shipping
Mr. Shankarsinh Vaghela Textile
Mr. Kamal Nath Commerce & Industry
Mr. H. R. Bhardwaj Law & Justice
Mr. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh Rural Development
Mr. Priyaranjan Dasmunshi Information & Broadcasting; Parliamentary Affairs
Mr. Mani Shanker Aiyar Youth Affairs and Sports; Panchayati Raj; Development of
the North-Eastern Region
Ms. Meira Kumar Social Justice & Empowerment
Mr. A. Raja Environment & Forests
Mr. Dayanidhi Maran Communications & Information Technology
Dr. Anbhumani Ramdoss Health & Family Welfare
Mr. Murli Deora Petroleum and Natural Gas

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Mr. Sushil Kumar Shinde Power


Mr. A. R. Antulay Minority Affairs
Mr. Vayalar Ravi Overseas Indian Affairs
Ms. Ambika Soni Tourism & Culture
Mr. Saifuddin Soz Water Resources
Mr. Santosh Mohan Dev Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises
Mr. Prem Chand Gupta Company Affairs
Mr. Kapil Sibal Science & Technology and Ocean Development

The Armed Forces


Supreme Commander of Forces President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Chief of the Army Staff General J.J. Singh
Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Suresh Mehta
Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshal S.P. Tyagi
Commander-in-Chief of
Strategic Forces Command Air Marshal Avinash Devdutt Joshi
Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Vice Admiral Raman Puri

The Judiciary
Mr. K.G. Balakrishnan Chief Justice of India.
Mr. Milon Kumar Banerjee Attorney General of India.
Mr. Justice Ashok Agarwal Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT).
Mr. Goolam E. Vahanvati Solicitor-General of India.
Mr. B. Dutta Additional Solicitor- General of India.
Mr. Gopal Subramaniam Additional Solicitor-General.

Governors and Chief Ministers

States Governors Chief Ministers


Andhra Pradesh Mr. Rameshwar Thakur Mr. Y.S. Rajasekher Reddy
Arunachal Pradesh Mr. S.K. Singh Mr. Gegong Apang
Assam Lt. Gen. Retd. Ajai Singh Mr. Tarun Gogoi
Bihar Mr. R.S. Gavai Mr. Nitish Kumar
Chhattisgarh Lt. Gen. Retd. K.M. Seth Dr. Raman Singh
Goa Mr. S.C. Jameer Mr. Pratap Singh Rane
Gujarat Mr. Navalkishore Sharma Mr. Narendra Modi
Haryana Dr. A. R. Kidwai Mr. Bhupinder Singh Hooda
Himachal Pradesh Justice Retd. V.S. Kokje Mr. Virbhadra Singh

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Jammu and Kashmir Lt. Gen. Retd. S.K. Sinha Mr. Gulam Nabi Azad
Jharkhand Mr. Syed Sibtey Razi Mr. Madhu Koda
Karnataka Mr. T.N. Chaturvedi Mr. H.D. Kumaraswamy
Kerala Mr. R.L. Bhatia Mr. V.S. Achuthanandan
Madhya Pradesh Mr. Balram Jhaker Mr. Shivraj Singh Chauhan
Maharashtra Mr. S.M. Krishna Mr. Vilasrao Deshmuk
Manipur Mr. Shivinder Singh Sidhu Mr. Okram Ibobi Singh
Meghalaya Mr. M.M. Jacob Mr. J.D. Rymbai
Mizoram Lt. Gen. Retd. M.M. Lakhera Mr. Zoramthanga
Nagaland Mr. Shyamal Dutta Mr. Neiphiu Rio
Orissa Mr. Rameshwar Thakur Mr. Naveen Patnaik
Punjab Gen. Retd. S.F. Rodrigues Mr. Prakash Singh Badal
Rajasthan Ms. Pratibha Patil Ms. Vasundhara Raje
Sikkim Mr. V. Rama Rao Mr. Pawan Chamling
Tamil Nadu Mr. S.S.Barnala Mr. M. Karunanidhi
Tripura Mr. Dinesh Nandan Sahaya Mr. Manik Sarkar
Uttaranchal Mr. Sudharshan Aggarwal Mr. B.C. Khanduri
Uttar Pradesh Mr. T.V. Rajeshwar Rao Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav
West Bengal Mr. Gopal Krishna Gandhi Mr. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee

National Capital Territory

National Capital Territory Lt. Governor Chief Minister


Delhi Mr. B.L.Joshi Ms. Sheila Dikshit

Union Territories

Union Territories Lt. Governor/Administrators Chief Minister


Andaman & Nicobar Islands Lt. Gen. Retd. M.M. Lakhera —-
Chandigarh Gen. Retd. S.F. Rodrigues —-
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Mr. Rajni Kant Verma —-
Daman and Diu Mr. Rajni Kant Verma —-
Lakshadweep Mr. Parimal Rai —-
Pondicherry Mr. Mukut Mithi Mr. N. Rangaswamy

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Heads of Important Government Offices


Mr. B.S. Shekhawat Chairman, Rajya Sabha
Mr. K. Rahman Khan Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha
Mr. Somnath Chatterjee Speaker, Lok Sabha
Mr. Charanjit Singh Atwal Deputy Speaker
Dr. Manmohan Singh Chairman, Planning Commission
Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission
Mr. A.B. Vajpayee Chairman, BJP Parliamentary Party
Mr. L.K. Advani Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha)
Mr. Jaswant Singh Leader of Opposition (Rajya Sabha)
Mr. N. Gopalaswamy Chief Election Commissioner
Mr. M.K. Narayanan National Security Adviser and Special Adviser of PM
(Internal Security)
Mr. Vijay Nambiar Deputy National Security Adviser
Mr. Yogendra Narain Secretary-General, Lok Sabha
Mr. P.D.T. Achary Secretary-General, Lok Sabha
Mr. Vijay Shankar Director, CBI
Mr. P.K.H. Tharakan Director, Research and Analysis Wing
Mr. J.K.Sinha Director-General, CRPF
Mr. Ashish Kumar Mitra Director-General, Border Security Force (BSF)
Mr. V.K.Joshi Director-General, ITBP
Dr. R. Chidambaram Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government
Mr. G. Madhavan Nair Chairman, Space Commission and ISRO
Mr. Justice Retd. A.S. Anand Chairman, National Human Rights Commission
Dr. Amrita Patel Chairperson, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)
Lt. Gen. Ranjit Singh Director-General, Border Roads Organisation
Dr. Nirmal Kumar Ganguly Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research
Mr. Justice M. Jagannadha Rao Chariman, Law Commission
Mr. Ravindra Kumar Chairman, United News of India
Mr. Hormusji Nusserwanji Cama President, Indian Newspaper Society
Mr. R. Lakshmipathy Chairman, PTI
Ms. M.H. Kherawala Chairperson, Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT)
Mr. Nirupam Sen Indian’s Permanent Representative to UN
Dr. Mangla Rai Director-General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Ms. Girija Vyas Chairperson, National Commission for Women
Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar Chairman, National Statistical Commission
Mr. Sharmila Tagore Chairperson, Central Board of Film Certification
Ms. Nafisa Ali Chairperson, Children’s Film Society of India
Mr. C. Babu Rajeev Director-General, Archeological Survey of India

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Mr. Pratyush Sinha Central Vigilance Commissioner


Mr. Wajahat Habibullah Chief Information Commission
Mr. Suresh Kalmadi President, Indian Olympic Association
Mr. Kumarmangalam Birla Chairman, Board of Trade

THE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA


The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional body created to conduct free and
fair elections for the representative bodies in India. It was established on January 25, 1950.

The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence, direction
and control of the entire process for the conduct of elections for the Parliament and the Legislature of
every State and for the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.The law which governs
all the elections in India as mentioned above is the Representation of People Act, 1950.

The commission presently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
Originally, however, the commission had just one Chief Commissioner. Two Commissioners were
appointed for the first time on 16 October 1989 but their tenure lasted only till 1 January 1990.
On 1 October 1993, two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. The commission has
followed the multi-member structure since then, with decisions taken a by majority vote.

The Election Commission has a Secretariat at New Delhi consisting of about 300 officials.

End of Chapter

58 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The Planning Commission
z The Monetary Policy
z The Fiscal Policy
z The Major Public Sector Financial Institutions
z Economic Liberalisation

Chapter 8

Economics
Temple of Learning

THE PLANNING COMMISSION


The Planning Commission is the supreme organ of planning for social and economic development in
India. It was established on March 15, 1950. The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of
Planning Commission. The committee members also appoint a Deputy Chairman, who is the de-facto
executive head of the Commission and enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister.

The Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission,
while the full-time members are experts from various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and
General Administration.

The commission works through the following divisions


• General Planning Divisions
• Special Planning Divisions
• Programme Administration Divisions

The majority of experts in the commission are economists, making the commission the biggest employer
of the Indian Economic Services.

Five Year Plans


The Indian Economy is based on the concept of planning. This is carried through the five-year plans,
developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. The First Five Year plan was
implemented in 1951. The Tenth plan is currently underway.
• First Five Year Plan (1951-56) – The first plan aimed at correcting the distortions caused to
the economy after the World War II.

• Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) – The second plan aimed at a pattern of development leading
to a ‘socialist society’ framework for the economy.

• Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) – The third plan aimed at achieving the goals enlisted in the
first two plans and also aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in foodgrains, increase employment
oppurtunities and expand basic and heavy industries.

• Three Annual Plans (1966-69)

• Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) – The objectives of the fourth plan were to achieve self-
reliance, and give priority to agriculture, promote industrial production and exports.

• Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79) – The fifth five year plan aimed at removal of poverty, attaining
economic self reliance and increasing employment oppurtunities in the country.

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• Sixth Year Plan (1980-85) – The sixth plan aimed at achieving a annual growth rate of 5.2 per
cent and raising the per capita income by 3.3 per cent.

• Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) – The plan focussed on policies and programmes to
increase domestic industrial productivity, employment oppurtunities, and agriculture
productivity by increasing the basic framework and by adopting modern technologies.

• Annual Plans 1990-92

• Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) – The plan aimed at achieving a higher outlay of public
sector enterprises to meet the demands of various central and state sectors.

• Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-02) – The plan aimed to achieve an anual growth rate of 6.5 per
cent. The total public sector outlay was Rs. 859000 crore.

• Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) – This plan has adopted an aggressive approach. This plan
aims at achieving 8 per cent GDP growth, reduce the poverty ratio to 20 per cent, increase the
literacy rate to 72 per cent, reduce the infant mortality rate to 45 per 1000 births and
clean all major polluted rivers till the end of the plan in 2007.

THE MONETARY POLICY


The Monetary Policy, as the name suggests, is the policy used as a tool to regulate the supply of money
in the economy. The basic task of a monetary policy in a developing economy is to meet the credit
needs of the growth sectors on the one hand and to curb the supply of money meant to be used in non
- productive activities like speculative dealings, heading etc. In India, the monetary policy is regulated
by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The policy in India is designed on the principles mentioned above
and exercises various quantitative controls to make the policy effective. The policy is therefore also
referred to as the policy of ‘Controlled Monetary Expansion’ which implies

i. Expansion in the supply of money.


ii. Restraint on secondary expansion of credit.

The Monetary Policy thus helps the government to exercise control over the money supply in
the economy.

THE FISCAL POLICY


The fiscal policy helps the government exercise a control over the fiscal deficit i.e. the difference
between the total revenue earned and the total expenditure incurred by the government. A rise in the

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fiscal deficit implies a higher borrowing for the government from the RBI. The economic impact of
such borrowing is that the money supply in the economy decreases.

The pressure on the money supply leads to an increase of prices i.e. an inflationary situation. So the
government, through a proper fiscal policy tries to maximize revenue sources (taxes) and reduce
expenditure, thereby reducing fiscal deficits.

THE MAJOR PUBLIC SECTOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI)


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was set up in April 1935, with its central office at Calcutta (Kolkata)
under the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934, as a private shareholder’s bank with some subscription
from the government to enable those nominated by the government to be directors. The bank was later
nationalised in 1949. Presently, RBI is the central bank of India. It issues notes, buys and sells government
securities, regulates the volume, direction and cost of credit, manages foreign exchange, supports
other financial institutions and comes out with the Monetary Policy. The RBI is presently headquartered
at Mumbai and the present RBI governor is Mr. Y.V. Reddy.

2. The Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI)


SIDBI was established on April 2, 1990. The Charter establishing it; The Small Industries Development
Bank of India Act, 1989 envisaged SIDBI to be “the principal financial institution for the promotion,
financing and development of industry in the small scale sector and to co-ordinate the functions of the
institutions engaged in the promotion and financing or developing industry in the small scale sector and
for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

The business domain of SIDBI consists of small scale industrial units, which contribute significantly to
the national economy in terms of production, employment and exports. Small scale industries are the
industrial units in which the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs.10 million. About
3.1 million such units, employing 17.2 million persons account for a share of 36 per cent of India’s
exports and 40 per cent of industrial manufacture. In addition, SIDBI’s assistance flows to the transport,
health care and tourism sectors and also to the professional and self-employed persons setting up
small-sized professional ventures. Mr. N Balasubramanium is the present chairman and managing director
of the SIDBI.

3. The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)


IDBI was established on July 1, 1964, by an act of the Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the
Reserve Bank of India, to catalyze the development of a diversified and efficient industrial structure in
the country, in tune with national priorities. In 1976, the ownership was transferred from the RBI to

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the Government of India. The current Government holding in IDBI is about 53%. IDBI is currently the
tenth largest development bank in the world. It financed some well-known institutes in India like, the
National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), the National Securities Depository Services Ltd. (NSDL),
and the Stock Holding Corporation of India (SHCIL).

To meet the emerging challenges and to keep up with reforms in the financial sector, IDBI converted
into a banking company in 2004, to undertake an entire gamut of banking activities. Mr. V.P. Shetty is
the present Chairman and Managing Director of the IDBI bank.

4. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)


NABARD was established on 12th July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural
Development Act 1981. It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and the Rural Planning
and Credit Cell (RPCC) of the Reserve Bank of India, and the Agricultural Refinance and Development
Corporation (ARDC).

The following functions are performed by NABARD


i. Serves as an apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production
credit for promoting the various developmental activities in rural areas.

ii. Takes measures towards institution building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit
delivery system, including monitoring, formulation of rehabilitation schemes, restructuring of
credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.

iii. Co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engaged in developmental work
at the field level and maintains liaison with the Government of India, State Governments, the
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other national level institutions concerned with policy
formulation.

iv. Undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it.

Dr. Y.S.P. Thorat is the present chairman of NABARD.

ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION (1991)


The economic liberalisation of 1991 was initiated by the then Indian Prime Minister, Mr. P. V. Narasimha
Rao and his Finance Minister, Mr. Manmohan Singh in response to a balance-of-payments crisis being
faced by the country. The new economic framework adopted by the government did away with the
Licence Raj (investment, industrial and import licensing) system and ended many public monopolies.

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The policy aimed at allowing foreign direct investment (FDI) in many sectors of the economy. Even
though the foreign direct investment ceiling was removed by the government in 1991, it was only in
1996 that foreign investors started showing confidence in the Indian economy and large sectors saw
the inflow of foreign capital.

Since then, the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party,
although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or
contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.

End of Chapter

64 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The United Nations Organisation (UNO)
z Important International Agencies and their Headquaters

Chapter 9

The UNO and International Agencies


Temple of Learning

THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO)


The United Nation Organisation came into existence on 24th October 1945.The name was devised by
the then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

At present, there are 192 members in the UNO. Taiwan & Vatican City are not the members. Vatican
City is the permanent observer for the UN.

Headquarter- First Avenue at 46th Street, UN Plaza, New York City-10017.


Official Languages- English, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, French, and Chinese (Mandarin)

The Principal Organs of the UNO

The principal organs of the UNO are

1 . General Assembly - The General Assembly consists of representatives of the member


nations. Each state has one vote, but may send 5 representatives. The assembly meets at least
once in a year. Special sessions may be summoned by the Secretary General, on a request by
the Security Council.
2. Security Council - It consists of 15 members, each of which has one vote.There are 5
permanent & 10 non permanent members. The 5 permanent members are USA, Russia, UK,
France & China. The 10 non permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a
period of 2 years. The permanent members have the power to veto any decision.
3. The Secretariat - It is composed of the Secretary General, the Cheif Administrative Officer of
the organisation and an international staff appointed by him under the regulatios of the General
Assembly. However the Secratary General, the High commissioner of Refugees and the Managing
Director of funds is appointed by the General Assembly.
4. Trusteeship Council - The Charter of the UN provides for an international trusteeship system
to safeguard the interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing
and which may have been placed thereunder by individual trusteeship agreements.
5. International Court - The International Court of Justice was created by an international
treaty, the statute of the Court, which forms an integral part of the UN charter, and all the members
are ipso facto parties to the statute of the court. There are 15 judges, appointed for a 9 year term.
The court has has its seat at the Hague but may sit elsewhere, whenever it considers this desirable.
The expenses of the Court are borne by the UN.
6. Economic and Social Council - It is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out
the functions of the UN with regard to international, social, cultural, educational, health and related
matters. The Economic and Social council consists of 54 member States elected by a two-thirds
majority of the General Assembly.

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UN Secretary Generals
1. Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946-53
2. Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953-61
3. U Thant (Burma) 1961-71
4. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81
5. Javier Perez De Gueller (Peru) 1982-91
6. Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1992-96
7. Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2007
8. Ban Ki Moon (South Korea) 2007- till date

Specific UN Agencies and their Headquarters

1. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - UNDP is the UN‘s global development
network advocating change and connecting countries to share knowledge and resources which
help build a better life in countries across the globe. Presently it has offices in 166 member
countries. UNDP is headquartered at New York, US.
2. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – UNICEF was initially set up in 1946 as an
emergency fund to provide post-war relief to children in different countries. Today, as a children’s
fund, UNICEF concentrates its activities on providing assistance to children and mothers in
developing countries, aiming at improving their quality of life. UNICEF is headquartered at New
York, US.
3. The United Nations Educational & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – UNESCO was
founded on 16 November 1945 to assist developing countries in their educational projects, to help
the countries in scientific development and to build cultural understanding between the nations.
UNESCO is headquartered at Paris, France.
4. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) – IMF is an international organisation having 184
member countries. It was established in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation and
exchange stability between nations which in turn would promote economic growth and increase
employment opportunities. IMF also provides temporary financial assistance to its member contries
to ease their balance of payment. IMF is headquartered at Washington DC., US.
5. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, commonly known
as the World Bank) – The ‘World Bank’ was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in
1944, but begun operations in 1946. It aims at providing financial and technical assistance to
developing countries around the World. Presently World Bank has 184 member countries and is
headquartered at Washinton DC, US.
6. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) – WTO was formed as an international trade body to
replace General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in 1995. WTO is the only international
body dealing with rules of trade between the countries to help producers of goods and services,
exporters and importers conduct their business. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

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7. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – IAEA was set up in 1957. It is presently
headquartered at Vienna, Austria.
8. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – FAO was set up in 1945. It is presently
headquartered at Rome, Italy.
9. The World Health Organisation (WHO) – W.H.O was set up in 1946. It is presently headquartered
at Geneva, Switzerland.
10. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – IFC is an affiliate of the World Bank, and was
set up in 1956. It is headquartered at Washinton DC, US.
11. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – ITU was set up in 1932. It is headquartered
at Geneva, Switzerland.
12. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) – ICAO was set up in 1944. It is
headquartered at Montreal, Canada.
13. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) – UPU was set up in 1875. It is headquartered at Berne,
Switzerland.
14. The International Labor Organisation (ILO) – ILO was set uo in 1919. It is headquartered at
Geneva, Switzerland.
15. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) – IMO was set up in 1948. It is headquartered
at London, UK.

INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES AND THEIR HEADQUARTERS

1. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) – It is headquartered at Manila, Phillipines.


2. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – It is headquartered at Jakarta, Indonesia.
3. The European Union (EU) – It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium.
4. The INTERPOL – It is headquartered at Lyons, France
5. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium.
6. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – It is headquartered at Vienna,
Austria.
7. The Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) – It is headquartered at
Kuwait.
8. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) – It is headquartered at
Kathmandu, Nepal.
9. The Red Cross – It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

End of Chapter

68 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The Highest, Longest, Largest, Biggest etc. in the World

Chapter 10

The Superlatives
Temple of Learning

THE SUPERLATIVES

THE HIGHEST, BIGGEST, LARGEST, LONGEST ETC. IN THE WORLD

King Khaled International Airport,


Airport Largest
Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Animal Tallest Giraffe (Average height 6.09m)
Largest & Heaviest Blue Whale (190 tonnes)
Fastest Cheetah (Approximately 100 km/hr)
Bay With max. shore line Hudson Bay
With max. area Bay of Bengal
Over the Royal Gorge of the Arakansas river,
Bridge Highest
Colorado, USA
Longest Gandhi Setu across the Ganges, Patna
Tsing Ma bridge linking HongKong to Lantau
Rail Bridge
island
Building Highest Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Canal Big Ship Suez Canal
Busiest Kiel Canal
Canyon Deepest Vicos Gorge (Greece)
Largest Grand Canyon (Colarado River)
Church Largest Basilica of St. Peter (Vatican City)
Cinema House Largest Radio City Music Hall (New York)
City Largest Population Tokyo
Largest Area Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia
Continent Largest Asia (44.5 million sq km)
Smallest Australia (7.7 million sq km)
Coral Formation Largest The Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
Country Largest in Population China
Largest in Area Russia
With largest electorate India
Smallest in Area Vatican City
With most Land Frontiers China
Dam Largest Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River (USA)
Highest Rogunskaya dam across river Vakash, Tajakistan
Delta Largest Sundarban’s delta (river Bramhaputra)

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Desert Largest Sahara desert, Africa


Diamond Largest The Cullinan
Dome Largest Louisiana Superdome, USA
Epic Largest Mahabharata
Fish Largest fresh water Plabeuk
Most abundant Bristle mouth
Most venomous Stone fish
Most electric Electric Eel
Film Longest Die Zweite Heimat (Germany)
Most Oscars Ben Hur and Titanic (11 oscars each)
Fountain Tallest Fountain at Fountain Hills ( Arizona, US)
Fruit Most nutritive Avocado (Vitamin A,C,E and Proteins)
Least nutritive Cucumber
Gulf Largest Gulf of Mexico
With the most
Hotel Hotel Rossiya (Moscow)
number of rooms
Island Biggest Greenland
Lake Largest Caspian Sea
Deepest Baikal Lake
Largest fresh water Lake Superior
Library Biggest US Library of Congress (Washinton DC)
Biggest non statutory New York Public Library
Mountain Highest Peak Mt. Everest (8848 mts)
Highest Range Himalayas, Asia
American museum of Natural History, New
Museum Largest
York
Ocean Largest and Deepest Pacific Ocean
Peninsula Largest Arabia
Park Largest National Park of Greenland
Places Coldest Antartica
Driest Calama, Chile
Hottest Dallol, Ethiopia
Rainiest Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya
Planet Biggest Jupiter
Brightest, hottest, and
Venus
nearest to the Earth
Farthest from Sun Neptune
Nearest to Sun Mercury
Most Satellites Uranus
Plateau Highest Tibetan Plateau

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Platform (rail) Longest Kharagpur, West Bengal


Port Largest Port of New York and New Jersey
Busiest Rotterdam, Netherlands
Railway Line Longest Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway Station Largest Grand Central Terminal, New York
Highest Condor, Bolivia
Religion Oldest Hinduism
Largest Christianity
Rivers Longest Amazon (6750 km)
Road Highest Kang-ti-Suu
Pan American Highway (from Alaska to
Longest
Brasilia)
Sea Largest South China Sea
Largest (inland) Mediterranean
Star Brightest Sirius A ( dog star)
Swimming course Longest recognized English Channel
Telescope Largest (radio) at US National Science Foundation
Largest (solar) at Kitt Peak National Observatory
Largest refractor at Yerkes Observatory
Temple Largest Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Tower Tallest C N Tower, Canada
Tunnel Longest (Railway) Seikan Rail Tunnel (Japan)
Largest (Road) St. Gotthard Road Tunnel, Switzerland
Wall Longest The Great Wall of China
Waterfall Highest Salto-Angel in Venezuela
Widest Khone Falls in Loas
Zoo Largest Etoha Reserve, Namibia

End of Chapter

72 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z Names of Books and Authors

Chapter 11

Books and Authors


Temple of Learning

BOOKS AND AUTHORS

Name of the book Authors

Autobiographies
B
Babur–Nama Babur
M
Made in Japan Akio Morita
Mein Kamph Adolf Hitler
Moon Walk Michael Jackson
S
Sunny Days Sunil Gavaskar
W
Wings of Fire APJ Abdul Kalam

Biographies
A
Ain-I-Akbari Abul Fazal
Akbarnama Abul Fazal
I
Idols Sunil Gavaskar
S
Shahnama Firdausi

Classic
A
All’s Well that Ends well William Shakespeare
A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens
Anna Karenina Leo Tolstoy
Antony and Cleopatra William Shakespeare
As You like it William Shakespeare
Abhijnanshakuntalam Kalidas
B

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Babbit Sinclair Lewis


C
Ceaser and Cleopatra George Bernand Shaw
The Comedy of Errors Shakespeare
D
David Copperfield Charles Dickens
Devdas Sharat Chandra Chatterjee
Doctor Zhivago Boris Pasternak
Don Quixote Miguel de Cervantes
F
Fountain Head Ayn Rand
G
Gone with the Wind Margaret Mitchell
Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift
H
Hamlet William Shakespeare
I
Iliad Homer
Indica Magasthenese
The Importance of Being Earnest Oscar Wilde
Invisible Man H. G. Wells
J
Julius Caesar William Shakespeare
K
Kadambari Bana Bhatt
Kamasutra Vatsyayan
Kamayani Jai Shankar Prasad
King Lear William Shakespeare
M
Macbeth William Shakespeare
Mahabharata Ved Vyas
Meghdoot Kalidas
Merchant of Venice William Shakespeare
Much Ado About Nothing William Shakespeare

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Mudra Rakshas Vishakadutta


N
Natya Shastra Bharat Muni
Nine Days Wonder John Masefield
O
Odyssey Homer
Oliver Charles Dickens
Othello William Shakespeare
P
Paradise Lost John Milton
Pather Panchali Bibhuti Bhushan
Bandhopadhayaya
Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen
R
Raghuvamsa Kalidas
Ram Charita Manas Tulsidas
Ramayana Valmiki
Ratnavali‘ Harsha Vardhan
Rendezvous with Rama Arthur C Clarke
Ritu Samhara Kalidas
Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare
S
Savitri Sir Aurobindo Ghosh
Sense and Sensibility Jane Austen
Sohrab and Rustum Mathew Arnold
T
The Tempest William Shakespeare
The Count of Monte Cristo Alexander Dumas
The story of My My
Experiments with Truth Mahatma Gandhi
Three Musketeers Alexander Dumas
Time machine H.G. Wells
Treasure Island R L Stevenson

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Twelfth Night Willam Shakespeare


Twenty Years After Alexander Dumas
U
Ulysses James Joyce
Unto This Last John Ruskin
Uttar Ramcharita Bhavbhuti
V
Vanity Fair William Thackeray
Vinay Patrika Tulsidas
The Virginians William Thackeray
Y
Yama
Mahadevi Verma
Descriptive
A
Area of Darkness V. S. Naipaul
F
Freedom from Fear Aung San Su Kyi
L
Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela
M
Maneaters of Kumaon Jim Corbett
My Experiments with Truth Mahatma Gandhi
O
Origin of Species Charles Darwin
S
Sadar-I-Riyasat Karan Singh
Starry Nights Shobha De

Economics
N
New Dimensions of
India’s Foreign Policy A B Vajpayee
W

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Wealth of Nations Adam Smith

Fantasy
A
Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mark Twain
C
Class, The Eric Segal
D
Dr. JekyII and Mr. Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson
O
One Hundred Years of Solitude Gabrial Garcla Marquez
Other Side of Midnight, The Sidney Sheldon
S
Swami and Friends R.K. Narayan
T
The Alchemist Paulo Coelho
The God of Small Things Arundhati Roy

Fiction
A
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Adventure of Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mark Twain
Alice in Wonderland Lewis Carrol
A Bend In the River V S Naipaul
A Suitable Boy Vikram Seth
An Equal Music Vikram Seth
Arabian Nights Richard Burton
B
Being Digital Nicholas Negroponte
C
Catcher in the Rye J D Sallinger
Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer
Chitra Rabindranath Tagore

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City of Joy Domonique Lapiere


Coolie Mulk Raj Anand
E
East West Salman Rushdie
F
Fury Salman Rushdie
Future Shock Alvin Toffler
G
Godfather Mario Puzo
Godan Munshi Prem Chand
The Guide R.K. Narayan
Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift
H
Half a Life V S Naipaul
Harsha Charita Bena Bhatt
I
Inscrutable Americans Anurag Mathur
Interpreter of Maladies Jhumpa Lahiri
Iron in the soul Jean Paul Sartre
Ivanhoe Walter Scott
J
The Judgement Kuldip Nayar
Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling
K
Kim Rudyard Kipling
L
Life Divine Aurobindo Ghosh
Lajja Tasleema Nasreen
Lolita V. Nabakov
Love Story Eric Segal
M
Malgudi Days R K Narayan
Midnight’s children Salman Rushdie
Moor’s Last Sigh Salman Rushdie

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Mother Moxim Gorky


N
Nice Guys Finish Second B K Nehru
P
Panchatantra Vishnu Sharma
Post Office Rabindranath Tagore
S
The Satanic Verses Salman Rushdie
Shape of Things to Come H. G. Wells
Shame Salman Rushdie
T
The Last Don Mario Puzo
The Tin Drum Guenter Grass
Treasure Island R L Stevenson
Two Leaves and a Bud Mulk Raj Anand
U
Unofficial Guide to Ethical
Hacking Ankit Fadia
V
Vish Vriksha Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
W
War and Peace Leo Tolstoy

History Books
A
Arthashastra Kautilya
August 1914 (H) Alexander Solzhenitsyn
B
Ben Hur Lewis Wallace
C
Communist Manifesto Karl Marx
D
Discovery of India Jawahar Lal Nehru
H

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Hindu View of Life D. S. Radhakrishnan


I
India-A Wounded Civilisation V S Naipaul
India Divided Rajendra Prasad
India Wins Freedom Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Indian Home Rule M. K. Gandhi
Indian Philosophy D. S. Radhakrishnan
M
Man and Superman George Bernard Shaw
P
A Passage to India E. M. Forster
W
Wake up India Annie Besant
The Wonder that Was India A.L. Basham

Management Books
T
The Changing World of the Executive Peter Drucker

Poetry
B
Bharat Bharati Maithili Sharan Gupt
G
Geet Govinda Jaya Dev
Gitanjali Rabindranath Tagore
R
Rubaiyat Omar Khayyam

Philosophy
A
Atlas Shrugged Ayn Rand
B
Bharat Bharati Maithili Sharan Gupt
G

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Geet govinda Jaya Dev


Gitanjali Rabindranath Tagore
V
Voice of Conscience V. V. Giri

Psychology
C
Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky
G
Games People Play Eric Berne
M
Man of Destiny George Bernard Shaw
S
Satyartha Prakash Swami Dayanand

Sociology
D
Das Kapital Karl Marx
Diplomacy Henry Kissinger
G
Gita Rahasya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Grammer of Politics Harold Laski
P
Politics Aristotle
R
Republic Plato
S
Sub Regionalism in Asia Abul Kalam Azad
Surviving Men Khushwant Singh
T
The Degeneration of India T N Seshan
U
Untouchable Mulk Raj Anand
Utopia Thomas Moore

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Spiritual Account
B
Beyond Belief V S Naipaul

Miscellaneous
A
Area of Darkness V. S. Naipaul
B
Between the lines Kuldip Nayar
Brave New world Aldous Huxley
Broken wing Sarojini Naidu
Beyond Peace Richard Nixon
Blood, Brain & Beer David Ogilvy
C
Confessions of a Lover Mulk Raj Anand
D
District Diary Jaswant Singh
Dragon Fire Humphry Hawensky
Dilemma of our time Harold Joseph Laski
Doctor’s Dilemma George Bernard Shaw
Don Juan Lord Byron
E
Ends and Means Aldous Huxley
F
Fifth Column Ernest Hemingway
Farewell to Arms, A Ernest Hemingway
First Among Equals Jeffrey Archer
For Whom the Bell Tolls Ernest Hemingway
G
Gathering Storm Winston Churchill
Glimpses of World History Jawaharlal Nehru
Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu
Golden Gate, The Virkram Seth
Godan Rabindranath Tagore

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H
Heat and Dust Ruth P. Jhabwala
I
India Unbound Gurcharan Das
Is Paris Burning Larry Collins & Dominique Lapiere
If I am Assassinated Z. A. Bhutto
K
Kumar Sambhava Kalidas
M
Mother India Katherine Mayo
My Music, My life Ravi Shankar
My Truth Indira Gandhi
P
A Passage to England Nirad C. Choudhary
T
To live or Not to Live Nirad C. Choudhary
Triumph John Kenneth Galbraith
V
Valley of Dolls Jacqueline Susan
W
Worshipping False Gods Arun Shourie

End of Chapter

84 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z Common Terminologies
z Important Cups and Trophies
z Major Sporting Events

Chapter 12

Sports
Temple of Learning

COMMONLY USED SPORTS TERMINOLOGIES

Sport Terms associated with sports disciplines

Badminton Deuce, double fault, drop, let, love all, smash

Basketball Basket, blocking, dribbling, free throw, held ball, holding, jump ball, pivot

Billiards Bauik line, bolting, cannon, cue hazard, long jenny, scratch, screwback, short
jenny, spot stroke

Boxing Babit punch, break, cut, defence, hook, jab lying on, knock, slam, upper cut,
weight in, knockout

Bridge Chicane, dealer, dummy, finesse, grand slam, little slam, no trump, revoke,
rubber, suit, tricks, vulnerable

Chess Bishop, castle, checkmate, gambit, king, knight, pawn, queen, rook, stalemate

Cricket Ashes, boundary, bowling, caught, chinaman, cover drive, crease, duck, follow
on, googly, gully, hat trick, hit wicket, LBW, leg break, leg bye, maiden over,
no ball, off break, on drive, over pitch, popping crease, rubber, run out, sixer,
silly point, square leg, straight drive, stumped, wicket

Football Corner kick, dribble, free kick, goal kick, hat-trick, off side, penalty kick,
throw in, tripping

Golf Best ball, bogey, bunker, caddie, dormy, fairway, fourball, greed holes, links,
niblic, par, put, rough, stymied, tee

Hockey Bully, corner, dribble, hat-trick, offside, roll-in, scoop, short corner, stick,
striking circle, tie break

Table Tennis Deuce, drop, let, spin, smash


Tennis Backhand stroke, crosscourt, deuce, double fault, fault, forehand, ground stroke,
half volley, let, smash, slice, volley

Volleyball Blocking, doubling, heave, love point, service, volley

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IMPORTANT CUPS AND TROPHIES

i. Badminton – Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and World Cup.

ii. Cricket – Ashes, Champions Trophy, C.K.Nayudu Trophy, County Championships, Duleep
Trophy, Gavaskar-Border Trophy, ICC World Cup, Irani Trophy, Ranji Trophy, and Sheffield
Shield Cup.

iii. Football – African Nations Cup, Asia Cup, Confederations Cup, Durand Cup, English Premier
League, Federation Cup, FIFA World Cup, German Bundeslga, Italian Serie A, Merdeka Cup, NFL
Cup, Santosh Trophy, Spanish LA Liga, and UEFA Cup.

iv. Golf – British Open, Ryder Cup, US Open, and Walker Cup.

v. Hockey – Agha Khan Cup, Champions Trophy, Dhyan Chand Trophy, Sultan Azlan Shah
Trophy, and World Cup.

vi. Tennis – ATP Masters, Australian Open Championships, Champions Cup, Davis Cup, Federation
Cup, French Open Championships, US Open Championships, and Wimbeldon Championships.

MAJOR SPORTING EVENTS


1. The Olympics – The oldest and the largest sporting event in the World, Olympics were
first started in 776 BC in Greece. The games were first played in the ancient Greek kingdom
of Elis to honour Zeus, the Greek god of Sky and Thunder. But after the initial games in 776
BC, they became an irregular feature and were restricted only to Greece. It was only after
1500 years, in 1892 that revival of games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubretin. In
June, 1894 Baron and his associates decided to make the games a regular sporting event and
created the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Presently, the IOC is headqutered at
Laussane, Switzerland.

Olympic Symbol (five rings) – The Olympic Symbol comprises of five rings linked together to
represent sporting friendship amongst countries. The rings represent the five continents – Europe,
Africa, America, Asia and Australia.

Olympic Games are held every four years. The table below gives the details of Olympic Games
held till date. No games were held in 1916, 1940 and 1944.

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Year Place
1896 Athens
1900 Paris
1904 St. Louis
1908 London
1912 Stockholm
1920 Antwerp
1924 Paris
1928 Amsterdam
1932 Los Angeles
1936 Berlin
1948 London
1952 Helsinki
1956 Melbourne
1960 Rome
1964 Tokyo
1968 Mexico City
1972 Munich
1976 Montreal
1980 Moscow
1984 Los Angeles
1988 Seoul
1992 Barcelona
1996 Atlanta
2000 Sydney
2004 Athens
2008 Beijing (scheduled)
2012 London (scheduled)

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2. Commonwealth Games – The Commonwealth Games are the second largest sporting event
in the World after Olympics. These games are held every four years between the years of the
Olympic Games. The games involve atheletes from Commonwealth Nations (majority erstwhile
colonies of the British). Started in 1930, the games were originally called the British Empire
Games. It was in 1978 that the present name of the Commonwelth Games was adopted. The
table below gives the details of the Commonwealth Games till date. The games were not held
from 1939 till 1949.

Year Venue

1930 Hamilton

1934 London

1938 Sydney

1950 Auckland

1954 Vancouver

1958 Cardiff

1962 Perth

1966 Jamaica

1970 Edinburgh

1974 Christchurch

1978 Edmonton

1982 Brisbane

1986 Edinburgh

1990 Auckland

1994 Victoria

1998 Kuala Lumpur

2002 Manchester

2006 Melbourne

2010 Delhi (scheduled)

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3. Asian Games – The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a sporting event on the lines of the
Olympic Games held every four years among atheletes from all over Asia. India played a leading
role in starting an event for the Asian nations. The motto of the Asian Games is ‘Ever Onward’.
The table below gives the details of Asian Games till date.

Year Venue
1951 New Delhi
1954 Manila

1958 Tokyo
1962 Jakarta

1966 Bangkok

1970 Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul)


1974 Tehran

1978 Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi)


1982 New Delhi

1986 Seoul
1990 Beijing
1994 Hiroshima

1998 Bangkok
2002 Busan
2006 Doha

2010 Guangzhou (scheduled)

4. Cricket World Cup – The Cricket World Cup is a premier international championship for one
day cricket in the world. The event is organised once every four years by the sport’s governing
body, The International Cricket Council (ICC) and is contested by all Test playing nations (presently
10) plus the qualifying teams. The table below gives the details of the World Cups held till date.

Year Venue Winner Runner-up

1975 England West Indies Australia

1979 England West Indies England

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1983 England India West Indies

1987 Indian Subcontinent Australia England

Australia &
1992 Pakistan England
New Zealand

1996 Indian Subcontinent Sri Lanka Australia

1999 England Australia Pakistan

South Africa,
2003 Australia India
Zimbabwe & Kenya

2007 West Indies

2011 Indian Subcontinent Scheduled

Australia &
2015
New Zealand

5. Hockey World Cup – The Hockey World Cup is a premier international field hockey competition
organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH) once every four years. The tournament
was started in 1971. The table below gives the details of each World Cup held till date.

Year Venue Winner Runner-up

1971 Barcelona, Spain Pakistan Spain

Amstelveen,
1973 Netherlands India
The Netherlands

1975 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia India Pakistan

1978 Buenos Aires, Argentina Pakistan Netherlands

1982 Mumbai, India Pakistan West Germany

1986 London, England Australia England

1990 Lahore, Pakistan Netherlands Pakistan

1994 Sydney, Australia Pakistan Netherlands

1998 Utrecht, The Netherlands Netherlands Spain

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2002 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Germany Australia

Monchengladbach,
2006 Germany Australia
Germany

6. Football World Cup - The Football/Soccer World Cup is an international football competition
contested by the national teams of the member nations of Federation Internationale de Football
Association (FIFA). The tournament started in 1930 and is held every four years, but could not
be held in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II. The table below gives details of the last ten
World Cups.

Year Venue Winner Runner-up

West
1974 West Germany Netherlands
Germany

1978 Argentina Argentina Netherlands

1982 Spain Italy West Germany

1986 Mexico Argentina West Germany

West
1990 Italy Argentina
Germany

1994 USA Brazil Italy

1998 France France Brazil

2002 South Korea & Japan Brazil Germany

2006 Germany Italy France

2010 South Africa


Scheduled
2014 South America

7. Tennis Grand Slams


The tables below give the last five year championship winners for four major Tennis Grand Slams
viz Australian Open (held at Melbourne), French Open (held at Paris, also called Roland
Garros), Wimbledon (held at Wimbledon, near London) and U.S. Open (held at Flushing
Meadows, New York).

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Australian Open

Men’s Title Women’s Title


Year
Winner Runner-up Winner Runner-up

Roger Federer Marcos Amelie Justine Henin-


2006
(Switzerland) Baghdatis Mauresmo Hardene
(Cyprus) (France) (Belgium)

Marat Safin Lleyton Hewitt Serena Lindsay


2005
(Russia) (Australia) Williams (USA) Davenport (USA)

Roger Federer Marat Safin Justine Henin- Kim Clijsters


2004
(Switzerland) (Russia) Hardene (Belgium)
(Belgium)

Rainer
2003 Andre Agassi Serena Venus Williams
Schuettler
(USA) Williams (USA) (USA)
(Germany)

Thomas
Marat Safin Jennifer Martina Hingis
2002 Johansson
(Russia) Capriati (USA) (Switzerland)
(Sweden)

French Open

Men’s Title Women’s Title


Year
Winner Runner-up Winner Runner-up

Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Justine Henin-Hardene Svetlana Kuznetsova


2006
(Spain) (Switzerland) (Belgium) (Russia)

Rafael Nadal Mariano Puerta Justine Henin-Hardene


2005 Mary Pierce (France)
(Spain) (Argentina) (Belgium)

Gaston Gaudio Guillermo Coria Anastasia Myskina Elena Dementieva


2004
(Argentina) (Argentina) (Russia) (Russia)

2003 Juan Carlos Martin Verkerk Justine Henin-Hardene Kim Clijsters


Ferrero (Spain) (Holland) (Belgium) (Belgium)
Albert Costa Juan Carlos Serena Venus Williams
2002
(Spain) Ferrero (Spain) Williams (USA) (USA)

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Wimbledon

Men’s Title Women’s Title


Year
Winner Runner-up Winner Runner-up
Justine
Roger Federer Andy Roddick Amelie Mauresmo
2006 Henin-Hardene
(Switzerland) (USA) (France)
(Belgium)

Roger Federer Andy Roddick Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport


2005
(Switzerland) (USA) (USA) (USA)

Roger Federer Andy Roddick Maria Sharapova Serena Williams


2004
(Switzerland) (USA) (Russia) (USA)

Roger Federer Mark Philipoussis Serena Venus Williams


2003
(Switzerland) (Australia) Williams (USA) (USA)

David
Lleyton Hewitt Serena Venus Williams
2002 Nalbandian
(Australia) Williams (USA) (USA)
(Argentina)

U.S.Open

Men’s Title Women’s Title


Year
Winner Runner-up Winner Runner-up

Justine
Roger Federer Andy Roddick Maria
2006 Henin-Hardene
(Switzerland) (USA) Sharapova (Russia)
(Belgium)

Roger Federer Andre Agassi Kim Clijsters Mary Pierce


2005
(Switzerland) (USA) (Belgium) (France)

Roger Federer Lleyton Hewitt Svetlona Kuznet Elena Dementieva


2004
(Switzerland) (Australia) sova (Russia) (Russia)

Justine
Andy Roddick Juan Carlos Kim Clijsters
2003 Henin-Hardene
(USA) Ferrero (Spain) (Belgium)
(Belgium)

Pete Sampras Andre Agassi Serena Williams Venus Williams


2002
(USA) (USA) (USA) (USA)

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z International Awards
z Indian Awards

Chapter 13

Popular Awards
Temple of Learning

INTERNATIONAL AWARDS

1. Nobel Prizes
The Nobel Prizes are prizes awarded annually to people (and, in the case of the Peace Prize,
sometimes to organisations) who have completed outstanding research, invented ground-breaking
techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry,
literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. They are widely regarded as the su-
preme commendation in their respective subject areas. Those honoured with a Prize are known as
Nobel Laureates.

The Prizes were instituted by the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel through his will. They were first
awarded in 1901, five years after Nobel’s death. The prize in economics, instituted by the Bank of
Sweden, has been awarded since 1969.

As of October 2006, a total of 781 Nobel Prizes have been awarded, 763 to individuals (33 of
these to women) and 18 to organizations.

Prize Categories

Categories Awarding Body

Nobel Prize in Physics Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Nobel Prize in Chemistry Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Nobel Prize in Medicine Karolinska Institutet

Nobel Prize in Literature Swedish Academy

Nobel Prize in Peace Norwegian Nobel Committee

Nobel Prize in Economics Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Nobel Prize Winners for 2006

Prize Category Winner


Prof. Muhammad Yunus (Bangladesh)
Peace
and Grameen Bank

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Dr. John C. Mather (USA)


Physics
Dr. Gorge F. Smoot (USA)

Dr. Andrew Z. Fire (USA)


Medicine
Dr. Craig C. Mello (USA)
Chemistry Dr. Roger D. Kornberg (USA)
Literature Mr. Orhan Pamuk (Turkey)
Economics Dr. Edmund S. Phelps (USA)

2. Man Booker Prize

The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Booker Prize, is one of the world’s
most prestigious literary prizes, awarded each year for the best original full-length novel
written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in the English lan-
guage. The Booker prize was started by Booker McConnel, a multinational conglomerate
company in 1969. This award is administered by Book Trust in the United Kingdom. For the
year 2006, the prize has been awarded to Indian novelist Kiran Desai for ‘The Inheritance
of Loss’.

3. Ramon Magsaysay Award

Ramon Magsaysay Award or the Magsaysay Award is the Asian equivalent of the Nobel Prize. The
Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Broth-
ers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. With the concurrence of the Philippine government, the
prize was created to commemorate Ramon Magsaysay, the late President of the Philippines, and
to perpetuate his example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and prag-
matic idealism within a democratic society.

Every year the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives away prizes to Asian individuals
and organizations for achieving excellence in their respective fields. The awards are given in
six categories:

• Government Service
• Public Service
• Community Leadership
• Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication arts
• Peace and International Understanding
• Emergent Leadership

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Ramon Magsaysay Award Winners for 2006

1. Ek Sonn Chan (Cambodia)

2. Park Won Soon (South Korea)

3. Gawad Kalinga Community Development Foundation (Phillipines)

4. Antonio Meloto (Phillipines)

5. Eugenia Duran Apostol (Phillipines)

6. Sanduk Ruit (Nepal)

7. Arvind Kejriwal (India)

INDIAN AWARDS

1. Civilian Awards

i. Bharat Ratna – The title ‘Bharat Ratna’ translates literally to ‘the Gem of India’. It is the
highest civilian award in India given for exceptional contribution to the field of Art, Literature,
Science and Public Service. The award was instituted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first president
of India in 1954. The award initially carried a gold medal 35mm in diameter having ‘Sun’ on one
side and state ‘National Emblem’ on the other. The design of the medal was altered a year later in
1955. The first Bharat Ratna was awarded to Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan in 1954. The last
awardees were Lata Mangeshkar and late Ustad Bismillah Khan in 2001.

ii. Padma Vibhushan – Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award in India, awarded
for exceptional and distiunguished service to the nation in any field including government
service.

Name Field Native State

Adoor Gopalakrishnan Arts Kerala

C.R. Krishnaswamy Rao Civil Service Tamil Nadu

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Charles Correa Science Maharashtra

Mahashweta Devi Literature & Education West Bengal

Nirmala Deshpande Social Work Delhi

Norman E. Borlaug Science Mexico

Obaid Siddiqui Science Karnataka

Prakash Narain Tandon Medicine Delhi

Justice V.N. Khare Public Affairs Uttar Pradesh

2. Other Important Awards

i. Param Vir Chakra – The Param Vir Chakra is the highest gallantry award for officers from
all branches of the armed forces for the highest degree of valour in the presence of an enemy.
The award was instituted in 1950 by the then President Dr. Rajendra Prasad, with retrospective
effect from 1947. The first Chakra was awarded posthomously to Major Somnath Sharma.
The Param Vir Chakra was last awarded posthmously to Capt. Vikram Batra, Lt. Manoj
Kumar Pandey, Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav and Rifleman Sanjay Kumar who fought
the 1999 Kargil War.

ii. Jnanpith Award - The Jnanpith Award instituted in 1961 is the highest literary honour
conferred in India. It is presented by the Jnanpith Trust, which is largely owned by the The
Times group. The award includes a cheque for Rs. 500,000, a citation plaque and a bronze
replica of Vagdevi (Devi Saraswati, the godess of learning). Any Indian citizen who writes in
any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour.

Before 1982, the awards were given for a single work by a writer. From 1982, the award has
been given for a lifetime contribution to Indian literature. The first recipient of the award was
Malayalam writer G Sankara Kurup in 1965. In 2006, the award was presented to Marathi writer
Vrinda Karandikar for the year 2003.

iii. Dada Saheb Phalke Award – The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is the highest honour pre-
sented by the Indian government to an artist who has, over the years made a significant

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contribution to the field of cinema. The award was instituted in 1969, the birth centenary
year of Dada Saheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. The first winner of the award was
actress Devika Rani. Malayalam film director, Adoor Gopalakrishnan was the recipient
of the award for 2005.

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z Commonly used abbreviations

Chapter 14

Abbreviations
Temple of Learning

ABBREVIATIONS
AAA : Asian Atheletics Association
AAFI : Amateur Atheletics Federation of India
ABC : Atomic Biological and Chemical (warfare)
ABLE : Association of Biotechnology led Enterprises
AC : Ante Christum
AD : Anno Domini
ADB : Asian Development Bank
ADBS : Advanced Data Broadcast System
AFI : Atheletics Federation of India
AFMS : Armed Forces Medical College
AFP : Agence France Presse
AG : Accountant General
AI : Artificial Intelligence
AIDS : Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
AIG : American International Group
AINEC : All India Newspaper Editors’ Conference
ALGOL : Algebraic Oriented Language
AMIE : Associate Member of the Institute of Engineers
ANC : African National Congress
ANERT : Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology
ANN : Artificial Neural Network
AOC : Air Officer Commanding
APCTT : Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology
AQA : Assessment and Qualification Alliance
APEC : Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
APM : Administered Price Mechanism
ARPANET : Advanced Research Project Agency Network
ART : Assisted Reproductive Technologies
ASCII : American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASEAN : Association of South East Asian Nations
ASEM : Asia-Europe Meeting
ASLV : Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
ASPO : Asoociation for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas
ASP : Application Service Provider
ATC : Air Traffic Control
ATM : Automated Teller Machine

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ATP : Adenosine Tri-Phosphate


ATS : Anti-Tetanus Serum
AU : Astronomical Units
AVRC : Audio Video Research centre
AVATAR : Aerobic Vehicle for Hypersonic Aerospace Transportation
AWACS : Airborne Warning and Control System
BBC : British Broadcasting Corporation
BBS : Bulletin Board Service
BC : Before Christ
BCG : Bacillus Calrnette-Guerin (anti TB)
BHP : Brake Horsepower
BIOS : Basic Input Output System
BIS : Bank of International Settlement
BIT : Binary Digit
BOT : Build, Operate and Transfer
BPO : Business Process Outsourcing
BPR : Business Process Re-engineering
BPS : Bytes per Second
BRO : Border Roads Organisation
CABE : Central Advisory Board of Education
CAD : Computer Aided Design
CADA : Command Area Development Authority
CAFTA : Central American Free Trade Agreement
CAG : Comptroller and Auditor General of India
CAN : Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
CAPA : Centre for Asia-Pacific Aviation
CAS : Conditional Access System
CAT : Computerized Axial Tomography (CT)
CBDT : Central Board of Direct Taxes
CBFC : Central Board of Film Certification
CBM : Confidence Building Measures
CBU : Completely built up
CADC : Center for the Development of Advanced Computing
CDMA : Code Division Multiple Access
CECA : Comprehensive Economic Co-operation Agreement
CERT : Computer Emergency Response Team
CFC : Chloro Fluoro Carbons
CFSL : Central Forensic Science Laboratory
CGI : Common Gateway Interface

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CGS : Chief of General Staff


CIBIL : Credit Information Bureau of India
CIF : Cost, Insurance and Freight
CIS : Commonwealth of Independent States
CISC : Complex Instruction Set Computing
CITU : Centre of Indian Trade Union
CMIE : Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy
COFEPOSA : Conservative of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act
COPRA : Consumer Protection Act
CPWD : Central Public Works Department
CRM : Customer Relation Management
CSC : Customer Service Centre
CSO : Central Statistical Organisation
CTBT : Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
CVC : Chief Vigilance Commission
CWC : Chemical Weapons Convention
DDT : Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane
DHSD : Duplex-High Speed Data Service
DMA : Direct Memory Access
DNA : Deoxyribo-nucleic Acid
DPT : Diphtheria, pertussisand tetanus (vaccine)
DSL : Digital Subscriber Line
DTP : Desktop Publishing
DVD : Digital Versatile Disc
DVI : Digital Video Interactive
EAM : Emergency Action Message
ECA : Essential Commodities Act
ECG : Electro Cardiogram
EDI : Electronic Data Interchange
EFTA : European Free Trade Association
EIS : Executive Information System
EMI : Equated Monthly Installments
EOU : Export Oriented Unit
EPCI : Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative
EPROM : Erasable, Programmable Read Only Memory
EPZ : Export Processing Zone
ER&DC : Electronic Research and Development Center
ERNET : Educational and Research Network
ESA : European Space Agency

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ESCAP : Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESMA : Essential Services Maintenance Act
ESR : Electron Spin Resonance
ETT : Embryo Transfer Technology
EVA : Economic Value Added
EVE : Economic Valuation of the Environment
FAO : Food and Agriculture Organisation
FBI : Federal Bureau of investigation
FBT : Fringe Benefit Tax
FBTR : Fast Breeder Test Reactor
FCI : Food Corporation of India
FCRA : Foreign Contribution Regulation Act
FEMA : Foreign Exchange Management Act
FIFA : Federation Internationale de Football Association
FIR : First Information Report
FIRE : Fully integrated robotised engine
FLAG : Fibre optic Link Around the Globe
FOSDIC : Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers
FPD : Flat panel display
FTII : Films and Television Institute of India
GAAP : Generally Accepted Accounting Practices
GAIN : Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition
GATS : General Agreement on Trade and Services
GDP : Gross Domestic Product
GDR : Global Depository Receipt
GLS : Geographical Information System
GMO : Genetically Modified Organisms
GPS : Global Positioning System
GSI : Geological Survey of India
GSLV : Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSM : Global System for Mobile Communications
HAL : Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
HFD : High Frequency
HIV : Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HTML : Hyper Text Markup Language
HTR : High Temperature Reactor
Http : Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HUDCO : Housing and Urban Development Corp.
IA : Indian Airlines

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IAAI : International Atomic Authority of India


IAEA : International Atomic Energy Agency
IARI : Indian Agricultural Research Institute
IAS : Indian Administrative Service
IATA : International Air Transport Association
IBRD : International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAR : Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICCR : Indian Council for Cultural Relations
ICJ : International Court of Justice
ICMR : Indian Council of Medical Research
ICRA : Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India
ICU : Intensive Care Unit
ICWAI : Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India
IDBI : Industrial Development Bank of India
IEEE : Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers
IFC : Industrial Finance Corporation; International Finance Corporation
IIPA : Indian Institute of Public Administration
IISS : International Institute of Strategic Studies
ILO : International Labour Organisation
IMF : International Monetary Fund
INA : Indian National Army
INS : Indian Newspaper Society
INSAT : Indian National Satellite
IP : Internet Protocol
IPC : Indian Penal Code
IPCL : Indian Petro-Chemicals Corporation LTD
IPS : Indian Police Service: Inter Press Service
IRBM : Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile
IRDP : Integrated Rural Development Programme
ISBN : International Standard Book Number
ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI : Indian Statistical Institute
ISKCON : International Society for Krishna Consciousness
ISRO : Indian Space Research Organisation
ISSN : International Standard Serial Number
ITBP : Indo-Tibetan Border Police
ITI : Indian Telephone Industries; Industrial Training Institute
ITU : International Telecommunication Union
IVF : In-Vitro Fertilisation

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IVM : In-Vitro maturation


JPEG : Joint Photographic Expert Group
LASER : Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LASIK : Laser in situ Keratomileusis
LCD : Liquid Crystal Display
MIBBS : Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MICR : Magnetic ink character recognition
MIPS : Million Instructions per Second
MLA : Member of Legislative Assembly
MMTC : Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation
MODEM : Modulator demodulator
MODVAT : Modified Value Added Tax
MOU : Memorandum of Understanding
MPEG : Motion Picture Experts Group
MRTPC : Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
NABARD : National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
NAFED : National Agricultural Co-Operative Marketing Federation
NAFTA : North American Free Trade Agreement
NASA : National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NAV : Net Asset Value
NBOT : National Board of Trade
NCAER : National Council of Applied Economic Research
NCC : National Cadet Corps
NCERT : National Council of Educational Research and Training
NDA : National Defence Academy
NGO : Non-Government Organisation
NHPC : National Hydroelectric Power Corporation
NMDC : National Mineral Development Corporation
NOC : No Objection Certificate
NPC : National Productivity Council
NRS : National Readership Survey
NSUI : National Students Union of India
NTPC : National Thermal Power Corporation
NTSE : National Talent Search Examination
OAS : Organisation of American States
OAU : Organisation of African Unity
OCR : Optical Character Recognition
OECD : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

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OIC : Organisation of Islamic Conference


OPEC : Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
ORT : Oral Rehyderation Therapy
PAC : Public Accounts committee
PAN : Permanent Account Number
PCM : Pulse code modulation
PETA : People for Ethical Treatment of Animals
PIB : Press Information Bureau
PIL : Public Interest Litigation
Pin : Postal Index Number
PM : Post Meridiem; Prime Minister
PMG : Post Master General
POTA : Prevention of Terrorism Act
POW : Prisoner of war
PSLV : Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PVC : Poly vinyl Chloride
PWD : Public Works Department
R&D : Research and Development
RADAR : Ratio Detecting and Ranging
RAM : Random Access Memory
RDX : Research Department Explosive (Cyclotrimethylin Trinitratetrate)
RITES : Rail Indian Technical & Economic Services
RNA : Ribonucleic acid
ROM : Read Only Memory
RPM : Revolutions per Minute
RSS : Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh
R.S.V.P : Repondez S’il Vous Plait (Reply if you please)
SAM : Surface to Air Missile
SAPTA : South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement
SARS : Severe Actual Respiratory Syndrome
SCI : Shipping Corporation of India
SDR : Special Drawing Rights
SGPC : Siromani Gurudwara Prabandak Committee
SIM : Subscriber Information Module
SITA : Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act
SLR : Statutory Liquidity Ratio
SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
STC : State Trading Corporation
STD : Subscriber Trunk Dialing; Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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SUV : Sports Utility Vehicle


SWOT : Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
TADA : Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention Act)
TAFTA : Trans-Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
TCP : Transfer Call Protocol
TDMA : Time Division Multiple Access
TELCO : Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company
TIFR : Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
TISCO : Tata Iron and Steel Company
TMO : Telegraphic Money Order
TQM : Total Quality Management
TRIPS : Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
UAV : Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UGC : University Grants Commission
UNCED : UN Conference on Environment & Development
UNCIP : United Nations Commission for India & Pakistan
UNCLOS : United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNCSTD : United Nations Conference on Science and
Technology for Development
UNCTAD : United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development
UNEP : United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNI : United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF : United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
(Now ‘United Nations Children’s Fund’)
UNIDO : United Nations Industrial Development Fund for Women
UPA : United Progressive Alliance
UPS : Uninterrupted Power Supply
UPSC : Union Public Service Commission
URL : Uniform Resource Locator
VCR : Video Cassette Recorder
VHS : Video Home System
VIP : Very Important Person
VPI : Virtual Private Internet
WAN : World Association of Newspapers; Wide Area Network
WEF : World Economic Forum
WFTU : World Federation of Trade Unions
WHO : World Health Organisation

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WMD : Weapons of Mass Destruction


WMO : World Meteorological Organisation
WPI : Wholesale Price Index
WTO : World Trade Organisation
WWF : World Wildlife Fund, now renamed Worldwide Fund for Nature
WWW : World Wide Web
YMCA : Young Men’s Christian Association
YWCA : Young Women’s Christian Association
ZIP : Zone Improvement Plan

End of Chapter

110 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
z The Human Body
z Food and Nutrition
z Human Diseases
z Branches of Science
z Scientific Inventions and Discoveries
z Scientific Instruments

Chapter 15

Science
Temple of Learning

THE HUMAN BODY


The Human Body is a complicated system consisting of millions of cells organised uniquely and functioning
dynamically together. The complexities are better understood when they’re highlighted. Anatomists find it
useful to divide the human body into eight systems, as listed below

The System of the Human Body


1. The Skeletal System
The framework of the human body is made up of bones. First are the bones of the skull.These consist
of
i) 8 bones of the cranium (brain case),
ii) 14 bones of the face - the facial bones include the bones of the nose, throat and the upper and lower
jaws.
Second are the bones of the trunk. These include breast bones, ribs, the back bone, collar bones,
shoulder blades and hip bones. Third are the bones of the upper limbs. Fourth are the bones of the lower
limbs. Lastly there are various types of joints that help in linking the bones.

The functions of the skeletal system are


a) It helps us to stand up straight.
b) It supports the weight of the body
c) It protects the delicate parts of the body like the brain, the heart and the lungs.

2. The Muscular
The framework of the human body is covered with skin. Under the skin there are pieces of flesh
fixed either on the bones or on the walls of the organs. These are called muscles. There are over
six hundred muscles in the human body. Muscles can be classified into two main types.
a) Voluntary muscles which are controlled by our will
b) Involuntary muscles which are not controlled by our will and are found on the walls of the inner
organs.

The muscles of the heart are called Cardiac muscles and are involuntary.

3. The Nervous System


It comprises of the Brain (cerebrum), Spinal Cord and Nerves. The Brain controls thinking, will and
memory. Reflex actions are controlled by the Spinal Cord. Nerves act as links between the Brain and
voluntary muscles. They help in transportation of the message to the Brain.

4. The Digestive System


Whether awake or asleep some parts of the human body are always wearing out. It is the food that is

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needed to repair this wear and tear. The food supplies the body not only with energy but also heat as
well. Before it can supply the building material, food must be eaten and digested. The organs which help
in digestion are;
a) Mouth
b) Gullet
c) Stomach
d) Duodenum
e) Small intestines
f) Large intestines
g) Pancreas
h) Liver
All the above mentioned organs together constitute the Digestive System of the human body.

5. The Respiratory System


It is the mechanism of the human body which helps us to breathe air into our lungs to get oxygen.
Oxygen comes in contact with haemoglobin which in turn comes in contact with food to give heat
and energy.
We breathe 16 to 18 times a minute. When we breathe, air passes through the larynx and down into the
trachea. The trachea divides itself into two branches–one goes to the right lung and other to the
left lung.

6. The Circulatory System


Digestive system helps in making blood, respiratory system purifies it and circulatory system circulates
it in order to give energy and heat to the different parts of the human body. The heart is the pumping
station, hollow, muscular and mango shaped. Impure blood from all parts of the body comes to the
heart. It pumps it into the lungs for purification. The purified blood is then circulated to all parts of the
body by the heart.
Cardiac muscles help the heart to contract and expand. This action causes the beating of the heart. In
the case of a normal adult heart beats at the rate of 72 times/minute. The vessels that take the pure blood
from the heart to different parts of the body are called Arteries. The vessels that bring back the impure
blood to the heart to be pumped to the lungs are called Veins.

7. The Urinary System


Everyday the food and drinks we take in provide us with essential vitamins, minerals, fats,
proteins, carbohydrates etc. These essential materials are absorbed by the alimentary canal
and the waste left behind is thrown out of the body with the help of the Urinary System.

a) The Kidneys - These are two bean shaped organs, one on either side of the spinal column. While the
blood is flowing through the kidneys, they strain out the poisonous waste matters which together with

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the water (that the kidneys take of the blood) form the urine. Urine passes from the kidneys through a
tube that leads from each kidney to the urinary bladder.

b) The Lungs - The Lungs are an essential part of the body whose principal function is to excrete
carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.

c) The Skin - Another organ that plays a significant part in the removal of the waste from the body is
the skin. It is composed of outer and inner layers. There are a large number of sweat glands in the inner
layer of the skin. Each one of these has a little tube that leads out to the surface of the skin. The sweat
contains salt and waste matters similar to those in the urine. Its functions are
i) To throw out the waste matter
ii) To protect the inner organs
iii) To give sensation of touch
iv) To give shape to the body

8. The Reproductive System - Through the reproductive system, adult human beings procreate.
Reproduction begins when sperm cell from a man fertilises an egg cell from a woman.

Components of a Body
1. Blood
Blood is a highly specialized circulating tissue consisting of several types of cells suspended in a fluid
medium known as plasma. The cellular constituents of blood are
• Red Blood Cells (RBC) - which carry respiratory gases and give it red colour
• White Blood Cells (leukocytes) - which fight disease and
• Platelets - cell fragments which play an important part in the clotting of the blood.

Anatomically, blood is considered a connective tissue from both its origin in the bones and its function.

Functions of blood :
i. It helps in supply of oxygen to tissues.
ii. It supplies nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to all parts of the body.
iii. It helps in removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid.
iv. It helps body in its self-repair mechanism.
v. It helps in regulation of body temperature.

2. Bones
Bone is a hard connective tissue that constitutes the sketal system of the body. It supports the body,
helps the body move and protects the body. It also produces RBC and WBC and stores minerals. A
baby is born with about 300 bones which join together as they grow. An adult has 206 bones.

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‘Femur’ or the thigh bone is the largest bone in the body while ‘The stapes’ or the stirrup bone is the
smallest bone in the body.

3. The Human Brain


Human brain is the anteriormost part of the nervous system in the body. The brain controls the involutary
functions of the human body like heartbeat, respiration, digestion, sensory actions, and movement. The
brain consists of three parts
i. Cerebrum – It is the largest part of the brain consisting of two spheres which help in controlling
voluntary actions of the body.
ii. Cerebullum – A large mass having ridges and furrows, attached to the cerebrum, it regulates
muscular movements of the body.
iii. Medula Oblongata – It is the lowermost part of the brain which extends as the spinal cord in the
vertebral coloumns.

4. Nerves
Human body is made up of 72.418 km of nerves that constitute the nervous system. Nerves help in
transportation of messages to the brain in the form of impulses. The impulses travel at a speed of
360km/hr.

5. The Heart
The Heart is the pumping station of the body, hollow, muscular and mango shaped. Impure blood from
all parts of the body comes to the heart and it pumps it into the lungs for purification. The purified blood
is then circulated to all parts of the body by the heart. In a day 27949.3 litres of blood is pumped through
99776.6 km of blood vessels in a day.

FOOD AND NUTRITION


Every action of human beings, mental or physical, needs energy to repair the wear and tear of the tissues
of the human body.The food supplies the body with the essential energy and heat. It also helps in the
growth of the body.Some constituents of food produce heat and energy while others help in the growth
and repair of the worn out tissues. So the food stuffs are divided into various classes according to their
functions namely

1. Proteins - These are complex compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorous
and a large quantity of nitrogen. They are present in the white of an egg as albumen; in meat as myosin;
in flour as glutens and in dals as legumin. Their uses are to
i) Build up the tissues of the body
ii) Produce energy
iii) Repair the worn out tissues.

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2. Fats - These are the compounds of glycerine and fatty acids which contain carbon, oxygen and
hydrogen. Butter, ghee and various vegetable oils provide necessary fats to the body.

The uses of fats are


i. To produce heat and energy
ii. To help in burning carbohydrates
iii. To prevent the loss of heat from the body because fats are bad conductors of heat.
iv. To serve as reserve food.

3. Carbohydrates - These are compounds of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Of the three elements,
the last two are present in the same ratio in water. They include sugar and various starches found in
wheat, rice, maize and potatoes.
The uses of the carbohydrates are to supply heat and energy.

4. Mineral Salts - These are the salts of calcium, iron and sodium. The salts of calcium strengthen the
bones, salts of iron enrich the blood and the common salts are the source of hydrochloric acid in the
gastric juice. We get salts of calcium from milk and eggs and salts of iron from green vegetables, meat
and eggs.

5. Water - It is the compound of oxygen and hydrogen.Its uses for the human body are
i. It acts as a solvent of food
ii. It flushes out the kidneys and helps in digestion
iii. It helps in bowel movements in the body.

6. Vitamins - These are natural substances present in various food items. Their uses are
i. They help in the growth and repair of the tissues of the human body
ii. They purify the blood
iii. They help in digestion
iv. They eliminate harmful products from the body.

Vitamins are water as well as fat soluble. They can be classified as:
i. Vitamin A - It is found in milk, butter, ghee, eggs, carrots, tomatoes green vegetables and cod-liver
oil. It promotes digestion, growth, the functioning of eyes & ears and checks anaemia. A deficiency of
Vitamin A causes rickets and night blindness.

ii. Vitamin B - It is soluble in water and is found in seeds of plants, egg yolk, many fruits, vegetables
and grains. It is removed when rice is polished or wheat is made into maida. It helps in growth, and
enhances functioning of the nervous system. A deficiency of Vitamin B leads to beri beri, intestinal
stasis, and enlargement of liver.

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iii. Vitamin C - It is soluble in water and is found in green vegetables, juicy fruits (lemons, oranges)
tomatoes, cabbage, turnip and onions. It helps in development of bones, reducing diseases of liver and
disorders of stomach. Its deficiency causes scurvy and defective teeth and bones.

iv. Vitamin D - It is found in milk, butter, ghee, eggs, cod liver oil and sun rays. It helps in bone
formation. Its deficiency causes rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia.

v. Vitamin E - It is found in wheat oil, green vegetables, peas, oats and corns. It helps in keeping away
sterility. Its deficiency leads to sterility.

vi. Vitamin K - It is found in fish and wheat. It helps in coagulation of blood.

HUMAN DISEASES
A disease is a condition that impairs the proper functioning of a part of the body or the body as a whole
(multiple organ failure). Hundreds of different diseases exist. Diseases can be classified as

1. Deficiency Diseases - These are diseases caused by a deficiency of nutrients in a human’s diet.
Some important deficiency diseases are given below

Disease Caused due to Deficiency of

Kwashiorkar and Marasmus Protein

Anaemia Iron (Mineral)

Goitre Iodine (Mineral)

Night Blindness
Vitamin A
Dermatosis

Beri-Beri Vitamin B1

Riboflavinosis Vitamin B2

2. Infectious Diseases – Infectious diseases are those that can be passed from one person to another
by means of environment. It is caused by small agents such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa.
Some of the commonly known infectious diseases known to humans are

i. Bacterial Diseases – Common bacterial disease are thyphoid, tetanus, cholera, pneumonia, leprosy,
plague, whooping cough, meningitis, diptheria etc.

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ii. Viral Disease – Common viral diseases are chickenpox, measles, rabies, mumps, influenza, hepatitis,
encephalitis, AIDS etc.

iii. Fungal Diseases – Common fungal diseases are ringworm, athelete’s foot, dhobi’s itch etc.

iv. Protozoan Diseases – Common protozoan diseases are malaria, sleeping sickness, kalaazar, diarrhoea
etc.

3. Diseases of Eye - A disease in the eye generally causes the defect in vision. This defect in vision is
called astigmatism. Some of the common diseases that affect the eye are cataract, glaucoma, hyper-
metropia, and trachoma.

BRANCHES OF SCIENCES

Acoustics : The study of sound and sound waves


Aerodynamics : The study of forces acting upon bodies in motion in the air (e.g., aircraft,
missiles, etc.)
Aeronautics : The study of all activities pertaining to aerial locomotion (art of flying)
Anatomy : The science of the structure of the animal/human body learnt by dissection.
Anaesthesiology : A branch of medicine concerned with administration of anaesthetics and the
condition of the patient while under anaesthesia.
Anthropology : The study of the origin and physical and cultural development of mankind.
Archaeology : A scientific study of the material remains of the past as evidence of man’s life,
culture and history.
Astronautics : A science dealing with space travel and space vehicles
Astrophysics : A branch of astronomy dealing with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
Astronomy : The science of heavenly bodies (planets)
Bacteriology : A branch of microbiology dealing with bacteria
Biology : The science of living organisms; subdivided into Botany and Zoology
Biophysics : The physics of the vital processes of living organisms
Botany : The science of the plant kingdom
Cardiology : A branch of medicine dealing with the heart
Ceramics : The art of making objects from clay
Chemistry : The study of elements, their behaviour and laws of their combination, etc.
Cosmetology : The study of cosmetics and their use
Cosmology : The study of the universe—its origin, nature, structure and evolution
Cytopathology : The study of diseased cells
Dermatology : A branch of medicine dealing with skin

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Dietetics : The science of diet and nutrition


Ecology : The study of relationship between organisms and their environment
Entomology : Deals with study of insects
Endocrinology : The study of glands
Etymology : A study of the origin and history of words
Genetics : A branch of biology dealing with heredity and the laws that govern it
Geology : A study of the chemical composition of the earth’s crust
Gerontology : A branch medicine studying the ageing process, problems and diseases
Gynaecology : A branch of medicine dealing with female diseases of the reproduction system
Haematology : A branch of medicine studying blood and its disorders
Hepatology : A branch of medicine dealing with liver
Horticulture : A branch of agricultural science dealing with flowers, fruits, vegetables, etc.
Hydrology : The science of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the
hydrosphere and atmosphere
Hygiene : A branch of medicine dealing with health and its presevation
Immunology : A branch of medicine dealing with the immune system of the body
Lithology : The study of the characteristics of rocks
Neuropathology : A branch of medicine dealing with changes produced by diseases in the nervous
system
Obstetrics : A branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy, labour and child birth
Oncology : A branch of medicine dealing with tumours
Ophthalmology : A branch of medicine dealing with eyes and related problems
Orology : The study of mountains
Ornithology : The science of birds
Orthopaedics : A branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
skeletal system (bones)
Paediatrics : A branch of medicine dealing with child diseases (infants)
Palaeontology : The study of fossils and ancient life-forms
Pathology : A branch of medicine that deals with etiologies, mechanisms and manifestation
of diseases
Physiology : A study of the life processes of various organs of living organisms
Psychiatry : The study and treatment of mental and emotional disorders
Radiology : A branch of medical science dealing with the use of x-rays for diagnosis and
treatment
Theology : The study of religions
Zoology : A branch of biology that deals with animal life

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SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS

x Inventor(s) Country Year

Adding Machine
Blaise Pascal France 1642
(Pascaline)

Aeroplane Wright brothers US 1903

Ballpoint Pen Laszlo Biro Hungary 1938

Barometer E. Torricelli Italy 1644

Bicycle Kirkpatrick Scotland 1839

Bicycle Tyre J.B. Dunlop Scotland 1888

Centigrade Scale A. Celsius France 1742

Computer Charles Babbage Britain 1820

A.L. and
Cinema France 1895
J.L. Lumiere

Clock (mechanical) Hsing and Ling-Tsan China 1725

Clock (pendulum) C. Hugyens The Netherlands 1656

Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel Germany 1892

Dynamite Alfred Nobel Sweden 1866

Dynamo Michael Faraday England 1831

Electric Lam Thomas Alva Edison US 1879

Electromagnet W. Sturgeon England 1825

Elevator E G Otis US 1852

Fountain Pen L.E. Waterman US 1884

Gas Lighting William Murdoch Scotland 1794

Gramophone Thomas Alva Edison US 1877

Jet Engine Sir Frank Whittle England 1937

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Locomotive Richard Trevithic England 1804

Machine Gun Richard Gatling US 1861

Match (safety) J.E. Lundstrom Sweden 1844

Alexander Graham
Microphone US 1876
Bell

Microscope Z. Janssen The Netherlands 1590

Motor Car (Petrol) Karl Benz Germany 1885

Motorcycle Daimler Germany 1885

Parachute JPF Blanchard France 1785

Photography (film) John Carbott US 1888

Printing Press J. Gutenberg Germany 1455

Razor (safety) K.C. Gillette US 1895

J. Harrison and A.
Refrigerator Britain 1850
Catlin

Safety Pin Walter Hunt US 1849

Sewing Machine B. Thimmonnier France 1829

Ship (steam) J.C. Perier France 1775

Ship (turbine) Sir Charles Parsons Britain 1894

Steam Engine
Thomas Newcombe Britain 1712
(piston)

Steam Engine James Watt Scotland 1765

Stainless Steel Harry Brearley England 1913

Submarine D. Bushnell US 1776

Telegraph Sir Ernest Swington France 1787

Telegraph Code Samuel F.B. Morse US 1837

Alexander Graham
Telephone US 1876
Bell

Telescope Hans Lippershey The Netherlands 1608

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SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
Instrument Name Uses
Ammeter Instrument used for measuring electric current
Barometer Instrument used for measuring atmospheric pressure

Calorimeter Instrument used for measuring heat quantity


Cardiograph (ECG) Instrument used for recording movements of the heart
Electrometer Instrument used for measuring small electric current

Endoscope Instrument used to examine internal body organs


Galvanometer Instrument used for measuring electric current
Hydrometer Instrument used to relative density of liquids
Hygrometer Instrument used to measure atmospheric humidity
Lactometer Instrument used to measure relative density of milk

Manometer Instrument used to measure pressure of gases


Micrometer Instrument used to measure distances
Microscope Instrument used to very minute objects
Instrument used in submarines to views objects above
Periscope
sea level

Instrument used to record changes in the physiological


Polygraph
process in the body

Salinometer Instrument to measure salinity in liquids


Sphygmomanometer Instrument used to measure blood pressure
Instrument used to hear sounds produced in the body
Stethoscope
by the lungs and the heart
Telescope Instrument used to view distant objects

Transponder Instrument used to receive and send signals


Instrument used to measure the potential electric
Voltmeter
difference between two points
Instrument used to measure the power of an electric
Wattmeter
circuit

End of Chapter

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BRM Test - 1

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The Earth completes one rotation on its axis in………….


a) 23 h 300 min b) 23 h 56 min 4.09 sec
c) 24 h d) 23 h 10 min 2 s

2. The polar diameter of the Earth is shorter than its equatorial diameter by…………….
a) 25 km b) 80 km c) 43 km d) 30 km

3. The layer of atmosphere closest to the Earth’s surface is called


a) Exosphere b) Ionosphere c) Stratosphere d) Troposphere

4. The most abundant element in the Earth’s atmosphere is


a) Argon b) Nitrogen c) Oxygen d) Krypton

5. The distance between consecutive longitudes at the poles is


a) Zero b) 18 km c) 25 km d) 10 km

6. Equinox means
a) The days are longer than the nights
b) The nights are longer than the days
c) The days and the nights are equal
d) The shortest day and the shortest night of the year

7. The heaviest mass revolving round the Sun is


a) Moon b) Jupiter c) Neptune d) Saturn

8. Which is the hottest planet in our solar system?


a) Venus b) Neptune c) Mars d) Jupiter

9. The planet nearest to the Earth is


a) Mercury b) Jupiter c) Venus d) Pluto

10. Which of the following planets, orbits around the Sun in a backward direction from East to
West?
a) Earth b) Mercury c) Jupiter d) Saturn

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11. The imaginary line on the Earth’s surface which closely follows 180° meridian, is called
a) The International Date Line b) The Tropic of Cancer
c) The Equator d) The Prime Meridian

12. The McMahon Line is the border between


a) India and China b) Indian and Nepal
c) India and Pakistan d) India and Burma

13. The Great Barrier Reef is a


a) Hill range b) Coral formation
c) Hot water sea d) Tidal bore

14. The tides in the ocean are caused by the


a) Attraction of the Moon b) Spherical surface of the Earth
c) Gravitation of the Earth d) Gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Moon

15. The Indian Standard Time (IST) is ahead of Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT) by
a) 2 hours b) 5.5 hours c) 7.5 hours d) 6 hours

16. Kampala is the capital of


a) Uganda b) Zambia c) Kenya d) None of these

17. The modern capital of Brazil is


a) Rio de Janeiro b) Sao Paulo c) El Salvador d) Brasilia

18. The largest river in Asia is


a) Yangtze b) Brahmaputra c) Indus d) Mekong

19. Area wise, which is the largest ocean in the World?


a) The Atlantic b) The Indian c) The Pacific d) The Arctic

20. Southern Rhodesia is the new name of


a) Zaire b) Zimbabwe c) Tanzania d) Swaziland

21. ‘The Land of the Morning Calm’ refers to


a) Japan b) Korea c) Taiwan d) Netherlands

22. Which of the following countries is known as ‘The Land of the Thunder Bolt’?
a) Taiwan b) Tibet c) Bhutan d) Japan

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23. ‘The Sick Man of Europe’ is the nick name for


a) Rome b) Turkey c) Italy d) Oxford

24. Which of the following countries has the largest area in the World?
a) Canada b) China c) USA d) Russia

25. Which of the following rivers crosses the Equator twice?


a) The Amazon b) The Nile c) The Congo d) The Orinoco

26. Mount Everest is located in which country?


a) India b) China c) Nepal d) Bhutan

27. Which is the world’s largest mountain range?


a) The Alps b) The Himalaya c) The Andes d) The Atlas

28. The largest Island in the world is


a) Australia b) Greenland c) New Guinea d) None of these

29. Bauxite is an important ore of


a) Aluminium b) Zinc c) Copper d) Mica

30. Which of the following countries leads in the production of gold?


a) India b) Bhutan c) Tibet d) South Africa

31. Which of the following countries leads in the production of tea?


a) India b) Myanmar c) Sri Lanka d) Japan

32. Which country is the largest producer of silk?


a) India b) Japan c) China d) Brazil

33. Which country is the largest producer of rubber in the world?


a) Sri Lanka b) Malaysia c) India d) Brazil

34. Which country produces the maximum sugar in the world?


a) USA b) India c) Cuba d) Brazil

35. Which of the following planets has the maximum number of satellites?
a) Jupiter b) Saturn
c) Earth d) Mars

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36. Who discovered the sea route to India?


a) Vasco Da Gama in 1498 b) Columbus in 1402
c) Magellan in 1506 d) Sir Hopkins in 1698

37. Which of the following atmospheric layer helps in radio communication?


a) Exosphere b) Ionosphere c) Troposphere d) Stratosphere

38. Riyal is the currency of which country?


a) Romania b) Saudi Arabia c) Japan d) Libya

39. The term ‘Third World’ refers to the


a) Developed countries b) Underdeveloped and developing countries
c) Oil rich countries d) Asian countries

40. Which of the following soils is best suited for wheat cultivation?
a) Black soil b) Red soil c) Laterite soil d) Deep rich soil

41. Who was the first to classify the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World?
a) Aristotle b) Plato c) Antipater d) Socrates

42. Which among the following is the world’s longest road?


a) The Grant Trunk Road b) The Broadway Street
c) The Pan-American Highway d) The Monumental Axis

43. Who was the painter of the Mona Lisa?


a) Leonardo da Vinci b) F.A. Bartholdi
c) Henry Smith d) None of these

44. The New York version of the Statue of Liberty was engineered by
a) A.G. Eiffel b) Henry Smith
c) Sir Edwin Lutyens d) None of these

45. The Kangaroo is the national emblem of


a) Canada b) Australia
c) Italy d) Ireland

46. The Water Lily is the national emblem of


a) Denmark b) Bangladesh
c) Italy d) Luxembourg

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47. The ‘Shora’ is the Parliament of which country?


a) Algeria b) Iran
c) Afghanistan d) Austria

48. The Parliament of Japan is called


a) Dail b) Sejim
c) Cortes d) Diet

49. Reuters is the news agency of


a) United Kingdom b) United States
c) Former USSR d) Germany

50. Who is the first woman and Asian to head the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)?
a) Tanya Mitra b) Chitra Natrajan
c) Chitra Bharucha d) Payal Ranganathan

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BRM Test - 2

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The French Revolution began in the year


a) 1770 b) 1788 c) 1789 d) 1750

2. The ‘Renaissance’ took place in Europe in


a) 12th century b) 14th century c) 15th century d) 18th century

3. Who emerged as a great leader in France as result of the ‘French Revolution’ ?


a) Voltaire b) Napoleon Bonaparte
c) Karl Marx d) None of these

4. The Russian Revolution took place in the year


a) 1917 b) 1914 c) 1910 d) 1920

5. The ‘Bolsheviks’ are associated with


a) France b) Germany c) Russia d) England

6. Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?


a) Lenin b) Karl Marx c) Stalin d) None of these

7. Which was Napoleon’s last battle in which he was captured and exiled to St. Helena?
a) The Battle of Trafalgar b) The Battle of Austerlitz
c) The Battle of Waterloo d) The Battle of Leipzig

8. Karl Marx belonged to which country?


a) Italy b) Yugoslavia c) Russia d) Germany

9. World War I started in which year?


a) 1912 b) 1914 c) 1910 d) 1916

10. World War II started in which year?


a) 1938 b) 1935 c) 1939 d) 1940

11. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in


a) 1914 b) 1920 c) 1928 d) 1919

12. The UNO came into existence in


a) 1946 b) 1945 c) 1947 d) 1950

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13. The headquarter of the UNO are located at


a) New York b) Paris c) Washington DC d) Geneva

14. The UN Security Council has how many permanent members?


a) 5 b) 7 c) 8 d) 15

15. The UN day is officially celebrated on


a) 25th Dec b) 24th Oct c) 24th Sept d) 25th Nov

16. Which of the following is not a principal body of UNO?


a) Security Council b) International Court of Justice
c) Trusteeship Council d) UNICEF

17. How many official working languages are recognized by the UNO?
a) 8 b) 7 c) 6 d) 5

18. The headquarters of the International Labour Organisation is located at


a) Geneva b) The Hague c) New York d) Rome

19. Kofi Annan was appointed as the Secretary General of the UNO in which year?
a) 2000 b) 1999 c) 1998 d) 1997

20. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was established in the year
a) 1945 b) 1948 c) 1957 d) 1950

21. Which of the following UN organizations is concerned with the welfare of children through-
out the world?
a) UNESCO b) UNICEF c) WHO d) FAO

22. In which years did India become a member of the UNO?


a) 1948 b) 1947 c) 1946 d) 1945

23. The headquarters of the International Court of Justice is located at


a) New York b) The Hague c) Geneva d) Washinton D C

24. Who was the first Chairman of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC)?
a) Gen. Zia ur Rehman
b) Lt Gen. H.M. Ershad
c) King Birendra
d) Mrs Indira Gandhi

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25. The Red Cross was founded by


a) J. H. Durant b) Baden Powell c) Trygve Lie d) Frederick Passey

26. Match the following


A) Rig Veda 1. Musical hymns
B) Yajur Veda 2. Sacrifices and rituals
C) Sama Veda 3. Medicine
D) Atharva Veda 4. Sacred Prayers

A B C D
a) 2 3 4 1
b) 3 4 2 1
c) 4 2 3 1
d) 4 2 1 3

27. ‘Das Kapital’ was written by


a) Lenin b) Mao-Tse-tung
c) Karl Marx d) None of these

28. Match the following:


Author Work
A) Kautilya 1. Broken Wing
B) Panini 2. Arthashastra
C) Maharishi Ved Vyas 3. Ashtadhyayi
D) Sarojini Naidu 4. Bhagawad Gita

A B C D
a) 1 4 2 3
b) 4 1 3 2
c) 3 2 4 1
d) 2 3 4 1

29. Who is the author of the book ‘A Passage to India’?


a) E.M. Forster b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Minoo Masani d) None of these

30. ‘Swami and Friends’ was written by


a) R.K. Laxman b) R.K. Narayan c) Mulk Raj Anand d) None of these

31. ‘Dak Ghar’ was written by


a) R.K. Narayan b) Mulk Raj Anand c) R.K. Laxman d) Rabindranath Tagore

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32. Who is the author of ‘Anandamath’ ?


a) Iqbal b) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
c) Tara Shankar Bandyopadhyay d) None of these

33. ‘Panchatantra’ was written by


a) Bhasa b) Jaya Deva c) Vishnu Sharma d) Banabhatta

34. The author of Malavikagnimitram was


a) Harisena b) Kalidasa c) Vatsabhatti d) Bhavabhuti

35. The number of the Upanishads are


a) 300 b) 108 c) 412 d) 512

36. ‘India Wins Freedom’ is a semi-biographical work of


a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) Mahatama Gandhi
c) Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad d) None of these

37. ‘Meghadootam’ was written by


a) Bhavabhuti b) Kalidasa
c) Maharishi Ved Vyas d) Maharishi Valmiki

38. Which is the controversial book, some pages of which were kept sealed in the Calcutta
Museum to be released after 40 years of independence in 1988?
a) Freedom at Midnight b) India Wins Freedom
c) India Divided d) None of these

39. Who is the author of ‘A Suitable Boy’?


a) R.K. Narayanan b) Nirad C. Chaudhury
c) Amitava Ghosh d) Vikram Seth

40. Who among the following is the inventor of a system of writing and printing for the blind?
a) Robert Wilhelm Bunsen b) Louis Braille
c) Sir Humphrey Davy d) Christian Huygents

41. Sigmund Freud is associated with


a) Detective work b) Physiology and medicine
c) Psychology d) Leprosy control

42. Who was the first human to go into space?


a) Edwin Aldrin (USA) b) Frank Boreman (USA)
c) Yuri Gagarin (Russia) d) Ghrman S. Titov (Russia)

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43. Rearrange the following in a chronologically descending order :


1. Aristotle 2. Socrates 3. Confucius 4. Plato
a) 1, 4, 2, 3 b) 3, 4, 2, 1 c) 2, 4, 1, 3 d) 3, 2, 4, 1

44. Who is said to be the father of Modern Olympics?


a) Robert Dover b) Pierre de Coubertin
c) Theodosius I d) Ernest Curtis

45. In which year did the first Modern Olympic Games take place?
a) 1908 b) 1904 c) 1896 d) 1895

46. In which year was the International Olympic Committee (IOC) formed?
a) 1893 b) 1894 c) 1895 d) 1896

47. Where were the first Modern Olympic Games held?


a) Olympia b) Athens c) Seoul d) Los Angeles

48. ‘In the Line of Fire: A Memoir’ is the autobiography of


a) Jaswant Singh b) Muhammad Zia ul Haq
c) Pervez Musharraf d) George Fernandes

49. Which country has joined the European Union in January 2007?
a) Romania b) Switzerland
c) Turkey d) Latvia

50. ‘Out of My Comfort Zone’ is the autobiography of


a) Mark Waugh b) Steve Waugh
c) Nasser Hussain d) Alec Stewart

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BRM Test - 3

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. ‘Bishop’ is the term associated with which sports?


a) Cricket b) Polo c) Chess d) Golf

2. The Nobel Prize for Economics was introduced in which year?


a) 1968 b) 1969 c) 1970 d) 1971

3. In which year was the Nobel Prize first awarded?


a) 1895 b) 1901 c) 1876 d) 1900

4. Which country awards the Nobel Prize?


a) America b) England
c) Sweden d) Ireland

5. Individually the only person to have outrightly won the Nobel Prize twice is
a) William Lawrence b) Dr Linus Carl Pauling
c) Marie Curie d) Antoni Henri Becquerel

6. Who was the first Indian to have won the Nobel Prize?
a) Dr. C.V. Raman b) Rabindra Nath Tagore
c) Mother Teresa d) H.G. Khorana

7. Which of the following works brought the first Nobel Prize to India?
a) Theory of Relativity b) Manu’s Arthashastra
c) Gitanjali d) Social Work

8. Who was the first scientist to have received the Nobel Prize in India and in which year ?
a) HG Khorana in 1968 b) CV Raman in 1930
c) CV Raman in 1934 d) HG Khorana in 1940

9. The first woman to win the Nobel Prize was


a) Mother Teresa b) Mrs. Aung San Suu Kyi
c) Madame Marie Curie d) None of these

10. ‘LASER’ is an acronym for Light Amplification by


a) Stimulated Emission of Radio Waves b) Stimulated Emission of Radiation
c) Spontaneous Emission of Radio Waves d) Spontaneous Emission of Radiation

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11. AISSF stands for


a) All India Special Services Federation b) All India Shiv Sena Folk
c) All India Sikh Service Fund d) All India Sikh Students Federation

12. What was the name of India’s first base in Antarctica, set up in 1982?
a) Gangotri b) Maitri
c) Dakshin Gangotri d) Dakshin Maitri

13. The currency of Indonesia is


a) Dollar b) Rupiah c) Lira d) Rupee

14. The deepest lake in the world is the


a) Red Sea b) Dal Lake c) Caspian Sea d) Baikal Lake

15. The Fourth Estate means


a) The Press b) The Police c) The Judiciary d) The Ministry

16. The Asian Development Bank has its headquarters at


a) Manila b) Beijing c) Delhi d) Tokyo

17. The Simla Pact was between


a) Russia-India b) India-Pakistan c) India-China d) India-Bangladesh

18. The Indian Army has been divided into


a) Four commands b) Eight commands
c) Six commands d) Five commands

19. Where is the ‘Holy Land’ of the World?


a) Amritsar b) The Vatican City
c) Palestine d) Egypt

20. Which country is called the ‘Land of the Rising Sun’?


a) Japan b) Norway c) Ireland d) Thailand

21. Venice is commonly known as the


a) Queen of the Adriatic b) Queen of the North
c) Queen of Europe d) Beauty city

22. Which is the ‘City of Seven Hills’?


a) Paris b) Rome
c) Venice d) None of these

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23. Australia is known as the


a) Land of Golden Fleece b) Dependent continent
c) South Europe d) Richest Island

24. The sobriquet used for Norway is the


a) Land of the Midnight Sun b) Land of the Rising Sun
c) Land of the Morning Clam d) Land of the Maple Leaf

25. ‘The Land of the Maple Leaf’ is the sobriquet of


a) New York b) Canada c) Malta d) Ireland

26. ‘The Sick Man of Europe’ is a sobriquet of


a) Turkey b) France c) South-hall d) Berlin

27. Which of the following is known as the ‘City of the Golden Gate’?
a) Amritsar in India b) London in England
c) San Francisco in USA d) Sydney in Australia

28. Numismatics is the study of


a) Coins b) Numbers c) Stamps d) Space

29. Eugenics is the study of


a) Altering human beings by changing their genetic components
b) The people of European origin
c) The different races of mankind
d) The genetics of plants

30. Ornithology is the


a) Study of bones b) Study of birds c) Study of smells d) None of these

31. Entomology deals with


a) Plants b) Animals c) Insects d) Chemicals

32. Density of milk is measured by a


a) Lactometer b) Hydrometer c) Barometer d) Hygrometer

33. The instrument used to measure electric current is


a) Ammeter b) Electrometer c) Galvanometer d) Spectrometer

34. ‘Fathometer’ is used to measure


a) Earthquakes b) Rainfall c) Ocean depth d) Sound intensity

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35. Who among the following invented the Steam Engine?


a) Marconi b) James Watt c) Thomas Savery d) Wright Brothers

36. Who invented the Typewriter ?


a) Shockley b) Remington c) Scholes d) Waterman

37. The credit of inventing the television goes to


a) Faraday b) Baird c) Edison d) Marconi

38. Choose the correct combination


a) Typewriter : Remington b) Dynamite : Dunlop
c) Evolution : Darwin d) Aeroplane : Harvey

39. Who invented the ball-point pen ?


a) Waterman b) Oscar
c) Wilson d) Biro brothers

40. Who among the following evolved the concept of relationship between mass and energy?
a) Einstein b) Planck
c) Dalton d) Rutherford

41. Match the following columns :


Column I Column II
A) Marconi 1. Radio
B) Darwin 2. Natural selection theory
C) Laennec 3. Orthogenesis theory
D) Baird 4. Stethoscope
5. Television

A B C D
a) 1 3 4 5
b) 5 4 3 2
c) 1 2 4 5
d) 3 5 2 4

42. Who among the following is associated with the invention of Computers?
a) Edison b) Babbage
c) MacMillan d) Rangabhashyam

43. Which country has won the 11th Hockey World Cup 2006?
a) New Zealand b) Australia c) Argentina d) Germany

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44. What is the full form of NASA?


a) National Aeronautical Science Association
b) New Aeronautical and Science Agency
c) National Aeronautics and Space Administration
d) None of these

45. The Indian Constitution is divided into how many parts?


a) 22 b) 21 c) 20 d) 18

46. Which city is set to become the first Wi-Max city of India and only the second in the World?
a) Chennai b) Bangalore c) Kolkata d) Mumbai

47. Which country is the latest member (192nd) of the UN?


a) Taiwan b) Switzerland c) Malawi d) Montenegro

48. Which PSU has won the SCOPE award for the year 2004-05?
a) SAIL b) ONGC c) IOC d) GAIL

49. Who is the autor of the book “A Call to Honor-In Service of Emergent India’?
a) Bimal Jalan b) Arvind Kejriwal
c) Jaswant Singh d) Yashwant Sinha

50. Who has won the Tour de France for the year 2006?
a) Lance Armstrong b) Floyd Landis
c) Tim Henman d) Carl Johnson

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BRM Test - 4

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Who wrote the book ‘The Art of War’?


a) The Duke of Welllington b) Norman Schwarzkopf
c) Sun Tzu d) Napolean Bonaparte

2. The smallest unit of data a computer can process is a:


a) Bit b) Bot c) Byte d) Bode

3. What does GSLV stand for?


a) Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
b) Geo-Synchronous Launch Vehicle
c) Global Satellite Launch Vehicle
d) Global Synchronous Launch Vehicle

4. What does PSLV stand for?


a) Payload Servicing Launch Vehicle
b) Perfect Satellite Launch Vehicle
c) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
d) Prithvi Solar Launch Vehicle

5. ISRO stands for ____________


a) International Satellite Research Organization
b) Indian Satellite Research Organization
c) International Space Research Organization
d) Indian Space Research Organization

6. Which former President has got two consecutive terms in office?


a) Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed b) Dr. Zakir Hussain
c) Giani Zail Singh d) Dr Rajendra Prasad

7. What does the DMK (political party) stand for?


a) Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam b) Dravida Moksha Kazhagam
c) Davidra Muntrar Kazhagam d) Dravidrar Muktikul Kazhagam

8. Who is the founder of the DMK?


a) M. Karunanidhi b) Jayalalitha
c) C.N. Annadurai d) M.G. Ramachandran

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9. Orygen Trinley Dorje is the real name of


a) 16th Kagyu Karmapa b) 17th Kagyu Karmapa
c) Rimpoche d) Dalai Lama

10. Who was India’s first Deputy Prime Minister?


a) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel b) Sardar Baldev Singh
c) B.R. Ambedkar d) Maulana Azad

11. Rabindranath Nath Tagore composed the national anthem of which country?
a) Bangladesh b) India
c) India, Bangladesh and Nepal d) India and Bangladesh

12. The first Joint Stock company to trade with India was started by
a) Dutch b) British c) French d) Portuguese

13. Who was the first Indian woman to win a medal at the Olympics?
a) Karnam Malleswari b) Bachendri Pal
c) Kunjarani Devi d) P.T. Usha

14. India’s first satellite was launched in:


a) 1950 b) 1965 c) 1975 d) 1985

15. What was the name of the first satellite launched by India?
a) Aryabhatta b) Bhaskara I c) Bhaskara II d) Rohini

16. Who was the first Indian to go into space?


a) Kalpana Chawla b) Tenzing Norgay c) Rakesh Sharma d) Sanjay Thapar

17. Who wrote ‘The War of the Worlds’?


a) Colin Wilson b) H.G. Wells c) Isaac Asimov d) Dan Brown

18. Where are the headquarters of the International Monetary Fund located?
a) Washington D C b) Geneva c) Berlin d) London

19. Which gas makes up the single largest component of the Earth’s atmosphere?
a) Carbon Monoxide b) Carbon Dioxide
c) Oxygen d) Nitrogen

20. Who was the founder of the Indian National Congress?


a) Annie Besant b) A.O Hume
c) M. K. Gandhi d) None of the above

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21. Who is the Iron Man of Germany?


a) Boris Becker b) Bismarck c) Hitler d) Napoleon

22. Which of the following element has the lowest melting point?
a) Mercury b) Carbon c) Astatine d) Rhodium

23. Which planet’s name means ‘The God of the Heavens’?


a) Venus b) Neptune c) Jupiter d) Uranus

24. Who founded the Arya Samaj in AD 1875?


a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
c) M. G. Ranade d) Dayanand Saraswathi

25. The first Telegraph line, introduced by Lord Dalhousie in 1853, ran between
a) Mumbai and Calcutta b) Calcutta and Agra
c) Mumbai and Thane d) Mumbai and Chennai

26. Common salt is obtained from sea water by the process of


a) Evaporation b) Crystallization
c) Filtration d) Sublimation

27. Who, amongst the following, was the first Englishman to become President of the Indian
National Congress?
a) A.O. Hume b) George Yule
c) William Wedderburn d) Ramsay McDonald

28. Which of the following is not an ‘ear’ bone?


a) Stapes b) Incus
c) Sacral d) Malleus

29. Who amongst the following invented ‘Wireless Telegraphy’?


a) Gugileime Marconi b) Max Planck
c) Heinrich Hertz c) Michael Faraday

30. Duncan Pass is located between


a) South and Little Andaman b) North and South Andaman
c) South and Middle Andaman d) North and Little Andaman

31. Which bird’s scientific name is ‘Pavo Cristatus’?


a) Peacock c) Kiwi
c) Ostrich d) Emu

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32. Which among the following is the largest Union Territory by area?
a) Pondicherry b) Daman & Diu
c) Dadra & Nagar Haveli d) The Andaman & Nicobar Islands

33. What is the currency of Portugal?


a) Euro b) Escudo
c) Mark d) Schilling

34. Which two countries lie on either side of the Durand Line?
a) India and Afghanistan b) India and Nepal
c) Pakistan and Afghanistan d) Pakistan and Iran

35. Whose autobiography is ‘A Captain’s Diary’?


a) Imran Khan b) Alec Stewart
c) Allan Border d) Wasim Akram

36. What does a Phillumenist collect?


a) Old coins b) Flags of various nations
c) Match box labels d) Stamps

37. Who has written ‘A Village by the Sea’?


a) Arundhuti Roy b) Pran
c) Anita Desai d) Khalil Gibran

38. The Panumunjom border post divides which of the following two countries?
a) Japan and China b) North and South Korea
c) South Korea and Japan d) North Korea and China

39. Established in the year 1931, the Commonwealth of Nations today has a membership
________ states.
a) 87 Nation b) 54 Nation c) 69 Nation d) 92 Nation

40. India is a member of


1. NATO 2. WTO 3. IAEA 4. NAFTA
a) 2 and 3 b) 1 and 4 c) 1, 2 & 3 d) All the above

41. Constantinople is the old name for which city?


a) Harare b) Istanbul c) Oslo d) Cardiff

42. When is World Tourism Day celebrated?


a) 27th September b) 27th October c) 27th November d) 27th December

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43. The river Sone is a tributary of which river?


a) Indus b) Yamuna c) Sutlej d) Ganga

44. Where was the 14th NAM Summit held in September 2006?
a) Durban b) Moscow c) Havana d) Kuala Lumpur

45. Where was the 32nd G-8 summit held in July 2006?
a) Gleneagles b) St. Petersburg c) Moscow d) London

46. Which country from the given options is not a member of G-8?
a) Canada b) France c) Germany d) Australia

47. Which country is not a member of NAM?


a) USA b) UAE c) Egypt d) Ecuador

48. Who has written the book ‘Mein Kampf’?


a) Rudyard Kipling b) Karl Marx c) Adolf Hitler d) Charles Dickens

49. Who won the Ramon Magsaysay Award for the year 2006?
a) Arvind Kejriwal b) Laxmi Narayan Ramdas
c) Shantha Sinha d) V Shanta

50. Who is the Chief Election Commissioner of India?


a) J M Lyngdoh b) B B Tandon
c) S Y Qureshi d) N Gopalaswami

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BRM Test - 5

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Which of the following countries is not a member of the SAARC?


a) China b) Maldives c) Sri Lanka d) Bhutan

2. Which of the following countries is not a member of ASEAN?


a) Brunei b) India c) Vietnam d) Laos

3. Net factor income from abroad added to GDP gives


a) NDP b) GNP c) NNP d) Per capita income

4. The rear view mirror used in a car is


a) Convex b) Concave c) Plane d) Parabolic

5. The first census in India was completed in the year


a) 1873 b) 1852 c) 1872 d) 1842

6. ‘Love Story’ was written by


a) Khuswant Singh b) Anita Desai
c) William Golding d) Erich Segal

7. Cooking gas is a mixture of:


a) Butane & Propane b) Oxygen and Butane
c) Oxygen & Nitrogen d) Methane and Carbon Dioxide

8. Lead pencils contain


a) White lead b) Graphite c) Red lead d) Coke

9. The Secretariat of WTO is based in


a) Paris b) London c) Rome d) Geneva

10. ‘Truth, Love and a Little Malice’ is authored by


a) Indira Goswami b) Khushwant Singh
c) Amitabh Ghosh d) Anita Desai

11. The term “puck” is associated with


a) Table Tennis b) Lawn Tennis c) Ice Hockey d) Water polo

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12. The largest gland in the body is the


a) Liver b) Pituitary
c) Thyroid d) Thymus

13. ECG is related to the


a) Heart b) Brain
c) Stomach d) Gall Bladder

14. Hepatitis is a disease related to the


a) Kidney b) Muscles
c) Liver d) Brain

15. Who was the designer of the Victoria Memorial?


a) G.Witet b) William Emerson
c) Geronimo Veroneo d) Edward Lutyens

16. When was the first Five Year Plan started?


a) 1950-51 b) 1951-52
c) 1947-48 d) 1948-49

17. The battle of Waterloo was fought between


a) Germany and Britain b) Poland and Britain
c) Germany and France d) Britain and France

18. Duma is the Lower House of the parliament of which country?


a) Denmark b) Norway
c) Russia d) Canada

19. The amendment of which of the following Articles of the Indian constitution would enable
the government to impose Value Added Tax (VAT) regime in India?
a) Article 369 b) Article 271
c) Article 269 d) Article 279

20. Who is the current Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
a) Rodrigo Rato b) Hoest Koehller
c) Montek Singh Ahluwalia d) James Wolfenson

21. Who is the Chief of the Indian Army?


a) Deepan Singh b) Bibek Debroy c) Joginder Sharma d) None of these

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22. Who is the Chief of the Indian Navy?


a) Devesh Malik b) Arun Prakash
c) T.P. Thapa d) Sureesh Mehta

23. Who is the Comptroller and Auditor General of India?


a) V N Kaul b) Vineet Pandit
c) Shashank Kumar d) Subhendra Pandit

24. The deputy speaker of Lok Sabha is


a) Manohar Joshi b) K Rahman Khan
c) Charan Jeet Singh Atwal d) Najma Heptullah

25. The deputy speaker of the Rajya Sabha is


a) K. Rahman Khan b) S.P. Shukla
c) Om Prakash Chautala d) Amar Singh

26. Who is the President of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP)?


a) L.K. Advani b) Raj Nath Singh
c) Arun Jaitley d) Venkaiah Naidu

27. Who is the Chief Minister of Puducherry?


a) M.M. Lakhera b) Dilip Phadnis
c) N. Rangaswamy d) Arun Mathur

28. Who is the Chief Minsiter of Mizoram?


a) Pu Zoramthanga b) P.A. Sangma
c) P.K. Chamling d) Okram Ibobi Singh

29. Who is the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)?


a) Yasser Arafat b) Mahmoud Abbas c) Ariel Sharon d) Ehud Barak

30. Who was the first India woman to swim across the seven seas?
a) Shikha Tandon b) Bula Choudhary c) Amanda Beard d) Aarti Saha

31. Who is the President of the International Cricket Council (ICC)?


a) Malcolm Speed b) Ehsan Mani c) Percy Sonn d) Tayaab Khan

32. Which Indian city is nicknamed ‘The City of Joy’?


a) Chennai b) Mumbai c) Bangalore d) Kolkata

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33. In which Asian city was the Mughal Emperor Babur buried?
a) Lahore b) Kabul c) Quetta d) Samarkand

34. Lima is the capital of which country?


a) Peru b) Chile c) Lebanon d) None of these

35. The first ever stamp issued in India in 1854 had the picture of which person?
a) Lord Clive b) Queen Victoria c) Queen Elizabeth I d) King George V

36. Dirham is currency of which country?


a) Egypt b) Saudi Arabia c) U.A.E d) Israel

37. In which body part are the Islets of Langerhans present?


a) Liver b) Brain c) Pancreas d) Small intestine

38. What is the maximum strength (number of members) of Lok Sabha?


a) 540 b) 545 c) 550 d) 555

39. What is the currency of Poland?


a) Rouble b) Euro c) Dollar d) Zloty

40. Aswan Dam is located in which country?


a) Sudan b) Uganda c) Egypt d) India

41. Lack of Vitamin A leads to


a) Scurvy b) Night Blindness c) Beriberi d) Rickets

42. Kuchipudi is a classical dance form of which state?


a) Kerala b) Andhra Pradesh c) Tamil Nadu d) Orissa

43. Who was the first woman to go into space?


a) Svetlana Savitskaya b) Valentina Tereshkova
c) Sally Ride d) Adriyana Nikolayev

44. Which of the following is not a commercial crop?


a) Jowar b) Rice c) Wheat d) Cotton

45. World Environment Day is observed on


a) 5th January b) 31st January c) 5th June d) 31st June

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46. ‘Madhubani’ painting is the art form of which state?


a) Rajasthan b) Uttar Pradesh c) Jammu & Kashmird) Bihar

47. The Gandhara and Mathura art forms developed during the period of………
a) Harshvardana b) Samudragupta c) Kanishka d) Huvishka

48. Which was India’s first nuclear power plant?


a) Kalpakkam b) Korba c) Tarapore d) Trombay

49. In which state is the Dudhwa national park located?


a) Madhya Pradesh b) Uttar Pradesh c) Uttaranchal d) Rajasthan

50. The term of Rajya Sabha is


a) 4 years b) 5 years c) 6 years d) 7 years

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BRM Test - 6

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. In which city is the secretariat of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) located?
a) New Delhi b) Kathmandu c) Islamabad d) Colombo

2. The deficiency of which vitamin causes Beriberi?


a) Vitamin-B-12 b) Vitamin C c) Vitamin B-1 d) Vitamin B-2

3. How many ounces are there in a pound?


a) 11 b) 16 c) 10 d) 15

4. Who is the only Governor-General of India to be appointed twice on the post?


a) Lord Canning b) Lord Cornwallis c) Lord Dalhousie d) Lord Mountbatten

5. What is the name of the Canadian author who wrote ‘Life of Pi’, which won The Booker
prize in 2003?
a) Jack Welsch b) Yann Martel c) Arundhati Roy d) Daniel’O Brien

6. The J.S. Verma committee formed by the government dealt with


a) Restructuring UTI
b) Determining the role of exchanges and corporate with regards to price sensitive
information.
c) Probing into the Ketan Parekh Scam
d) None of these

7. The first Indian film with sound in it was


a) Raja Harishchandra b) Alamara
c) Pundalik d) None of the above

8. Which was the first TV serial on Doordarshan network?


a) Buniyaad b) Humlog c) Mahabharat d) None

9. Which is the highest civilian award given by the President of India?


a) Bharat Ratna b) Dadasaheb Phalke Award
c) Oscar Award d) Jnanpith Award

10. Which city is called the ‘City of Magnificent Distances’?


a) Washington D.C b) Paris c) London d) Tokyo

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11. December 10th is observed as the


a) UN Day b) World Health Day
c) World Red cross Day d) Human Rights Day

12. Who was the first ever woman Prime Minister of any country in the World?
a) Mrs. Indira Gandhi of India b) Mrs. Sirimavo Bhandaranaike of Sri Lanka
c) Mrs. Golda Meir of Israil d) None of these

13. The Booker prize is awarded in which field?


a) Science b) Literature
c) Medicine d) Social Service

14. ‘Invisible Man’ has been authored by


a) James Jeams b) Victor Hungo c) G.B. Shaw d) H.G. Wells

15. Which country is known as ‘The Forbidden Country’?


a) Lhasa b) Norway c) Malaysia d) Cuba

16. What is the emblem of the United Nations Organisation (UNO)?


a) Stars & Moon b) Olive Branch c) A Dove d) A Mountain Peak

17. Batavia is an old name for which country?


a) Angora b) Jakarta c) Beijing d) Cambodia

18. What is the ‘Maginot Line’?


a) Boundary between Iraq-Iran
b) Boundary between North & South Korea
c) Boundary between North & South Vietnam
d) Boundary between France & Germany

19. Where does one find the World’s tallest fountain?


a) Venice b) Jamaica c) Arizona d) Los Angeles

20. Name the first man/men who climbed Mt. Everest?


a) Edmund Hillary b) Tenzing Norgay c) Both d) None of these

21. The Asian Games 2006 were held at………


a) Hong-Kong b) Kuala Lumpur c) Doha d) New Delhi

22. When was the first Lok Sabha constituted?


a) 1950 b) 1947 c) 1951 d) 1952

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23. Which three countries were the chief founders of the Non-Aligned movement?
a) India, Burma, Nepal b) India, China Russia
c) India, Yugoslavia, Egypt d) Egypt, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka

24. Which British General in India was involved in the Battle of Plassey?
a) Lord Duplex b) Lord Hasting
c) Lord Cornwallis d) Lord Clive

25. Which is the highest Gallantry Award of the Indian Republic?


a) Paramvir Chakra b) Mahavir Chakra
c) Ashok Chakra d) Kirti Chakra

26. Chandigarh & Bhubaneswar were designed by


a) Edward Lutyens b) Frank Man
c) Le Corbusier d) None of these

27. India’s highest literacy award is


a) Sathitya Akademi b) Padma Shree
c) Jnanpith d) Saraswati Samman

28. Who was the first Chairman of Rajya Sabha?


a) G.L. Nanda b) Hukum Singh
c) S. Radhakrishnan d) G.B Pant

29. Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India?


a) K.V. Sundaram b) Subashish Sen Verma
c) Sukumar Sen d) T. N. Seshan

30. The first speaker of Lok Sabha was


a) M.A. Ayyangar b) G.V. Mavalankar c) Hukum Singh d) Shivraj Patil

31. The Controller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the


a) Finance Minister b) Prime Minister c) Law Minister d) President

32. The Finance Commission is constituted by the


a) Finance Minister b) President of India
c) Prime Minister of India d) Home Minister

33. Which region in India is known as the ‘Rice Bowl of India’?


a) The North-East Region b) Kerala and Tamil Nadu
c) The Indo-Gangetic Plane d) The Krishna-Godavari Delta Region

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34. K-2, the world’s second highest peak is located in which mountain range?
a) The Pir Panjal b) The Himalayas
c) The Karakoram d) None of these

35. M.S. Subbulakshmi was a famous exponent in which field?


a) Hindustani Music b) Acting
c) Carnatic Music d) Painting

36. Who of the following was the first to receive the prestigious Jnanpith Award?
a) Amrita Pritam b) Girish Karnad
c) G. Sankara Kurup d) Nirmal Verma

37. From what event do the Mohammedans date their era?


a) Hejira or the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina
b) The Birth of Mohammad
c) The Death of Mohammad
d) None of these

38. The Bourbon dynasty ruled in which of the following countries?


a) France b) China c) England d) Germany

39. Which city is popularly known as the ‘City of Seven Hills’?


a) Berne b) Rome c) Mexico d) Kathmandu

40. Which city is known as the ‘Manchester of the Orient’?


a) Hong-Kong b) Osaka c) Tokyo d) Shanghai

41. Which country is the largest producer of cotton in the World?


a) USA b) Russia c) Saudi Arabia d) Brazil

42. Which country is the largest producer of coal in the World?


a) Canada b) U.S.A c) Germany d) Russia

43. Which country is known as the ‘Playground of Europe’?


a) England b) France c) Switzerland d) Holland

44. Trygve Lie, the first Secretary General of the UN was from which country?
a) Norway b) Sweden c) Denmark d) Finland

45. The number of non-permanent members in the Security Council of the UN is


a) 20 b) 5 c) 15 d) 10

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46. Match the following options correctly


1. Nagaland A. Aizwal
2. Meghlaya B. Imphal
3. Arunachal Pradesh C. Shillong
4. Manipur D. Kohima
E. Itanagar

a) 1-D, 2-C, 3-E, 4-B b) 1-C, 2-D, 3-E, 4-B


c) 1-D, 2-C, 3-E, 4-A d) 1-C, 2-D, 3-B, 4-E

47. Which country won the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006?
a) Germany b) Brazil
c) Italy d) France

48. Who won the ‘Golden Shoe’ award at the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006?
a) Miroslav Klose b) Zinedine Zidane
c) Ronaldo d) Ronaldinho

49. Which player won the ‘Golden Ball’ award at the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006?
a) Lukas Podolski b) Gianluigi Buffon
c) Zinedine Zidane d) Hernan Crespo

50. Which player won the ‘Emerging Player of the Tournament’ award at FIFA Soccer World
Cup 2006?
a) Hernan Crespo b) Lukas Podoloski
c) Carlos Tavez d) Lionel Messi

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BRM Test - 7

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Kremlin is the name of the Presidential Palace of which country?


a) Russia b) France c) Germany d) Italy

2. Which among the following is currently the newest nation of the World?
a) Kourou Island b) Palau Island c) East Timor d) Sierra Leone

3. Which country is not yet the member of the World Trade Organization ?
a) Pakistan b) Russia c) China d) Taiwan

4. Which among the following states houses the Bellary Thermal Power Project?
a) Andhra Pradesh b) Kerala c) Tamil Nadu d) Karnataka

5. Who among the following was the first editor of ‘Panchajanya’?


a) Bala Saheb Deoras b) H.R. Hedgawar
c) Atal Bihari Vajpayee d) L.K. Advani

6. Al-Quadissiya is the national newspaper of


a) Iran b) Iraq c) UAE d) Saudi Arabia

7. ‘Renminbi’ is the currency of which country?


a) Malysia b) China c) Taiwan d) Philippinnes

8. Which of the following is the world’s most expensive city as per the latest Worldwide Cost
of Living Survey?
a) Zurich b) London c) Moscow d) Tokyo

9. Who among the following has been appointed as the Director of the Central Bureau of
Investigation (CBI)?
a) Vijay Shankar b) B.B. Mishra c) J.K. Dutt d) Umashankar Mishra

10. Who among the following has conceptualised ‘Vigyan Rail’?


a) M.V. Kamath b) Nitish Bhardwaj
c) M.S. Swaminathan d) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

11. ‘Dwikhandita’ (Split in Two) is the autobiography of which of the following authors?
a) Taslima Nasreen b) Leila Seth c) Jhumpa Lahiri d) Meera Syal

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12. Which of the following countries has set its currency to the dollar($) at a fixed rate since
1995?
a) China b) Japan c) Singapore d) The UK

13. Who among the following was the first Indian to win the World Amateur Billiards Champion-
ship?
a) Geet Sethi b) Michael Ferreira c) Ashok Shandilya d) None of the above

14. On which river is the Tehri hydel dam project built?


a) Ganga b) Yamuna c) Bhagirathi d) Bhilaganga

15. Which of the following species of mosquitoes spreads the Dengue virus?
(A) Ades Aegypti (B) Cluex (C) Anopheles
a) Only A b) Only B c) Only C d) Both A & C

16. Who among the following has been appointed as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO)?
a) G. Madhavan Nair b) K. Kasturirangan
c) B.N. Suresh d) R.V. Perumal

17. Under which of the following Articles of the Constitution of India has Jammu and Kashmir
been accorded a separate special status?
a) 310 b) 330 c) 350 d) 370

18. Who among the following has authored the book, ‘Soul Curry for You and Me’?
a) Javed Akhtar b) Gulzar c) Dilip Kumar d) Amitabh Bachchan

19. How many countries are members of SAARC?


a) 5 b) 7 c) 8 d) 9

20. Who is the author of the book ‘Truth, Love and A little Malice’?
a) Arundhati Roy b) Khushwant Singh
c) Subramaniam Swami d) R.K. Narayan

21. Which European city hosts the ‘World Economic Forum’?


a) Geneva b) Vienna
c) Davos d) Lausanne

22. Who among the following is the present National Security Adviser of India?
a) K. Subramanyam b) Brajesh Mishra
c) Brahma Chellani d) Jyotindra Nath Dixit

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23. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed is the founder-leader of


a) Jaish-e- Mohammad b) Lashkar-e-Taiba
c) Al Qaeda d) Abu Sayaf

24. ‘World Telecom Day’ is celebrated on the.....


a) 17th May b) 19th May
c) 21st May d) 23rd May

25. ‘My Side’ is the autobiography of ......................


a) Javed Miandad b) Pele
c) Steve Waugh d) David Beckham

26. Which of the following is the most populous state in India?


a) Maharashtra b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh d) Bihar

27. Which among the following states has launched a scheme titled ‘Rajiv Gyanodaya Scheme’
to open libraries in every village of the state?
a) Madhya Pradesh b) Chattisgarh c) Rajasthan d) Assam

28. Which of the following sports is the J.R.D Tata Cup associated with?
a) Hockey b) Basketball c) Football d) Snooker

29. Which of the following airports was the first to be privatized in India?
a) Bangalore b) Mumbai c) Delhi d) Cochin

30. Who among the following has authored the novel ‘Pinjar’?
a) Amrita Pritam b) Javed Adhtar
c) Kaifi Azmi d) Harivanshrai Bachchan

31. Which of the following cities is the permanent venue for the International Children’s Film
Festival?
a) Mumbai b) Hyderabad c) Bangalore d) New Delhi

32. Who among the following has authored the novel ‘Ko’ (Speak up)?
a) Javed Akhtar b) Jhumpa Lahiri c) Taslima Nasreen b) Khushwant Singh

33. Presently how many nations are members of the European Union (EU)?
a) 25 b) 26 c) 27 d) 28

34. The Indus Valley civilization had its main centers at Mohenjodaro and
a) Lothal b) Chanhudaro c) Harappa d) Amri

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35. To which age does the Harappan civilization belongs?


a) Bronze b) Paleolithic c) Iron d) Neolithic

36. The Upanishads are a series of books devoted to


a) Yoga b) Social Law c) Religious rituals d) Philosophy

37. The Shahnama had been written by


a) Alberuni b) Amir Khusro c) Firdausi d) Abul Fazal

38. Who was the first Indian Civil servant?


a) Motilal Nehru b) S. N. Banerjee c) C. R. Das d) Bhagat Singh

39. Vasco Da Gama’s ship had docked at Calicut in the year


a) 1498 b) 1485 c) 1472 d) 1467

40. With which of the following was Annie Besant associated?


a) The Ramakrishna Mission
b) The Arya Samaj
c) ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness)
d) The Theosophical Society

41. The Dutch first established their hold in India in the year 1605 at
a) Masulipatnam b) Surat c) Bombay d) Goa

42. The temple of Angkor Vat is at


a) Laos b) Cambodia c) Vietnam d) Myanmar

43. The Delhi Sultan who died as a consequence of having fallen from his horse while playing
Chaugan or Polo was
a) Iltutmish b) Ghias ud-din Balban
c) Mohammad of Ghazni d) Qutub-ud-din Aibak

44. In which year was Burma separated from India?


a) 1863 b) 1902 c) 1937 d) 1947

45. In which country is Waterloo located, where the famous battle between the British and the
French was fought?
a) Belgium b) France c) U.K. d) Germany

46. Panchayati Raj was introduced in India in


a) 1957 b) 1952 c) 1951 d) 1959

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47. Which Government body approves the Five year plans?


a) The Planning Commission b) The National Development Council
c) The Prime Minister’s Office d) The Parliament

48. Who was the first India woman to win Miss World title?
a) Aishwarya Rai b) Diana Hayden
c) Rita Faria d) Priyanka Chopra

49. Tatra Kucharova, the 2006 Miss World title holder is from which country?
a) Austria b) Sweden
c) Denmark d) Czech Republic

50. Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza, the 2006 Miss Universe title holder is from which country?
a) Mexico b) Puerto Rico
c) Argentina d) Chile

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BRM Test - 8

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Article 370 of the Constitution deals with


a) The presidential powers of pardon
b) The protection of interests of the minorities
c) Temporary provisions with regards to Jammu & Kashmir
d) The formation of new states

2. For how many years is the Finance Commission appointed?


a) 6 years b) 5 years c) 4 years d) 2 years

3. Which of the following is presided over by a non member?


a) Lok Sabha b) Vidhan Sabha c) Rajya Sabha d) Vidhan Parishad

4. Which is the brightest planet in our solar system?


a) Earth b) Mars c) Venus d) Mercury

5. The Ozone Layer is in the..........


a) Stratosphere b) Troposphere c) Mesosphere d) Thermosphere

6. The highest plateau in the world is the............


a) The Colorado Plateau b) The Deccan plateau
c) The Mexican plateau d) The Tibetan plateau

7. The speed at which light travels in vacuum is


a) 3 × 107 m/s b) 5 × 108 m/s
c) 3 × 104 km/s d) 3 × 108 m/s

8. The highest Mountain peak in the Americas is......................


a) Mt. McKinley b) Mt. Aconcagua
c) Mt. Antofalla d) Mt. Lullaillaco

9. Match the names of the International boundaries in the left column with the countries they
separate, given in the column at right
A) Durand Line 1. India and Pakistan
B) Radcliffe line 2. India and China
C) McMahon Line 3. France and Germany
D) Maginot line 4. Pakistan & Afghanistan

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Choose the correct answer from the codes given below.


A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 3 4 1 2
(d) 4 1 2 3

10. The boundary between the United States of America and Canada is represented by.....
a) The 49o N Latitude b) The 38o N Latitude
c) The Rio Grande river d) The Oder-Niesse line

11. Silvassa is the capital of


a) Lakshadweep b) Tripura
c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli d) Mizoram

12. The Constitution of India provides that the three constituents of the Indian Parliament are
the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the
a) Prime Minister b) Vice-President c) President d) Council of Ministers

13. Which one of the following is used as fuel to propel rockets?


a) Petrol b) Kerosene c) Hydrazine d) Alcohol

14. The maximum membership of the Rajya Sabha is limited to


a) 240 b) 245 c) 250 d) 260

15. In Indian economy primary sector refer to


a) Manufacturing industries b) Transport
c) Commerce d) Agriculture

16. Mixed economy is a compromise between


a) Private and public sector b) Capitalism and communism
c) Capitalism and socialism d) Commercial and individual business

17. Enzymes are produced by


a) Endocrine glandsb) Exocrine glands c) Liver d) Spleen

18. The enzyme that acts on fats is


a) Amylase b) Pepsin c) Ptyalin d) Lipase

19. The saliva contains an enzyme called


a) Ptyalin b) Pepsin c) Trypsin d) Erepsin

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20. The acid that is secreted in the stomach is


a) HCI b) H SO4 c) H CO3 d) HNO3
2 2

21. Insulin is concerned with the metabolism of


a) Sugar b) Fats c) Proteins d) Vitamins

22. ‘Kwashiorkor’ is caused by deficiency of


a) Carbohydrates b) Proteins c) Fats d) Vitamins

23. An astronomical unit of distance is


a) Kilometer
b) Light year
c) The average distance from the earth to the sun
d) None of the above

24. The sun continuously produces an enormous amount of energy. This is due to
a) Nuclear fission b) Nuclear fusion
c) Chemical combustion d) Boiling

25. One horse power is equal to


a) 625 watts b) 816 watts c) 746 watts d) 520 watts

26. Match the following


A) Kalpakkam 1. Atomic Research Centre
B) Pokhran 2. Rocket Launching Stations
C) Thumba 3. Atomic blast site
D) Mumbai 4. Nuclear Power Station
A B C D
a) 1 3 4 2
b) 4 2 3 1
c) 3 1 2 4
d) 4 3 2 1

27. ‘Nucleus’ was discovered by..........


a) Rutherford b) Moseley c) Niel Bohr d) J. J. Thomson

28. Which among the following is a metalloid?


a) Arsenic b) Silver c) Iodine d) Copper

29. A non-metal which is a good conductor of electricity is


a) Graphite b) Phosphorus c) Sulphur d) Iodine

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30. Chromosomes are concerned with


a) Respiration b) Assimilation
c) Growth of the body d) Transmission of hereditary characters

31. Which of the following organelles is known as the ‘Power House of the cell’?
a) Golgi bodies b) Ribosome
c) Mitochondria d) Centrosome

32. Plant cells can usually be distinguished from animal cells, because, only plant cells possess.
a) Cell and mitochondria b) Cell wall and central vacuoles
c) Golgi bodies and central vacuoles d) Chromosomes and mitochondria

33. The most abundant noble gas present in air is


a) Neon b) Krypton c) Helium d) Argon

34. World Tourism Day is observed on?


a) 27th September b) 17th September c) 27th October d) 17th October

35. The Unit of heat energy is


a) Watt b) Degree c) Joule d) Kelvin

36. Water has maximum density at


a) 0o C b) –15o C c) 4o C d) 15o C

37. Solid carbon dioxide is used


a) As a drying agent b) as a refrigerant
c) As an antiseptic d) As a bleaching agent

38. Blood clotting requires vitamin


a) A b) B c) C d) K

39. The universal donor belongs to blood group


a) A b) B c) AB d) O

40. ‘Death of Vishnu’ has been written by.................


a) Manil Suri b) R. K. Laxman
c) Anita Desai d) Khushwant Singh

41. A mirage is caused because of the


a) Scattering of light b) Dispersion of light
c) Reflection of light d) Refraction of light

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42. Which of the following is an agent of bleaching?


a) Hydrogen Peroxide b) Sulphur Dioxide
c) Ozone d) All of the above

43. Which measure can check ‘inflation’?


a) Surplus Budgeting b) Increase in Direct Taxation
c) Curtailment in Public Expenditure d) All of the above

44. If a member of the Lok Sabha absents himself for a period of....... from the meeting of the
house, without the permission of the house, he will be disqualified.
a) 30 days b) 45 days c) 60 days d) 90 days

45. World Earth Day is observed on


a) April 10 b) April 22 c) May 22 d) May 15

46. What is mascot of 150 years of Indian Railways?


a) Fairy Queen b) Queen Mary c) Bholu Guard d) Pappu Driver

47. Who is the author of the book ‘The Shade of Swords’, ‘Jihad’ and ‘The Conflict between
Islam and Christianity’?
a) Rafiq Zakaria b) Salman Rushdie c) Fareed Zakaria d) M.J. Akbar

48. In which year were the Oscars started?


a) 1927 b) 1928 c) 1929 d) 1930

49. Who has won the maximum number of Oscars?


a) William Wyler b) Steven Spielberg
c) Walt Disney d) Frank Capra

50. Where is the World’s highest terrestrial telescope located?


a) Hanley, Ladakh b) Lhasa, Tibet
c) Hawaii, US d) Mount Fiji, Japan

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BRM Test - 9

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The headquarters of the European Central Bank, established in 1998, is at............


a) London b) Berlin c) Frankfurt d) None of these

2. ‘Disha’, a voluntary organization active in Uttar Pradesh, is engaged in.............


a) Eradication of child labour
b) Eradication of illiteracy
c) Water harvesting and preservation of drinking water
d) None of the above

3. Which of the following countries has become the member of the WTO recently?
a) Vietnam b) Cuba c) India d) China

4. The quorum to constitute a sitting of Lok Sabha is ............ of the total membership of the
House.
a) one-fourth b) one-half c) one- tenth d) one-fifth

5. Which two countries are linked by the Khyber Pass?


a) India and Pakistan b) India and Afghanistan
c) Afghanistan and Pakistan d) Afghanistan and Tajikistan

6. Authors from which of the following countries are not eligible to be considered for the
Booker Prize?
a) Britain b) United Kingdom
c) Republic of Ireland d) United States of America

7. Fermentation of milk to form curd happens due to


a) Mycobacterium b) Staphylococcus c) Lactobacillus d) Yeasts

8. The ‘Kirti Stambha’ (Tower of Victory) at Chittor was built by


a) Rana Pratap b) Rana Kumbha c) Rana Sanga d) Bappa Raval

9. Who was the first Ramon Magsaysay Award winner from India?
a) C.D. Deshmukh b) Jayaprakash Narayan
c) Dr Verghese Kurien d) Acharya Vinoba Bhave

10. Which is the universal recipient blood group?


a) A b) B c) AB d) O

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11. The filament of an electric bulb is made of


a) Tungsten b) Iron
c) Gypsum d) Graphite

12. Which is the hardest substance available on earth?


a) Coal b) Platinum
c) Diamond d) Gold

13. Short-sightedness occurs due to


a) Elongation b) Weaker Eye Muscles
c) Weakening of the Retina d) Shifting of the Iris

14. What is the state language of Nagaland?


a) English b) Khase
c) Garo d) Nagamese

15. The Justice Liberhan Commission is related to which event?


a) 1984 anti-Sikh riot b) Tehelka-tape revelation
c) Babri Masjid demolition d) None of these

16. Who among the following acts as the Chairman of the National Integration Council?
a) Prime Minister b) Vice President
c) Union Home Minister d) None of these

17. The number of members nominated by the President to the Rajya Sabha is constitutionally
limited to……….
a) 12 b) 15
c) 10 d) 20

18. The Rajya Sabha can be dissolved


a) During an Emergency b) Every five years
c) Under no circumstances d) At the direction of the President

19. How many countries are members of the Commonwealth of Nations?


a) 45 b) 53 c) 43 d) 25

20. The protector of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed under the Constitution is the
a) Parliament b) Prime Minister c) President d) Supreme Court

21. How many countries are the members of OPEC?


a) 14 b) 13 c) 12 d) 11

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22. The Union Territories get representation


a) In the Lok Sabha but not in the Rajya Sabha
b) In the Rajya Sabha but not in the Lok Sabha
c) Neither in the Lok Sabha nor in the Rajya Sabha
d) In both the Houses

23. Before 1991, Indian rupee was devalued in


a) 1951 b) 1966
c) 1976 d) 1986

24. Which among the following is described as the Fourth Estate?


a) Judiciary b) Press
c) Legislature d) Executive

25. Who among the following dignitaries, cannot be impeached?


a) President b) Vice-President
c) Judges of the Supreme Court d) Comptroller and Auditor-General of India

26. Which, of the following, does not fall within the jurisdiction of the Indian Parliament?
a) Foreign pilgrimage b) Consideration of Money bills
c) Consideration of Ordinary bills d) Fundamental Rights and Duties

27. On which among the following dates, International Women’s Day is celebrated?
a) 7th March b) 9th March
c) 2nd March d) 8th March

28. On which among the following dates the Tenth Plan had taken off?
a) April 1, 2002 b) July 1, 2002
c) October 1, 2002 d) April 1, 2003

29. What are drugs used for relieving pain called?


a) Tranquilizers b) Antipyretics c) Analgesics d) Anesthetics

30. Who is the Chairperson of the National Commission for Women?.


a) Poonam Advani b) Amrita Patel c) Girija Vyas d) Brinda Karat

31. Which of the following countries is the largest producer of silver in the world?
a) Mexico b) Peru c) Cyprus d) Spain

32. The least populous state in the Union of India is………..


a) Sikkim b) Goa c) Himachal Pradesh d) Arunachal Pradesh

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33. Habeas Corpus is


a) A law degree conferred by the Leningrad University
b) The ancient name of a Greek city
c) The site of the first Olympiad
d) A writ which facilitates a prisoner to appear in a court for speedy trial or release on bail

34. The fiscal policy of India is formulated by the


a) Planning Commission b) Ministry of Finance
c) R.B.I. d) None of these

35. ‘Nippon’ is the name given to Japan which means


a) Land of the rising Sun b) Land of Pagodas
c) Land of northern lights d) Land of Volcanoes and Earthquakes.

36. On which river the Bhakra Nangal Project built?


a) Beas b) Sutlej c) Jhelum d) Ravi

37. Which state in India is the highest producer of Sugarcane?.


a) U.P. b) Maharashtra c) M.P. d) West Bengal

38. While ‘Sugar Bowl’ is Cuba, which country is leading in the production of sugarcane?
a) India b) Pakistan
c) Indonesia d) Mauritius

39. Who wrote ‘The Hindu View of Life’?


a) S. Radhakrishnan b) Sri Aurobindo
c) Rabindra Nath Tagore d) Swami Vivekanand

40. The Legislative Council has tenure of


a) 6 years b) 5 Year
c) 4 years d) a permanent nature

41. Article............. of the constitution deals with the procedure for amendment of the Indian
Constitution
a) 360 b) 363 c) 368 d) 369

42. The World’s largest constituency in terms of population is


a) South Calcutta b) Outer Delhi c) Navi Mumbai d) London

43. The part of the Constitution that deals with the Directive Principles of state policy is...........
a) II b) III c) IV d) V

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 167


Temple of Learning

44. The Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution have been framed, drawing inspiration
from the Constitution of which country?
a) American b) Irish c) French d) Canadian

45. Asian Development Bank is headquartered at..............


a) Manila b) Tokyo c) Kuala Lumpur d) Singapore

46. The maximum number of Anglo- Indians who can be nominated to the Lok Sabha is....
a) 2 b) 4 c) 5 d) 13

47. The Parliament of Israel is known as....................


a) Diet b) Knesset c) Congress d) National Assembly

48. What was the code name of the project that led to the development of first Atomic Bomb?
a) Project Hiroshima b) Project Washington
c) Project Nagasaki d) Project Manhattan

49. For which book has Kiran Desai won the Man Booker Prize for the year 2006?
a) The Sea b) The Inheritance of Loss
c) The Long Loss d) The Snow

50. Khajuraho temples’ builders, The Chandelas, were from which religious sect?
a) Vaishnavite b) Saivite
c) Jains Sect d) None of these

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BRM Test - 10

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Name the country where the National Parliament is known as ‘Jatiya Sangsad’
a) Turkey b) Afghanistan
c) Malaysia d) Bangladesh

2. ‘Chipko’ movement is associated with


a) Environmental Conservation b) Human Rights
c) Women’s Welfare d) Child Welfare

3. Which of the following is not correctly matched?


a) Aeroplane - Wright Brothers b) Printing Press - John Guttenberg
c) Steam Engine - James Watt d) Telescope - Alber H. Taylor

4. Which among the following countries has the oldest written Constitution?
a) Japan b) India c) The USA d) The UK

5. The world’s largest archipelago is


a) New Zealand b) Indonesia c) Sri Lanka d) Malaysia

6. What name does Ganga acquire as it flows in Bangladesh?


a) Hooghly b) Bangla Ganga c) Meghna d) Padma

7. In which of the following states are the Zaskar and Pir Panjal ranges situated?
a) Assam b) Jammu & Kashmir
c) Andhra Pradesh d) Himachal Pradesh

8. The Cabinet System of government originated in


a) Britain b) The USA c) France d) Sweden

9. Ombudsman is a............... institution


a) Swiss b) Swedish c) Norwegian d) Danish

10. Which, among the following, is not an official language of the United Nations?
a) English b) French c) German d) Russian

11. The line dividing North Korea and South Korea is the
a) 17th parallel b) 23rd parallel c) 38th parallel d) Oder-Neisse Line

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12. ‘A Thousand Suns’ has been written by


a) Dominique Lapierre b) John Grisham
c) Frederick Forsith d) Tom Clancy

13. Which one of the following is known as the first line of defense for the human body?
a) Antibodies b) Skin
c) Nails d) White Blood Corpuscles

14. ‘No Full Stops in India’ has been authored by


a) Mark Tully b) V. S. Naipaul c) Kingsley Martin d) G. K. Chesterton

15. ‘Gita Govinda’ was written in the 12th Century by


a) Bana b) Bhartruhari c) Jayadeva d) Rama nuja

16. Dry Ice is


a) Solid carbon dioxide b) Liquid oxygen
c) Liquid hydrogen d) Liquid chlorine

17. The United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is headquar-
tered at……..
a) New York b) Washington c) Paris d) Amsterdam

18. ‘Beyond the Last Blue Mountain’ is the biography of


a) G.D. Birla b) R.N. Goenka c) J.R.D. Tata d) G.D. Naidu

19. The youngest mountain range in the world is the


a) Alps b) Andes c) Rockies d) Himalayas

20. Which Greek ambassador visited India during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya?
a) Megasthenes b) Seleucos c) Menander d) Demetrias

21. The famous Iron Pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi had been built by the
a) Mauryas b) Guptas c) Nandas d) Khiljis

22. Who had become the first Governor-General of India after independence?
a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad b) C R Rajgopalachari
c) Lord Pethick Lawrence d) Lord Mountbatten

23. In India, the manufacture of diesel locomotives takes place at


a) Rourkela b) Cochin
c) Chittaranjan d) Varanasi

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24. In India, electric locomotives are built at


a) Jhansi b) Kapurthala c) Chittaranjan d) Imphal

25. Operation Flood was associated with


a) Construction of Dams b) Fisheries Development
c) Dairy Products d) Canal Management

26. Who is the author of the famous book ‘Mudra Rakshasa’?


a) Kalidas b) Jayadev c) Mirabai d) Vishakha Dutt

27. The first scholar, among the following names, to visit India was
a) Marco Polo b) Fahien c) Ibn-Batutah d) Hiuen Tsang

28. The ruler of medieval India credited with the construction of the Grand Trunk Road is
a) Krishnadeva Raya b) Babur c) Sher Shah Suri d) Jehangir

29. Which among the following years is generally considered to be the final year of Great De-
pression that started in 1929?
a) 1939 b) 1937 c) 1941 d) 1943

30. Sarkaria Commission was formed to look into


a) Relation between State and Centre b) Animal Husbandry scam
c) Tehelka.com exposure d) Enron’s Dabhol power project

31. Who has written the book ‘Das Kapital’?


a) Karl Marx b) Adam Smith
c) Johan Keynes d) John Milton

32. Which state has the highest percentage of literacy?


a) Maharashtra b) West Bengal
c) Madhya Pradesh d) Kerala

33. What is the average per capita income in India (in terms of Purchasing Power Parity)?
a) Rs. 17,600 per year b) Rs. 12,530 per year
c) Rs. 10,560 per year d) Rs. 9,996 per year

34. Planetary winds are those which


a) Changer their direction with the change of season
b) Change their direction with day and night
c) Never change their direction
d) Blow up mountain slopes

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35. The non-permanent members in the UN Security Council are elected for a term of how
many years?
a) 2 years b) 3 years c) 5 years d) 4 years

36. Which of the following Acts enabled the Government of India to put a ban on ‘The Satanic
Verses’ by Salman Rushdie?
a) National Security Act b) Customs Act
c) Immoral Trafficking Act d) None of these

37. How many Union Territories does India have at present?


a) Five b) Six c) Seven d) Eight

38. The Ramon Magsaysay Award is named after the former president of which Asian country?
a) Thailand b) Singapore c) Laos d) Philippines

39. NCAER stands for


a) National Calamity Action and Eccentric Reactions
b) National Council for Agro-Economic Research
c) National Cultural, Art and Economic Research
d) National Council of Applied Economic Research

40. Which fat-soluble vitamin is needed for blood-clotting?


a) A b) B-2
c) D d) K

41. Abdul Karim Telgi was associated with which scam?


a) Tehelka b) Stamp paper scam
c) Fake currency Scam d) All of the above

42. Mughal-e-Azam, which became the first Indian film to be converted in colour form, was
originally directed by which among the following persons?
a) Bimal Roy b) K Asif
c) Mustaq Hussain d) Kamal Amrohi

43. Naresh Chandra Committee was formed to suggest reforms in


a) Highway construction b) Sagarmala project
c) Civil Aviation d) Telecom policy

44. Who has won the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna for the year 2006?
a) Pankaj Advani b) Rahuk Dravid
c) Samresh Jung d) Anju Bobby George

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45. Where were the 18th Commonwealth Games held in 2006?


a) Doha b) Manchester c) Beijing d) Melbourne

46. Who was the Chief Guest at the 2007 Republic Day parade ?
a) Hugo Chavez b) Mahmud Amadinejad
c) Vladamir Putin d) Fidel Castro

47. The book ‘Indian Summers’ has been written by…….


a) John Wright b) Steven Waugh c) Mike Gatting d) Ian Chappell

48. Who has been chosen as the MTV Youth Icon of the Year for 2006?
a) Shahrukh Khan b) Anil Ambani c) M S Dhoni d) Sachin Tendukar

49. How many languages have been identified in the eighth schedule of Indian Constitution?
a) 21 b) 22 c) 23 d) 24

50. Which country holds the record for scoring the maximum number of runs in a single innings
of a ODI match?
a) South Africa b) Australia c) India d) Sri Lanka

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BRM Test - 11

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. In terms of value, which Indian spice export holds the top position?
a) Pepper b) Chillies c) Turmeric d) Cardamom

2. Which Asian nation was the first to get a World Bank Loan?
a) Vietnam b) Pakistan c) China d) India

3. The movie ‘Gladiator’ was directed by...............


a) Quentin Tarantino b) Steven Spielberg
c) James Cameron d) Ridley Scott

4. The Kauvery water dispute does not involve.......................... .


a) Andhra Pradesh b) Karnataka c) Kerala d) Tamil Nadu

5. Which of the following countries has opened the first floating runway (Mega Float)?
a) Japan b) France c) Britain d) America

6. Pascal Lamy, the director-general of the WTO, belongs to which country?


a) France b) Italy c) Philippines d) Australia

7. Which of the following is NOT a member of the United Nations?


a) Switzerland b) Taiwan
c) East Timor d) Ukraine

8. Who was appointed the new President of Iraq after the intense political impasse following
Jan 30, 2005?
a) Jalal Talabani b) Ibrahim al-Jaafari
c) Mahmoud Abbas d) None of these

9. Which Indian state is nicknamed “Land of the Gods” (Dev Bhoomi) because of its many
holy places?
a) Kerala b) Bihar
c) Uttaranchal d) Haryana

10. What is the popular name of Mohammed Abdul-Raouf al-Oudma al-Hussein?


a) Saddam Hussein b) Yasser Arafat
c) Osama bin Laden d) Mohammed Ali Jinnah

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11. Which among the following is the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organisation
(PLO)?
a) Ramallah b) Jericho c) Hebron d) Gaza City

12. Which of the following Indian States/UT’s has the lowest population as per Census 2001?
a) Daman and Diu b) Lakshadweep
c) Sikkim d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

13. Who won the Dada Saheb Phalke Award for the year 2004, in 2006?
a) Yash Chopra b) Viru Devgan
c) Adoor Gopalakrishnan d) Mrinal Sen

14. Which of the following books is not written by Vikram Seth?


a) From Heaven Lake b) An Equal Music
c) The Golden Gate d) Half Life

15. The density of population per square kilometers in India has increased from 267 in 1991 to
............. in 2001.
a) 300 b) 316 c) 324 d) 333

16. Which of the following is not a West Asian country?


a) Algeria b) Jordan
c) Qatar d) Yemen

17. In which field are Chameli Devi Jain awards given?


a) Literature b) Journalism
c) Social Service d) Family Planning

18. Who is the Union Minister of Civil Aviation?


a) Sharad Pawar b) Arjun Singh
c) Ram Vilas Paswan d) Prafulla Patel

19. What is the only oviparous mammal existing on earth?


a) The blue whale b) White shark
c) Duckbilled platypus d) The giant turtle

20. ‘Four Dragons’ is a group of four small Asian countries that have experienced unusually
rapid economic development. Two of these countries are Singapore and Hong Kong. The
other two are
a) North Korea and Indonesia b) Indonesia and Japan
c) Malaysia and Taiwan d) South Korea and Taiwan

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21. Where is the Mishra Dhatu Nigam, Limited, a specialist defence unit located?
a) Hyderabad b) Ghaziabad c) Nasik d) Lucknow

22. Which of the following diseases is transmitted through the bites of female aedes mosqui-
toes?
a) Leprosy b) Dengue Fever c) Influenza d) Diphtheria

23. At which of the following places, does ISRO not have a centre?
a) Thiruvananthapuram b) Bangalore
c) Mumbai d) Nasik

24. Mohammad El-Baradei is the Director-General of the


a) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
b) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
c) World Health Organization (WHO)
d) International Labour Organisation (ILO)

25. Which of the following sectors does not come under tertiary sector?
a) Trade b) Transport c) Electricity d) Business services

26. Which of the following places has a Special Economic Zone (SEZ)?
a) New Delhi b) Jabalpur c) Kandla d) Palampur

27. Abdullah Ahmad Badawi is the Prime Minister of


a) Malaysia b) Ethiopia c) Mauritius d) Sudan

28. The bank commonly known as ‘World Bank’ is


a) IBRD b) IMF c) IDA d) IFC

29. The much dreaded KGB is/was the secret police organisation of
a) U.K b) U.S.A
c) The erstwhile USSR d) Poland

30. Who is the new Secretary General of UNO?


a) Ban Ki Moon b) Kofi Annan c) Paul Wolfgowitz d) Pascal Lamy

31. Who gave the title music for the movie ‘Mughal-e-Azam’?
a) Khayyam b) O.P.Nayyar c) Naushad d) S.D.Burman

32. The first Indian feature film to be insured in India was………….


a) Bandit Queen b) Fire c) Taal d) Roja

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33. Who among the following is the Chairman of the 12th Finance Commission?
a) Jaswant Singh b) Bimal Jalan c) C.Rangarajan d) Y.V. Reddy

34. The Buddhist Sect Mahayana formally came into existence during the reign of
a) Kanishka b) Ajata Shatru c) Ashoka d) Dharma Pala

35. The last in the succession of Jain Tirthankaras was


a) Mani Subrata b) Mahavira c) Rishabha d) Parsvanatha

36. ‘Business @ the Speed of Thought’ is a book written by


a) Bill Gates b) M.S. Oberoi c) Alyque Padamsee d) Gita Piramal

37. Which industry accounts for a fifth of India’s industrial production and a third of the export
earnings?
a) Steel b) Textiles c) InfoTech d) Pharmaceuticals

38. The World’s largest desert is the


a) Arabian desert b) Australian desert c) Gobi desert d) Sahara desert

39. Co-relate the following tournaments with their sports


A Irani Trophy I. Football
B Federation Cup II. Cricket
C Bardoloi Trophy III. Tennis
D Obaidullah Cup IV. Hockey

a) A IV B III C II DI
b) A III B II C IV DI
c) A II B IV CI D III
d) A II B III CI D IV

40. Malaria affects the


a) Liver b) Spleen c) Intestine d) Lungs

41. The Election Commission functions under the


a) Ministry of Home Affairs b) Ministry of Law
c) Prime Minister’s Secretariat d) None of these

42. What is the correct chronological order in which the following rulers ruled in India?
I. Sher Shah Suri II. Akbar III. Allauddin Khilji IV. Iltutmish
a) IV, I, III, II b) IV, III, I, II
c) I, II, III, IV d) III, IV, I, II

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43. Article 352 of the Indian Constitution needs to be revoked in case


a) The President’s Rule is to be imposed
b) Emergency is declared
c) The services of a govt. servant are to be terminated without any enquiry
d) A politcal party of national level is to be banned

44. Who is the President of Sri Lanka?


a) Chandrika Kumaratunga b) Laxman Karmadigar
c) Ratnasiri Wikramanayeke d) Mahinda Rajapakse

45. Who has been crowned as Miss Universe 2006?


a) Natalie Glebova b) Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza
c) Kurara Chibana d) Elle McLaughlin

46. Who has been crowned as Miss World 2006?


a) Tatana Kucharova b) Unnur Birna Vihjalmsdottir
c) Maria Julia Mantilla d) Rossana Davison

47. Who has been elected as the president of Brazil?


a) Luis Inacio Lula da Silva b) Jose Serra
c) Ciro Gomes d) Jose Maria de Almeida

48. The 2012 Olympic games will be held at………


a) Beijing b) Athens c) London d) Montreal

49. The 2008 Olympic games will be held at………


a) Tokyo b) Beijing c) Amsterdam d) Sydney

50. The 2010 FIFA Soccer World cup will be held at…………
a) England b) USA c) South Africa d) Portugal

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BRM Test - 12

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Which of the planets is known as the Earth’s twin?


a) Neptune b) Venus c) Mars d) Saturn

2. ISO-14001 is granted to a company for quality of


a) HRD b) Service
c) Production d) Protection of environment

3. What is the correct sequence in which the following three movements were led by Mahatma
Gandhi?
I. Champaran Movement II. Non-Cooperation Movement
III. Dandi March
a) III, II, I b) II, I, III c) I, III, II d) I, II, III

4. Sindhu Rakshak is a/an


a) Aircraft carrier b) Submarine
c) Multiple-purpose fighter d) Anti-aircraft gun

5. Which of the following group of States is written in the descending order with respect to the
density of population?
a) West Bengal-Uttar Pradesh-Kerala-Bihar
b) Bihar-Uttar Pradesh-West Bengal-Madhya Pradesh
c) Kerala-Bihar-Uttar Pradesh-Tamil Nadu
d) Madhya Pradesh-Bihar-Kerala-West Bengal

6. Radio-activity was first discovered by


a) Becquerel b) Madam Curie c) Rutherford d) Jenner

7. The Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro-electric Power Project is located in which of the following States
and how much power is it likely to generate?
a) Jammu and Kashmir- 1000 MW b) Punjab-2000 MW
c) Himachal Pradesh-1500 MW d) Tripura-2000 MW.

8. The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is associated with which field?


a) Best film director
b) Best musician
c) Best documentary
d) Best work relating to promotion of the Indian film Industry

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9. The speed of sound is maximum in which medium?


a) Air b) Water c) Steel d) Vacuum

10. Enzymes are


a) Hormones b) Proteins c) Carbohydrates d) Organic catalysts

11. Who is the author of the book ‘Yama’?


a) Surya Kant Tripathi (Nirala) b) Sumitra Nandan Pant
c) Mahadevi Verma d) Vatsyayan (Agyeya)

12. Buxar Fort is situated on the banks of which river


a) Jamuna b) Ganga c) Gomti d) Brahmaputra

13. Almatti Dam dispute is mainly between


a) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu b) Tamil Nadu and Kerala
c) Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh d) Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

14. Who developed the branch of mathematics known as Calculus?


a) Aryabhatta b) Newton
c) Enstein d) Archimedes

15. The Union Council of Ministers is responsible to


a) President b) Rajya Sabha
c) Lok Sabha d) Both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha

16. The Aswan Dam is located in


a) Egypt b) Libya c) Sudan d) Iran

17. In which state is the Kanha National Park situated?


a) MP b) UP c) Assam d) West Bengal

18. Which country is known as ‘The Springboks’ of rugby?


a) New Zealand b) Australia c) South Africa d) Zimbabwe

19. Which acid is used in lead storage battery?


a) Sulphuric acid b) Hydrochloric acid
c) Nitric acid d) Acetic acid

20. Which of the following cities has winter, when there is summer in India?
a) Damascus b) Shanghai c) Melbourne d) Osaka

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21. The Kailash Temple at Ellora is a specimen of


a) Gupta architecture b) Rashtrakuta architecture
c) Chalukya architecture d) Chola architecture

22. Ghana Bird Sanctuary is in the state of


a) Rajasthan b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh d) Maharashtra

23. Which of the following is a land locked country


a) Thailand b) Laos c) Malaysia d) Cambodia

24. Amino acids are building blocks of


a) Fats b) Minerals c) Proteins d) Carbohydrates

25. In which of the following battles was Prithvi Raj defeated by Mohammad Ghauri?
a) Plassey b) Panipat c) Wandiwash d) Tarain

26. Towards the middle of the 18th century, Delhi was devastated by
a) Chengiz Khan b) Nadir Shah c) Timur Shah d) Shah Abbas

27. The Indian Constitution can be amended under Article


a) 312 b) 368 c) 390 d) 249

28. Gregor Mendel is associated with


a) Discovery of germs b) Laws of heredity
c) Law of conservation of energy d) Prevention of rabies

29. What of the following is not the work of Kalidasa?


a) Meghdoot b) Raghuvansha
c) Sariputra Prakarma d) Ritushamhara

30. Which one of the following pairs is not correct?


a) Kaziranga Sanctuary - Assam b) Jog Falls - Karnataka
c) Jim Corbett National Park - Bihar d) Periyar Wild Life Sanctuary - Kerala

31. In which field of art did Jaimini Roy make her name?
a) Sculpture b) Painting
c) Music d) Drama

32. The filament of an electric heater is made of


a) Titanium b) Nichrome
c) Tungsten d) Iron

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33. Aamir Khusro was the famous poet and aesthete in the time of............
a) Akbar the Great b) Mahmud Ghaznvi
c) Shah Jahan d) Allauddin Khilji

34. A ‘Dog Fish’ is


a) A salamander b) A Shark
c) A Plankton floating in the sea d) A fish with a mouth like of a dog

35. The temples of Halebid and Belur were built by


a) Cholas b) Hoysalas c) Rashtrakutas d) Pallavas

36. The word ‘Satyameva Jayate’ has been taken from


a) Vedas b) Bhagwad Gita
c) Mundaka Upnishada d) Mahabharata

37. Who can be called the father of Local self-government in India?


a) Lord Rippon b) Lord Minto c) Lord Curzon d) Lord Dufferin

38. The Vijaynagar kingdom was founded in the


a) 13th Century AD b) 14th Century AD
c) 15 Century AD
th
d) 16th Century AD

39. Which of the following events is not correctly matched?


a) Simon Commission-1926 b) Salt Satyagraha - 1930
c) Gandhi - Irwin Pact - 1931 d) Quit India Movement - 1942

40. The Ashoka pillar whose lion capital was adopted by the Government of India as National
Emblem, is located at
a) Varanasi b) Puri c) Sarnath d) Gaya

41. The term “Niskha” which meant an ornament in Vedic period, later denoted
a) A weapon b) A script
c) An Agricultural Implement d) A Coin

42. Article 25 of the Indian Constitution is concerned with


a) The right to freedom of religion b) The right to equality
c) The right to freedom of work d) None of the above

43. Which one of the following bodies finalises the Five-year Plans proposals
a) Planning Commission b) Union Cabinet
c) National Development Council d) Ministry of Planning

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44. Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated in the battle of


a) Buxar b) Plassey c) Wandiwash d) None of these

45. With which historical personality is the Raigarh fort assocaited?


a) Rana Pratap b) Shivaji c) Akbar d) Muhammad Tughlaq

46. Next to Hindi, the language spoken by the largest number of people in the Indian subconti-
nent is..............
a) Urdu b) Bangla c) Telugu d) Tamil

47. C.V. Raman got Nobel Prize for


a) Thermo Dynamics b) Quantum theory
c) Optics and spectroscopy d) Nuclear Physics

48. Neutron was discovered by


a) Otto Hahn b) Enrico Fermi
c) Lise Meitner d) James Chadwick

49. Which of the following countries was the first to develop a neutron bomb?
a) USA b) USSR
c) China d) Pakistan

50. Bharat Jagdeo is the President of which Caribbean Island?


a) Jamaica b) Trinidad & Tobago
c) Barbados d) Guyana

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BRM Test - 13

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Who won the 2006 Australian Open men’s tennis title?


a) Raefal Nadal b) Marcos Baghdatis
c) Roger Federer d) Lleyton Hewitt

2. ‘Kathakali’ is the dance form of which state?


a) Kerala b) Rajasthan c) Uttar Pradesh d) Tamil Nadu

3. Which battle led to the establishment of the Mughal empire in India?


a) The first battle of Panipat b) The second battle of Panipat
c) The second battle of Tarain d) None of these

4. Who was the first Governor-General of Bengal?


a) Lord Clive b) Lord Hastings c) Lord Lytton d) Lord Ripon

5. Industrial Revolution first began in


a) Germany b) England c) France d) Italy

6. The International Date Line is represented by


a) 1000 meridian b) 00 meridian c) 1800 meridian d) 900 meridian

7. Next to UP, which are the two states having maximum representation in the Lok Sabha?
a) Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra b) Bihar and Maharashtra
c) Bihar and Madhya Pradesh d) Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu

8. How long can one, under the Constitution, remain minister without being a member of either
of the two Houses of Parliament?
a) Three months b) Six months c) Nine months d) Twelve months

9. The largest planet in the solar system is


a) Jupiter b) Saturn c) Uranus d) Neptune

10. Iodization of salt is a public health measure to prevent


a) Diabetes b) Tuberculosis c) Goitre d) Anaemia

11. The term ‘Ashes’ is associated with


a) Hockey b) Cricket c) Soccer d) Kabbadi

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12. Which one of the following is a westward flowing river?


a) Cauvery b) Sone c) Narmada d) Ganga

13. Sikkim was made an integral part of India under the


a) 42nd Amendment b) 40th Amendment
c) 39th Amendment d) 36th Amendment

14. Who among the following was the great protagonist of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’?
a) Lord Wellesley b) Lord Dalhousie c) Lord Minto d) Lord Hastings

15. Who wrote ‘Mudrarakshasa’?


a) Kautilya b) Visakhadatta c) Kalhana d) Kalidas

16. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?


a) Alexander Fleming - Discovery of Penicillin
b) Edward Jenner - Vaccination against smallpox
c) Lister - Cure for leprosy
d) Jones E. Salk - Vaccine against polio

17. Khajuraho is located in


a) MP b) Gujarat c) Rajasthan d) Karnataka

18. The Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 culminated in the signing of a pact in 1931 by
Gandhiji and the then Viceroy
a) Lord Linlithgow b) Lord Irwin c) Lord Wavell d) None of them

19. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?


a) Abul Fazal - Ain-i-Akbari b) Badauni-Akbar Nama
c) Abdul Hamid Lahori - Tabkat-i-Akbari d) Nizamuddin Ahmad - Badshah Nama

20. Who is the author of the famous book ‘Politics’?


a) Aristotle b) Socrates b) Plato d) None of them

21. Towards the end of the 15th century Vasco da Gama, the famous seafarer, landed at
a) Mangalore b) Calicut c) Cochin d) Goa

22. Name the periodical which Gandhiji published during his stay in South Africa
a) Indian Opinion b) Young India c) Afrikaner d) Navijivan

23. Which state in India has the highest coal reserves?


a) West Bengal b) Bihar c) MP d) Jharkhand

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24. In which century did Megasthenes visit India?


a) 4th Century BC b) 3rd Century BC
c) 2nd Century BC d) 1st Century BC

25. The Gandhara School of Art flourished during the time of


a) The Kushans b) The Guptas c) The Mauryas d) None of these

26. The Peacock throne was made during the reign of


a) Jehangir b) Shahjahan c) Akbar d) Aurangzeb

27. Charakasamhita is a work on


a) Polity b) Medicine c) Architecture d) Mathematics

28. Which was the first European nation to establish its territorial rule in India?
a) The French b) The Dutch c) The English d) The Portuguese

29. Who was Dhanvantari?


a) A famous general of Chandragupta Maurya
b) A noted physician who adorned the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya
c) A famous dramatist who lived during the time of Harsha
d) None of them

30. Which pair is NOT matched correctly?


a) Vyas - The Mahabharata b) Valmiki - The Ramayana
c) Tulsi Das - The Ramacharit Manas d) Bana Bhatta - Gita Govindam

31. Which of the following chemicals in automobile exhaust can cause cancer?
a) Carbon monoxide b) Polycyclic hydrocarbons
c) Lead d) Oxides of nitrogen

32. Numaligarh (Rs. 2800 crore) refinery project to produce crude oil is in
a) Gujarat b) Orissa
c) Assam d) Arunachal Pradesh

33. Name the Indian leader who chaired the drafting committee of the Indian Constitution?
a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar d) Sardar Patel

34. The ruins at Hampi are related to


a) The Vijaynagar Empire b) The Bahamani Kingdom
c) The Gupta Empire d) None of these

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35. The UN Secretary General is appointed by


a) The General Assembly
b) The Security Council
c) The General Assembly on the recommendations of Security Council
d) The International Court of Justice

36. The Salal hydro-electric project is located across the river


a) Jhelum b) Ravi c) Chenab d) Beas

37. Tropic of Cancer is a/an


a) Incurable disease b) Scientific apparatus to detect cancer
c) Northern Latitude d) Southern Latitude

38. Which country is the largest producer of coconut?


a) Bangladesh b) India c) Phillipines d) Sri Lanka

39. Man passed from the food gathering state to the food producing stage in the
a) Neolithic Age b) Mesolithic Age c) Chalcolithic Age d) Palaeolithic Age

40. Jerusalem is a holy city of


a) The Jews b) The Christians b) The Muslims d) All of them

41. Vernal Equinox takes place on


a) 21st March b) 18th June
c) 23rd September d) 22nd December

42. Diesel engine was invented by


a) A German engineer b) An American engineer
c) A British engineer d) None of them

43. The basic principle of heredity was discovered by


a) The Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel b) Darwin
c) A.H. Becquerel d) None of them

44. Part IV of the Indian Constitution deals with


a) Fundamental Rights b) Citizenship
c) Directive Principles of State Policy d) Election

45. The oldest Hindu epic is


a) Mahabhashya b) Ramayana
c) Ashtadhyayi d) Mahabharata

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46. Meenakshi, Somnath and Dilwara temples are in which one of the following groups of
states?
a) Tamil Nadu, b) Gujarat, Rajasthan and Karnataka
c) Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Rajasthan d) Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

47. Who won the 2006 Australian Open women tennis title?
a) Amelie Mauresmo b) Justine Henin Hardene
c) Maria Sharapova d) Serena Williams

48. Who won the 2006 French Open men’s tennis title?
a) Raefal Nadal b) Mariano Puerta
c) Roger Federer d) Gaston Gaudio

49. Who won the 2006 French Open women tennis title?
a) Svetlana Kuznetsova b) Justine Henin Hardene
c) Maria Sharapova d) Kim Clijsters

50. Who won the 2006 Wimbledon men’s tennis title?


a) Raefal Nadal b) Tim Henman
c) Roger Federer d) Tim Murray

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BRM Test - 14

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The Gupta Period is described as the golden age of Sanskrit literature because
a) The Gupta rulers adopted Sanskrit as their court language
b) The famous Kalidasa, the Indian Shakespeare, and several other great literary figures lived
during this period
c) The Ramayana and Mahabharata were revised in their present form and in the latter was
inserted the great philosopical poem, the Bhagavad Gita or Lord’s Song
d) All of these

2. Harshavardhana’s capital was


a) Kanauj b) Vaishali
c) Prayag d) Patliputra

3. The Chola kings (10th and 11th centuries) are best known for
a) Their maritime activities b) Their patronage of learning
c) Their good administration d) All of these

4. Which of the following countries is considered as the last remaining seat of Lamaist Mahayana
Buddhism?
a) China b) Bhutan c) Tibet d) Mongolia

5. India’s National Calendar is based on


a) The Saka Era b) The Christian Era c) The Samvat Era d) The Kali Yuga

6. The Battle of Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and Porus took place in
a) 323 BC b) 324 BC c) 425 BC d) 326 BC

7. Buddha died in
a) 483 BC b) 480 BC c) 478 BC d) 477 BC

8. The Battles of the Tarain were fought between


a) Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaipal b) Mahmud of Ghazni and Anandpal
c) Prithivi Raj and Jai Chand d) Muhammad Ghori and Prithvi Raj

9. The Adi Granth was compiled by


a) Guru Nanak Dev b) Guru Ram Das
c) Guru Arjun Dev d) Guru Gobind Singh

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10. The religious order established by Mother Teresa is called


a) Sisters of Charity b) Mothers of Charity
c) Missionaries of Charity d) Messengers of Love

11. Which Indian city is known as the ‘Space City’?


a) Hyderabad b) Ahmedabad c) Bangalore d) Trivandrun

12. Mohenjodaro is situated in


a) Punjab b) Gujarat c) Sind d) Baluchistan

13. Which one of the following is the most densely populated country in the world?
a) Bangladesh b) India c) China d) Britain

14. The Battle of Plassey was fought in the year


a) 1757 b) 1747 c) 1737 d) 1761

15. The Battle of Talikota resulted in the fall of which kingdom?


a) Vijayanagar b) Ahmadnagar c) Bijapur d) None of these

16. Gandhiji conducted his first important experiment in Satyagraha in India at


a) Dandi b) Chauri Chaura c) Bardoli d) Champaran

17. He visited Europe and America as a cultural ambassador of India. He condemned the caste
system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals, ceremonies and superstitions. He remarked:
Our religion is ‘Don’t touch me. I am holy’. These lines allude to
a) Swami Vivekananda b) Swami Rama Tirtha
c) Raja Ram Mohan roy d) Swami Dayananda

18. Who among the following was not a representative of militant nationalism (also known as
extremism)?
a) Lala Lajpat Rai b) Bipin Chandra Pal
c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale

19. The Simon Commission first visited India in the year


a) 1925 b) 1927 c) 1919 d) 1928

20. Two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-16 under the leadership of
a) Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak
b) Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai
c) Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal
d) Tilak and Aurobindo Ghosh

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21. In which year did the Congress adopt “Poorna Swaraj” or complete independence as its goal?
a) 1930 b) 1929 c) 1928 d) 1927

22. Which one of the following pairs is incorrectly matched?


a) BC 261-The Kalinga War
b) AD 78-Commencement of Saka Era
c) AD 662-Commencement of the Hijri Era
d) AD 1709-Death of Aurangzeb

23. ‘Indika’ was authored by


a) Megasthenese b) Fa-Hien c) Hieun-Tsang d) None of them

24. 29 March, 1930 is a memorable day in the history of India’s freedom movement because
a) Gandhi was arrested and sentenced to a six years’ imprisonment
b) Gandhi started the second major civil disobedience movement with his famous Dandi March
c) Bhagat Singh was hanged
d) Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed

25. Which of the following statement concerning the 42nd Constitutional amendment is wrong?
a) The scope of judical review was narrowed down
b) Directive Principles of State Policy were given preference over Fundamental Rights
c) A set of Fundamental Duties was incorporated in the Constitution
d) Parliamentary form of government was replaced by presidential form of government.

26. Who was known as ‘Desert Fox’ in World War II?


a) Lord Montgomery b) Field Marshal Rommel
c) Hitler d) Mussolini

27. Paleolithic Age is known for


a) Hunting and food gathering b) Age of dinosaurs
c) Dawn of agriculture d) First mammals

28. The ‘Char Minar’ is in


a) Hyderabad b) Ahmednagar c) Ahmedabad d) Fatepur Sikri

29. Bile, a fluid which helps in the digestion of fats, is secreted by


a) Pituitary b) Stomach c) Pancreas d) Liver

30. A hereditary disease of the blood in which there is a deficiency in the blood clotting mechanism
is called
a) Haemophilia b) Anaemia c) Haemophobia d) None of these

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31. Which one of the following places is associated with the death of Buddha?
a) Gaya b) Vaishali
c) Kushinagar d) Sanchi

32. Sulabsutra, a manual on mathematics (800 BC-500 BC) relates to


a) Algebra b) Arithmetic
c) Science of volume d) Constructional geometry

33. The colour of a star is an indication of its


a) Distance from the sun b) Luminosity
c) Distance from the earth d) Temperature

34. The territory called Lushai Hills district under British rule is today known as
a) Arunachal Pradesh b) Mizoram
c) Nagaland d) Meghalaya

35. The Article under Constitution dealing with recruitment, conditions of service in Union and
State Governments is
a) 301 b) 315 c) 311 d) 309

36. The number of days the moon takes to rotate round the earth is about
a) 27 days b) 28 days c) 29 days d) 30 days

37. Which one of the following ports in not located on the eastern coast of India?
a) Visakhapatnam b) Chennai c) Paradeep d) Mangalore

38. The President must summon each House of Parliament


a) at least twice in a year
b) at least three times in a year
c) within six months from the date of the last sitting of each house
d) within three months from the date of the last sitting of each house.

39. Famous Brihadeswara temple is in


a) Rajasthan b) Karnataka c) Tamil Nadu d) Gujarat

40. In which year was the Battle of Talikota fought?


a) 1579 b) 1576 c) 1537 d) 1564

41. Sangam literature is associated with


a) Maharashtra b) Uttar Pradesh
c) Tamil Nadu d) West Bengal

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42. The third battle of Panipat was fought between


a) Akbar and Hemu b) Babar and Ibrahim Lodi
c) Ahmed Shah Abdali and the Marathas d) Akbar and Rana Sangram Singh

43. Shirdi Sai Baba lived in


a) 19th century b) 18th century
c) 17th century d) 20th century

44. Who won the 2006 Wimbledon women tennis title?


a) Amelie Mauresmo b) Justine Henin Hardene
c) Maria Sharapova d) Kim Clijsters

45. Who won the 2006 US Open men’s tennis title?


a) Andy Roddick b) Roger Federer c) Marat Safin d) Andre Agassi

46. Who won the 2006 US Open women tennis title?


a) Svetlana Kuznetsova b) Justine Henin Hardene
c) Maria Sharapova d) Venus Williams

47. Who among the following, apart from India, are members of G-4?
a) Brazil, Germany, Japan b) Brazil, South Africa, Germany
c) South Africa, Germany, Japan d) Brazil, South Africa, Japan

48. Who is the author of the book “The Argumentative India’?


a) Karan Singh b) Khuswant Singh
c) Amartya Sen d) Robin Sharma

49. Who is the author of the book It’s not about the bike?
a) Lance Armstrong b) Valentino Rossi
c) Narain Karthikeyan d) None of the above

50. Which among the following is not a benefit availed by the members of WTO?
a) The member governments are shielded from lobbying.
b) Freer trade cuts cost of living.
c) Trade Disputes are handled constructively.
d) Access to Foreign currency is made easier.

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BRM Test - 15

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The principal producer of mica in India is…………..


a) Rajasthan b) Andhra Pradesh c) Bihar d) Jharkhand

2. Which instrument is used to measure humidity?


a) Hygrometer b) Hydrometer
c) Galvanometer d) Thermometer

3. The Suez Canal joins which of the following two seas?


a) The Red Sea and the Mediterranean b) The Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea
c) The Mediterranean and the Black Sea d) None of these

4. Which of the following is the oldest institution?


a) Arya Samaj b) Brahmo Samaj
c) Theosophical Society d) Servants of India Society

5. The Mahabalipuram Temple in Tamil Nadu was built during the reign of which of the follow-
ing dynasties?
a) Chola Dynasty b) Chalukya Dynasty
c) Pallava Dynasty d) Pandya Dynasty

6. Match the Following


AUTHOR BOOK
A) Jawahar Lal Nehru 1. Golden Threshold
B) Upamanyu Chatterjee 2. Glimpses of World History
C) Sarojini Naidu 3. A Grandmother’s Tale
D) R.K. Narayan 4. English August

A B C D
a) 4 2 1 3
b) 2 4 1 3
c) 3 2 4 1
d) 1 2 3 4

7. Which of the following is not a Fundamental Right?


a) Right to equality b) Right to property
c) Right to freedom of religion d) Right to constitutional remedies

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8. The Harappans had trade links with


a) Rome b) Greece
c) Mesopotamia d) All the three

9. Which Schedule of the Indian Constitution contains the recognized languages of India?
a) Ninth b) Eighth
c) Seventh d) Second

10. The earliest of the Vedas is


a) Atharva Veda b) Rig Veda
c) Sama Veda d) Yajur Veda

11. Ibn Batuta, the famous Arab traveler, was in the court of
a) Ala-ud-din Khilji b) Muhammad Tughlak
c) Firoz Shah Tughlak d) Babur

12. Uranium is mainly found in which of the following states?


a) Orissa b) Bihar
c) Karnataka d) Jharkhand

13. Ascorbic acid is the chemical name of……….


a) Vitamin A b) Vitamin B c) Vitamin C d) Vitamin D

14. Which one of the following is popularly called ‘Dakshin Ganga’?


a) Cauvery b) Krishna c) Godavari d) Tungbhadra

15. President’s rule proclaimed in a state cannot normally be continued beyond


a) Three Months b) Six Months c) Twelve Months d) Eighteen Months

16. The first satellite launched by India was


a) Bhaskara-I b) Aryabhata c) Bhaskara - II d) Rohini

17. India is a secular state because


a) All religions are equally protected
b) The state has no religion of its own
c) There is no discrimination on grounds of religion or caste
d) All of the above

18. The first Muslim King to invade India was


a) Mohammed Bin Quasim b) Mahmud of Ghazni
c) Mohammad Ghori d) Chengiz Khan

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19. ‘The generation to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this, ever in
flesh and blood, walked upon the earth’. This tribute was paid to Gandhiji by
a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) George Bernard Shaw
c) Albert Einstein d) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan

20. Garba is the regional dance of which state


a) Bihar b) Madhya Pradesh c) Gujarat d) Maharashtra

21. Sanchi Stupa is in the state of


a) Bihar b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh d) Maharashtra

22. Which state in India ranks first in the production of coffee?


a) Karnataka b) Kerala c) Tamil Nadu d) Andhra Pradesh

23. What is the upper part of the sun’s atmosphere called?


a) Chromosphere b) Corona c) Photosphere d) Ionosphere

24. German Silver is an alloy comprising


a) Copper, Nickel and Zinc b) Silver, Copper and Zinc
c) Silver, Nickel and Zinc d) Nickel, Zinc and Lead

25. CRY is an organization dealing with


a) Environments b) Welfare of destitute women
c) Welfare of neglected children d) Community development

26. Indicate the names of the following three Chola kings chronologically
I) Raja Raja II) Vijayalaya III) Rajendra
a) I, II, III b) III, II, I
c) I, III, II d) II, I, III

27. Which of the following planets is called the Evening Star?


a) Mercury b) Mars c) Venus d) Saturn

28. Of the following, whose ideas had influenced Gandhiji?


a) Karl Marx b) Leo Tolstoy c) Lenin d) Fyodor Dostoevsky

29. When was the first Swadeshi movement in India launched on large scale?
a) 1885 b) 1905 c) 1919 d) 1930

30. Panini, a famous personality of ancient India, was


a) a grammarian b) an astronomer c) a philosopher d) a physician

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31. The celebrated astronomer Aryabhata of ancient India lived during the
a) Maurya period b) Kushan period
c) Gupta period d) Nanda period

32. Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the following Maurya rulers?
a) Bindusara, Ashoka, Chandragupta b) Chandragupta, Bindusara, Ashoka
c) Bindusara, Chandragupa, Ashoka d) Ashoka, Chandragupta, Bindusara

33. Trimurti is associated wtih


a) Ellora b) Ajanta
c) Khajuraho d) Elephanta Caves

34. The non-permanent members of the Security Council serve for


a) One year b) Two years c) Three years d) Four years

35. The Muslim League passed a resolution at its Lahore session demanding a separate homeland
for the Muslims of the sub-continent which later became the basis of Pakistan. In which
year was the resolution passed?
a) 1940 b) 1941 c) 1942 d) 1943

36. ‘Dome of the Rock’, a monument revered by the Muslims, is located at


a) Mecca b) Medina c) Jerusalem d) Qom (Iran)

37. The President of India can nominate, to the Rajya Sabha a maximum of ...............
a) 6 members b) 9 members c) 12 members d) 15 members

38. Match the following columns:


A. Bihu 1. Assam
B. Onam 2. Kerala
C. Pongal 3. West Bengal
D. Vaishakhi 4. Punjab
5. Tamil Nadu
A B C D
a) 1 2 5 4
b) 2 3 1 4
c) 3 5 4 1
d) 2 1 3 4

39. Which of the following is the most stable element found in nature?
a) Oxygen b) Hydrogen
c) Lead d) Uranium

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40. Who is the author of ‘An Unknown Indian’?


a) VS Naipaul b) Shobha De
c) Nirad C. Chowdhary d) RK Narayan

41. Why does water boil below 100o C at higher altitudes?


a) There is lesser dissipation of heat at higher altitudes
b) The water is purer at higher altitudes and hence takes less time
c) Pollution free air at higher altitudes increases the calorific value of the fuel
d) The atmospheric pressure at higher altitude is low compared to the pressure at sea level

42. Radio was invented by .............


a) Graham Bell b) Marconi
c) Coulomb d) Edison

43. When was the elevator (lift) invented and by whom?


a) 1852- E G Otis b) 1831- Michael Faraday
c) 1898- Otto Hume d) 1856- Richard Kone

44. The speed of the sound is maximum in which medium?


a) Air b) Glass c) Water d) Wood

45. Where are the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank situated?
a) Manila b) Jakarta c) Singapore d) Dhaka

46. Black soil is best suited for the growth of which crop?
a) Wheat b) Tea c) Cotton d) Jute

47. Thomas Cup is associated with which sport?


a) Table Tennis b) Chess c) Squash d) Badminton

48. Indian Railways has been organized into how many zones?
a) 14 b) 15 c) 16 d) 17

49. Who is the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
a) Paul Wolfowitz b) Rodrigo Rato
c) Pascal Lamy d) Jacques Rogge

50. The book ‘Wings of Fire’ has been written by………


a) APJ Abdul Kalam b) Amartya Sen
c) Lord Meghraj Desai d) K R Narayanan

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BRM Test - 16

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Red blood corpuscles are formed in…………


a) Marrow b) Liver c) Kidney d) Heart

2. Leprosy is caused by..............


a) Bacterium b) Virus c) Protozoa d) Helminthes

3. The International Literacy Day is observed on.............


a) 8th September b) 8th December c) 16th September d) 16th December

4. A Paleontologist is connected to................


a) Birds b) Fossils c) Old Tombs d) Planets

5. The World Tourism Day is observed on...........


a) 27th July b) 27th August c) 27th September d) 27th October

6. How is the energy in the Sun generated?


a) Nuclear fusion b) Gravitational force
c) Nuclear fission d) Magnetic force

7. Palk Strait separates which two countries?


a) India and Sri Lanka b) India and Burma
c) Sri Lanka and Pakistan d) India and China

8. The book Origin of Species has been written by...........


a) Adam Smith b) Louis Pasteur
c) Charles Darwin d) Claude Bernard

9. Which of the following does not have an oil refinery?


a) Haldia b) Koyali c) Mathura d) Ahmedabad

10. ‘Tripitika’ is related to


a) Buddhists b) Jains c) Vaishnavas d) Shintos

11. The Khalsa Panth was founded by


a) Guru Hargobind b) Guru Nanak Dev
c) Guru Tegh Bahadur d) Guru Gobind Singh

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12. Who among the following was not captured by the British in 1857?
a) Mangal Pandey b) Bahadur Shah II
c) Nana Sahib d) Tantia Tope

13. The Saka Era was founded by


a) Harsha b) Kanishka c) Ashoka d) Vikramaditya

14. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?


a) Nalanda-ancient university b) Tanjore-ancient port
c) Konark-Sun Temple d) Amaravati-Stupa

15. The All India Muslim League was founded by


a) Nawab Salimullah Khan b) Sir Mohd. Iqbal
c) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan d) Moulana Shaukat Ali

16. Zero was invented by:


a) Bhaskara b) Aryabhatta c) Varahamihira d) An unknown Indian

17. The Simon Commission was concerned with


a) Constitution development b) Reforms in the princely states
c) Higher Education d) Famines

18. The monuments at Khajuraho belong to the period of


a) Vakatakas b) Rashtrakutas c) Ganadavatas d) Chandellas

19. Which one of the following works of Kalidasa is not a play?


a) Malavikagnimitram b) Abhijanan Sakuntalam
c) Meghdootam d) Vikramorvaseyam

20. What is the correct sequence of the following events?


I. The Partition of Bengal II. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
III. The Quit India Movement IV. The Simon Commission Report
a) I, II, III, IV b) I, II, IV, III c) IV, III, I, II d) II, III, I, IV

21. Match the following :


I. 1931 A. Chauri-Chaura incident
II. 1921 B. Dandi March
III. 1942 C. Cripps Mission
IV. 1930 D. Second Round Table Conference
a) I-D, II-B, III-C, IV-E b) I-A, II-C, III-B, IV-E
c) I-D, II-C, III-E, IV-B d) I-D, II-A, III-C, IV-B

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22. Match the following :


I. Sindri A. Cement
II. Pimpri B. Fertilisers
III. Surajpur C. Drugs & Pharmaceuticals
IV. Korba D. Aluminium
E. Paper
a) I-E, II-B, III-A, IV-D b) I-B, II-C, III-D, IV-E
c) I-B, II-C, III-A, IV-D d) I-C, II-A, III-E, IV-B

23. Leonard da Vinci’s famous painting Mona Lisa is displayed in


a) Paris b) London c) Frankfurt d) Athens

24. Limestone, when metamorphosed becomes


a) Granite b) Slate c) Marble d) Quartzite

25. Which among the following materials has the highest electrical conductivity?
a) Diamond b) Silver c) Graphite d) Wood

26. Oxygen is liberated on heating..........


a) Zinc oxide b) Manganese dioxide
c) Mercuric oxide d) Magnesium oxide

27. The planetary winds variously known as Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Stormy Sixties
are
a) Trade Winds b) Cyclones c) Polar Winds d) Westerlies

28. Who is known as the ‘Iron Man of India’?


a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
c) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel d) Mahatama Gandhi

29. Otto Von Bismarck is popularly known as the..........


a) Grand Commander b) Man of Blood and Iron
c) Grand Old Man d) Man of Destiny

30. The Ramakrishna Mission was started by


a) Swami Vivekananda b) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati d) None of the above

31. Maria Montessori’s name is associated with


a) Christian mission b) Child education
c) Women’s rights d) Mission hospitals

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32. Where was Albert Einstein born?


a) U.K. b) USA c) Austria d) Albania

33. The first navigator to sail around the world was


a) Marco Polo b) Columbus c) Amundsen d) Magellan

34. John Maynard Keynes was a/an


a) Poet b) Scientist c) Mathematician d) Economist

35. Who is known as the ‘Little Corporal’?


a) Adolf Hitler b) Napolean Bonaparte
c) William E. Gladstone d) None of the above

36. Who was the first Indian woman to scale Mt. Everest?
a) Phu Dorjee b) Ang Dorjee c) Bachendri Pal d) Santosh Yadav

37. Leonardo da Vinci, who is famous for his masterpiece painting Mona Lisa was a/an
a) Frenchman b) Italian c) German d) Englishman

38. Mother Teresa was born in


a) USA b) USSR c) Germany d) Albania

39. The first woman film star nominated or elected to the Rajya Sabha was
a) Vaijayanthimala b) Nargis Dutt c) Jayalalitha d) Hema Malini

40. The Scholar who had accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni to India was
a) Al-Raza b) Ibn Batuta c) Al-Beruni d) Al-Firdausi

41. The new name for Dabhol Power corporation is ………


a) Naptha Jhakri Corporation Ltd b) Sardar Sarovar Project Pvt Ltd
c) Ratnagiri Gas and Power Pvt Ltd d) Tehri Power Project Pvt Ltd

42. The largest producer of eggs in the world is...........


a) China b) India c) Japan d) Korea

43. The largest sugar producing state of India is...............


a) Maharashtra b) Uttar Pradesh c) Punjab d) Haryana

44. As per the constitution of India, Labour is a subject of the


a) Central List b) State List
c) Concurrent List d) It is not included in any list

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45. The 7th Law Commission is chaired by?


a) Soli Sorabjee b) Ram Jethmalani c) C Rangarajan d) M Jagannadha Rao

46. ‘Operation Flood’ was started by the...............


a) Mother Dairy b) Delhi Milk Scheme
c) National Dairy Development Board d) Government of India

47. The rate of Value Added Tax (VAT) is


a) 4% and 12.5% b) 4% and 12% c) 3.5% and 12% d) 3% and 12.5%

48. The trade route (ancient silk route) that has opened between India and China after 44 years
is connected by
a) Jelepla Pass b) Nathu La Pass
c) Rohtang Pass d) Zozi La Pass

49. Who is the present Defense Minister of India?


a) Pranab Mukherjee b) Shivraj Patil
c) A K Antony d) Sharad Pawar

50. Mobile Phone was invented by………


a) Martin Cooper b) J L Baird
c) Thomas Alva Edison d) Alexander Graham Bell

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BRM Test - 17

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. Who is the Supreme Commander of the Indian defense forces?


a) The Chief of Staff of the Indian Army b) The President of India
c) The Prime Minister of India d) The Defence Minister

2. Who is the Chief Minister of Goa?


a) Pratapsinh Rane b) Manohar Parrikar
c) Philip Neri Rodrigues d) S.C. Jamir

3. Which is the largest airport in the world?


a) King Khaled International airport b) Jeddah airport
c) O’ Hare International airport d) Heathrow International airport

4. A money bill can be introduced in


a) Either House of the Parliament b) Only the Lok Sabha
c) Only the RajyaSabha d) None of the above

5. One-third of the members of the Rajya Sabha retire after every ............... year/s.
a) One b) Two
c) Four d) Five

6. The speaker can exercise his right to vote in the house


a) At his own pleasure
b) At the discretion of the party that he belongs to
c) Only in the event of an equality of votes
d) If the houses so desire

7. The ‘zero hour’ in the parliament refers to a time


a) When proposals made by the opposition are considered
b) When a money bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha
c) Interval between the morning and the afternoon sessions
d) When matters of utmost importance are raised

8. The total number of members that the president nominates to the Lok Sabha and the Rajya
Sabha is
a) 12 b) 14
c) 22 d) 24

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9. A ‘minister of state’ in the union government refers to someone who is


a) A nominee of the state cabinet
b) A minister of the union government but not a member of the cabinet
c) A nominee of the state governor
d) Responsible for safeguarding the interests of the state cabinet

10. The President’s rule can be imposed in a state under the controversial article ...................
of the Constitution
a) 256 b) 326 c) 356 d) 386

11. The president can make laws through ordinances


a) Under no circumstances
b) Only on subjects contained in the concurrent list
c) On certain subjects even when the parliament is in session
d) Only during the recess of the parliament

12. The idea of incorporation of a concurrent list, besides the union and the state lists, has been
borrowed from the Constitution of
a) Ireland b) Australia c) UK d) Canada

13. Which of the following writs is issued by the Court for the enforcement of a fundamental
right, as in the case of illegal detention of a person?
a) Habeas Corpus b) Mandamus c) Certiorari d) Quo Warranto

14. If an object is placed between two parallel plane mirrors, the number of images formed will
be
a) 1 b) Infinite c) 0 d) 4

15. Laughing gas is


a) Nitric oxide b) Nitrogen dioxide
c) Nitrogen pent oxide d) Nitrous oxide

16. The courts can, under the writ of Mandamus,


a) Ask a person to be produced
b) Order to transfer a case from one court to another
c) Ask to let a person free for a temporary period
d) Direct the government to do or not to do a certain thing

17. Which one of the following constitutional amendments gives a constitutional status to the
Panchayati Raj Institutions?
a) 71st amendment b) 72nd amendment c) 73rd amendment d) 74th amendment

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18 . ...................... is regarded to have been the father of local self government in India
a) Rippon b) Bentinck c) Curzon d) Mayo

19. The Revolt of 1857 had its beginning in……..


a) Meerut b) Plassey c) Madras d) Bombay

20. Who had founded the Indian Home Rule Society?


a) Madan Lal Dhingra b) V. D. Savarkar
c) Lala Hardayal d) Shyamji Krishna Verma

21. With whom was the seven-year rule of ‘missions, omissions, and commissions’ associated?
a) Lord Dalhousie b) Lord Curzon
c) Lord Lytton d) Lord Mayo

22. The author of Ashtadhyaya is


a) Charaka b) Panini c) Dhanwantari d) None of the above

23. The Doctrine of Lapse had been put to much use by


a) Lord Dalhousie b) Lord Bentinck c) Lord Curzon d) Lord Rippon

24. Who is known as the ‘Father of Geometry’?


a) Kepler b) Euclid c) Pythagoras d) Newton

25. Who advocated the theory of ‘Laissez Faire’ ?


a) Marshall b) Malthus c) Adam Smith d) None of these

26. Who among the following was known as ‘Fuehrer’?


a) Stalin b) Lenin c) Hitler d) Bismarck

27. Alfred Nobel is associated with the invention of


a) Cosmic rays b) Dynamite c) Dynamo d) Penicillin

28. Which, among the following crops, holds the highest acreage of cropping in India?
a) Rice b) Wheat c) Cotton d) Potato

29. Which among the following countries is the World’s largest consumer of coffee?
a) USA b) Russia c) China d) UK

30. Which part of the human body is made up of the Duodenum, Jejunum and the Ileum?
a) The Stomach b) The small intestine
c) The large intestine d) None of these

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31. Which among the following states has largest number of districts?
a) Bihar b) Rajasthan c) Uttar Pradesh d) Maharashtra

32. The Reserve Bank of India was established on


a) Jan-1,1934 b) April-1,1934 c) Jan-1,1935 d) April-1,1935

33. Alfonso is a famous variety of which among the following fruits?


a) Grape b) Mango c) Orange d) Apple

34. The Great Bengal famine occurred in which among the following years?
a) 1911 b) 1931 c) 1943 d) 1945

35. Who wrote ‘Broken Wing’?


a) Sarojini Naidu b) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
c) Jawaharlal Nehru d) Nirad C. Choudhary

36. Who is the president of International Olympic Committee?


a) Ehsan Mani b) Lamine Diack c) Jacques Rogge d) None of the above

37. Who has written the book ‘War and Peace’?


a) Maxim Gorky b) Leo Tolstoy
c) Fyodor Dostoevsky d) Miguel de Cervantes

38. K-2, the world’s second highest peak is located in which mountain range?
a) Pir Panjal b) Himalayas c) Karokoram d) None of these

39. CRY stands for


a) Children Rescue Youjana b) Child Regulation and Youth
c) Children Relief and You d) None of the above

40. Which amongst the following is the latest country to gain independence?
a) East Timor b) Botswana
c) Uganda d) Sudan

41. What is the capital of Ethiopia?


a) Cairo b) Khartoum
c) Addis Ababa d) Congo

42. Who has played highest number of test matches as a member of the Indian team?
a) Sunil Gavaskar b) Rahul Dravid
c) Sachin Tendulkar d) Kapil Dev

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43. With what sports would you associate ‘Uber Cup’?


a) Polo b) Golf c) Badminton d) Chess

44. Where would you come across ‘Savannah’ the grasslands?


a) Africa b) South America c) North America d) Asia

45. Which is the largest mammal in the world?


a) Blue Whale b) Indian Elephant c) African Elephant d) Giraffe

46. Who is the present Chief Minister of Maharashtra?


a) Sushil Kr. Shinde b) Vilasrao Deshmukh
c) Chhagan Bhujbal d) Narayan Rane

47. Which country boasts of the famous ‘Leaning Towers’?


a) Scotland b) Germany c) France d) Italy

48. India’s on-sea missile testing site Chandipur, where all AGNI missiles (Irbm) have been
tested, is in which state?
a) Kerala b) Andhra Pradesh c) Orissa d) Lakshwadeep

49. Which Footballer along with Ronaldo holds the record of having been chosen the World
Player of the Year by FIFA three times?
a) Maradona b) Totti c) Zidane d) Cafu

50. Swimmer Ian Thorpe, who recently announced his retirement, is from which country?
a) US b) UK c) New Zealand d) Australia

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BRM Test - 18

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. How many books are there in Douglas Adams’s ‘Hitchhikers’ Guide to the Galaxy’ series?
a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 7

2. What is the currency of Argentina?


a) Peso b) Dollar c) Dinar d) Euro

3. The 2nd Battle of Panipat was fought in the year?


a) 1556 b) 1566 c) 1546 d) 1576

4. Where is Indian Military Academy?


a) Pune b) Jabalpur c) Dehradun d) Bareilly

5. Where is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command in India?


a) Goa b) Mumbai c) Kochi d) Kandla

6. From which country did India acquire MIG-2000?


a) Russia b) China c) USA d) France

7. What is Vijayanta?
a) Submarine b) Aircraft c) Warship d) Battle tank

8. India’s largest aircraft carrier is..............


a) INS Vikrant b) INS Shakti c) INS Viraat d) INS Samridhi

9. Gautam Buddha was born in……..


a) 527 BC b) 58 BC c) 261 BC d) 576 BC

10. The First Battle of Panipat took place in the year:


a) 1556 AD b) 1526 AD c) 1540 AD d) 1527 AD

11. When did the Jallianwalan Bagh massacre take place?


a) April 13,1919 b) April 13,1920 c) May 13,1919 d) May 14,1919

12. When was the Constitution of India enacted, signed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly?
a) January 26,1950 b) December 11,1946
c) December 9,1949 d) November 26,1949

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13. When the Constitution of India was passed by the Constituent Assembly, it had how many
schedules?
a) 10 Schedules b) 8 Schedules c) 12 Schedules d) 19 Schedules

14. When was the Constitution of India first amended after its adoption?
a) 1954 b) 1951 c) 1962 d) 1971

15. Rupee was minted in the era of which famous ruler?


a) Kanishka b) Sher Shah Suri c) Ashoka d) Samudra Gupta

16. How many bones are there in our body?


a) 208 b) 207 c) 206 d) 406

17. What is the full form of BIOS?


a) Basic Input Outlook System b) Basic Input Output System
c) Byte Input Output Space d) None of these

18. How many bits called 1 nibble?


a) Four b) Six c) Eight d) Two

19. The 1857 revolt broke out during the generalship of………
a) Dalhousie b) Canning c) Lawrence d) Curzon

20. What was the immediate cause that precipitated the sepoy mutiny of 1857?
a) The introduction of greased cartridges
b) Dalhousie’s Doctrine of lapse
c) A wide disparity between the salaries of native sepoys and the British soldiers
d) A bid to convert the Indians to Christianity

21. The mutiny had many results; the immediate result was that it led to
a) The founding of the Indian National Congress
b) Expansion of the military powers of the English East India company
c) Assumption of direct responsibility for administration of India by the crown
d) All of the above

22. The first International telephone line in India was between.


a) New York and Mumbai b) London and Mumbai
c) London and Calcutta d) London and Delhi

23. In which year PIN code system started in India?


a) 1972 b) 1969 c) 1975 d) 1965

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24. Who was the first Muslim ruler of Delhi?


a) Iltutmish b) Qutbuddin Aibak c) Allauddin Khalji d) Mahmud of Ghazni

25. Muhammad – bin – Tughluq introduced a token currency in lieu of the prevalent silver tanka.
Identify the metal used for making the token currency.
a) Bronze b) Copper c) Nickel d) Brass

26. Who founded the city of Hyderabad?


a) Muhammad Shah b) Muhammad Khan
c) Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah d) Chin Qilich Khan

27. The National flower of India is............


a) Lotus b) Rose c) Lily d) None of these

28. When is the Martyr’s day celebrated?


a) 2nd October b) 30th January c) 22nd March d) 24th January

29. The currency of Iceland is called


a) Forint b) Krona c) Lira d) Shilling

30. The capital of which of the following countries does not begin with the letter ‘A’?
a) Greece b) Ghana c) Jordan d) Macedonia

31. ‘Peso’ is not the currency of which of the following countries?


a) Bolivia b) Cuba
c) Dominican Republic d) Chile

32. Which state has the maximum forest area?


a) Rajashtan b) Maharashtra c) Madhya Pradesh d) Uttar Pradesh

33. We are in between which of the following Five-Year Plan?


a) Ninth Plan b) Tenth Plan c) Eleventh Plan d) Twelfth Plan

34. The Rs.5,000 note was reintroduced in India in 1954. Which monument did it depict?
a) India Gate b) Taj Mahal
c) Gateway of India d) Qutab Minar

35. What term is used to describe the practice of registering well-known names as domains on the
Internet, hoping to sell them at high prices to the rightful owners?
a) Cyber Squatting b) Cyber Selling
c) Domaining d) Cyber Surfing

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36. For what purpose was the compass originally developed/invented in China?
a) For Sailors b) For Feng Shui
c) For locating snakes d) For measuring temperature

37. If the MRF bat which Sachin Tendulkar uses is labeled ‘Genius’, what is the corresponding
label on Brian Lara’s bat?
a) Genius b) Wizard]
c) Masters d) Excellent

38. The currency of Denmark is


a) Pound b) Euro
c) Krone d) Kwanza

39. The term ‘econometrics’ was coined by which co-winner of the first Nobel Prize in econom-
ics?
a) Ragnar Frisch b) Amartya Sen
c) Pareto d) Adam Smith

40. First letter of the Greek alphabet is............


a) Beta b) Gamma
c) Alpha d) Delta

41. The Concorde airplane flies faster than Mac 1. Mac 1 is


a) The speed of sound b) The speed of light
c) The speed of asteroids d) The speed of electrons

42. He discovered the ‘red shift’, laying the foundation for the Big Bang theory
a) Darwin b) Hubble
c) Kennedy d) Aryabhatta

43. What would you study if you were a speleologist?


a) Speech b) Caves c) Insects d) Mummies

44. Which is the closest planet to the Sun?


a) Pluto b) Saturn c) Earth d) Mercury

45. Montgomery is the capital city of which country?


a) Greece b) The Vatican c) Alabama d) Albania

46. A word spelled by rearranging the letters of another word is called……….


a) Anagram b) Synonym c) Antonym d) Metaphor

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47. Which country in the world has the maximum amount of External Debt due to extraordinarily
high Imports?
a) USA b) China
c) Canada d) UK

48. The new President of International Cricket Council (ICC) is…………


a) Ali Bacher b) Percy Sonn
c) Gordon Greenidge d) Ehsan Mani

49. In 2006, Italy won the Football World Cup for the
a) Fifth Time b) Fourth Time
c) Third Time d) Sixth Time

50. Milton Friedman, who died recently, is a/an


a) Economist b) Author
c) Dramatist d) Poet

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BRM Test - 19

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. The ‘Protected Disclosure Scheme’ is already in force in the case of………..


a) PSU Banks & RBI b) Private Banks
c) Foreign Banks d) All the Banks

2. The first ceremony of the International Olympic Committee was held in 1894. In which city
was it held?
a) New York b) Athens c) Paris d) London

3. Which of the following Shakespeare’s plays is not a tragedy?


a) Pericles – Prince of Tyre b) Hamlet
c) Othello d) Macbeth

4. After Mandarin (Chinese), what is the most widely spoken first language?
a) English b) Hindi c) Spanish d) French

5. What commonly eaten vegetable was originally thought to be poisonous?


a) Potato b) Tomato c) Brinjal d) Bitter Gourd

6. According to the Greek, who holds the World on his shoulders?


a) Atlas b) Hercules c) Krishna d) Sheshnag

7. Which US president was shot 5 days after the end of the American Civil War?
a) John F. Kennedy b) Abraham Lincoln c) Jimmy Carter d) Richard Nixon

8. The book Jurassic Park was written by………


a) Michael Crichton b) J.K. Rowling c) Jonathan Swift d) Franklin Dickson

9. The book Gulliver’s Travels was written by……….


a) Michael Crichton b) J.K. Rowling c) Jonathan Swift d) Charles Dickens

10. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ was written by


a) Charles Dickens b) Adam Smith
c) Jane Austen d) Patricia Cornwell

11. Around the World in Eighty Days was written by


a) Aldous Huxley b) Jules Verne c) Enid Blyton d) J.K. Rowling

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12. The Call of the Wild was written by…………


a) Jack London b) Richard H Chase
c) Christopher Watkinson d) Stephen Hawking

13. Why is the Chinese City of Golmud famous?


a) World’s highest railway has been started between Golmud and Tibetan capital Lhasa
b) It has the largest infant mortality rate in China
c) It is the largest Silk producing city in China
d) It is the largest industrial town of China

14. In which country did chess originate?


a) China b) England c) India d) US

15. Morphology is the study of………


a) The shapes of plants and animals b) The shapes of aeroplanes
c) The art of combining two pictures d) Handwriting

16. Who has won the Davis Cup the maximum number of times?
a) USA b) Spain c) Russia d) Sweden

17. Which of these is another term for the human trachea?


a) Large Intestine b) Small Intestine c) Kidney d) Windpipe

18. A pulmonist works on which internal organ/s?


a) Heart and Lungs b) Liver c) Kidney d) Pancreas

19. If you are standing on the moon and drop both a feather and a rock at the same time from the
same height, which will land first?
a) Rock b) Feather
c) Both will land together d) Both will keep floating

20. During World War II, the Germans were allied with the…..
a) British b) Americans c) Dutch d) None of these

21. Amitabh Bachchan was conferred with an Honorary Doctorate in Arts in 2006 by which
University?
a) Le Corbusier University b) De Montford University
c) Sheffield University d) Thomas Cook University

22. Who was the second President of the United States?


a) John Adams b) Jimmy Carter c) Abraham Lincoln d) George Washington

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Temple of Learning

23. In what year did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?


a) 1943 b) 1942 c) 1945 d) 1941

24. Who wrote the American Declaration of Independence?


a) Anderson b) Washington c) Lincoln d) Jefferson

25. How long is a marathon?


a) 26.3 miles b) 25 miles c) 24.8 miles d) 27.5 miles

26. Which city is known as the ‘Eternal City’?


a) Venice b) The Vatican c) Rome d) Paris

27. The Dalai Lama and Nelson Mandela have both edited which magazine, at different points of
time?
a) Vogue b) Time c) Forbes d) Business World

28. Who was the first woman governor of an Indian state?


a) Vijay Laxmi Pandit b) Amrit Kaur
c) Sarojini Naidu d) Sucheta Kriplani

29. Who was the last British Governor General of Hong Kong?
a) Chris Patten b) Cornwallis c) Dominic Lazier d) Wallace

30. In which year was the first modern Olympics conducted?


a) 1898 b) 1900 c) 1901 d) 1896

31. In which year did Alfred Nobel die?


a) 1887 b) 1896 c) 1900 d) 1901

32. Who is the President of the Indian Hockey Federation (IHF)?


a) V Bhaskaran b) KPS Gill c) Dhanraj Pillai d) Pargat Singh

33. The longest river in the world flows into which sea?
a) Red Sea b) Caspian Sea
c) Mediterranean sea d) Arabian Sea

34. A narrow strip of land with water on both sides connecting two larger landmasses is known as
a) Isthmus b) Island c) Isobar d) Isotherm

35. How many of the Nobel laureates are of an Indian origin?


a) 4 b) 5 c) 6 d) 7

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36. Which of the following crops helps in nitrogen fixation?


a) Rice b) Beans c) Wheat d) Bajra

37. Who was the first Indian Field Marshal?


a) Maneckshaw b) P. Chauhan c) Capt. S. Singh d) R.M. Singh

38. Who is the President of the International Cricket Council?


a) Ehsaan Mani b) Jagmohan Dalmiya
c) Malcolm Speed d) Percy Sonn

39. Where is the military-oriented Aircraft industry located in India?


a) Nasik b) Pune c) Bhusawal d) Bangalore

40. Which of the following committees was set up by the government to make recommendation on
the pricing and taxation of the petroleum products?
a) Kelkar Committee b) Rangarajan Committee
c) Ahluwalia Committee d) Narsimhan Committee

41. Among which of the following countries India has recently signed a double tax avoidance
treaty?
a) Indonesia b) South Africa c) Mauritius d) Austria

42. What is the significance behind the choice of colors for the Olympic rings?
a) The five colors represent the five continents
b) All other colors can be formed using the five colors
c) At least one of the five colors is found in the flag of every nation
d) The choice of color has no significance

43. Who will be the next Prime Minister and the first woman lead of Jamaica?
a) PS Patterson b) Portia Simpson Miller
c) Peter Phillips d) Danville Walker

44. Who is Karnataka’s Chief Minister?


a) N. Dharam Singh b) B.S. Yediyurappa
c) H.D. Kumaraswamy d) Anant Kumar

45. Which of these was ranked as the world’s No.1 English Daily in terms of circulation?
a) Times of India b) Indian Express c) Hindustan Times d) The Hindu

46. Dispersion of light in the atmosphere takes place due to?


a) Carbon dioxide b) Water vapor c) Helium d) None of the above

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47. President APJ Abdul Kalam created history by becoming the first Indian Head of the state to
sail in a submarine. The name of the submarine is
a) INS Brahmputra b) INS Tarang
c) INS Jyoti d) INS Sindhurakshak

48. Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win a Gold medal in World Cup shooting championship.
In which event did he achieve the feat?
a) 10m Rifle b) Double Trap
c) Air Rifle d) Single Trap

49. Who is the new defense secretary of the US?


a) Donald Rumsfeld b) Robert Gates
c) Condoleeza Rice d) Jim Rose

50. Which state government is planning to start evening courts?


a) Karnataka b) Kerala
c) Gujarat d) Madhya Pradesh

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Temple of Learning

BRM Test - 20

Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1. In which layer of the atmosphere do weather phenomena take place?


a) Ionosphere b) Troposphere c) Stratosphere d) Mesosphere

2. Which of the following countries do not lie in Asia?


a) Yemen b) Oman c) Macau d) Burundi

3. In which state is the Gir forest situated?


a) Gujarat b) Madhya Pradesh c) Kerala d) Karnataka

4. Ankleshwar, a major source of petroleum in India, is situated in which country?


a) Maharashtra b) Orissa c) Gujarat d) Jharkhand

5. Who was India’s nominee for the post of Secretary-General of the UN?
a) Nirupama Sen b) Vijay Nambiar c) Shyam Saran d) Shashi Tharoor

6. Who is the president of Venezuela?


a) Hugo Chavez b) Jorge Rodriquez c) Jose R Zapatero d) Dominique de Villepin

7. The book ‘The Last Mughal’ has been written by………


a) Dominique Lapiere b) Vikram Seth
c) William Dalrymple d) Salman Rushdie

8. Who has been appointed as India’s new foreign secretary?


a) Vijay Nambiar b) S Y Qureshi c) S S Menon d) Shyam Saran

9. Who has won the the 39th Jnanpith award for the year 2003?
a) D Jayakanthan b) Vinda Karandikar
c) R K Shah d) Indira Goswami

10. Who is the present World chess champion?


a) Vladimir Kramnik b) Garry Kasparov
c) Veselin Topalov d) Vishwanathan Anand

11. Which cricketer has scored the fastest hundred in test cricket?
a) Kapil Dev b) Adam Gilchrist
c) Vivian Richards d) Brian Lara

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Temple of Learning

12. Shirin Ebadi is a well known human rights activist and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize 2003.
Which country does she belong to?
a) Iraq b) Egypt c) India d) Iran

13. How many countries participated in the FIFA World Cup 2006?
a) 30 b) 32 c) 34 d) 36

14. Where did Gautam Buddha deliver his first sermon?


a) Sarnath b) Lumbini c) Gaya d) Gandhara

15. The book English August has been written by………


a) Upamanyu Chatterjee b) Vikram Chandra
c) V.S. Naipaul d) Vikram Seth

16. Who is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand?


a) Arjun Munda b) Babulal Marandi c) Shibu Soren d) Madhu Koda

17. Who is the Prime Minister of Japan? ( He is also the youngest PM of Japan)
a) Junichiro Koizumi b) Shinzo Abe
c) Yoshiro Mori d) Obuchi Keizo

18. Who has the Nobel Peace Prize for the year 2006?
a) Grameen Bank b) Muhammad Yunus
c) Both (a) & (b) d) None of the above

19. Who has won the Nobel Prize for Literature for 2006?
a) Orhan Pamuk b) Harold Pinter c) John Banville d) Kiran Desai

20. Who has won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 2006?
a) Roger D Kornberg b) Robert Grubbs
c) Richard Schrock d) Yves Chauvin

21. Which cine personality has won the Gandhi International Peace Prize for 2006?
a) Deepa Mehta b) Meera Nair c) Shabana Azmi d) Kiron Kher

22. Who has won the Nobel Prize for Economics for 2006?
a) Robert J Aumann b) Thomas C Schelling
c) Robert A Mundell d) Edmund S Phelps

23. What is the new name of Bangalore?


a) Bangalurina b) Bengaluru c) Bingalina d) It has not changed

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24. What is the new name of Mysore?


a) Mysori b) Musuru c) Mysuru d) It is not changed

25. Which country won the 2006 men’s hockey World cup?
a) Netherlands b) Germany c) New Zealand d) Australia

26. Who amongst the following was the first space tourist?
a) Dennis Tito b) Mark Shuttleworth
c) Gregory Olsen d) Charles Simonyi

27. Who is the first woman to travel to space?


a) Valentina Tereshkova b) Anousheh Ansari
c) Yashin Debabi d) Yuri Shargin

28. Davos, the permanent venue for the World Economic Forum is in which country?
a) Germany b) Norway c) Sweden d) Switzerland

29. When is the World AIDS day observed?


a) 1st September b) 1st October c) 1st November d) 1st December

30. The Inheritance of Loss has been written by……….


a) Anita Desai b) Kiran Desai c) Vikram Seth d) Vikram Chandra

31. Who is the present Formula One (F1) champion?


a) Michael Schumacher b) Rubens Barrichelo
c) Fernando Alonso d) Jenson Button

32. Narain Karthikeyan is the test driver for which F1 team?


a) Jordan b) Ferrari c) Williams d) Red Bull

33. Who has been chosen as the ICC Player of the Year for 2006?
a) Mathew Hayden b) Adam Gilchrist
c) Shane Warne d) Ricky Pointing

34. Who has been chosen as the ICC Emerging Player of the Year for 2006?
a) Kevin Pietersen b) Ian Bell
c) M.S. Dhoni d) Stuart Clarke

35. Which award did Jhumpa Lahiri win for her book The Interpreter of Maladies?
a) The Booker Prize b) The Nobel Prize for Literature
c) The Sahitya Akademi Award d) The Pulitzer Prize

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 221


Temple of Learning

36. Where is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command in India?


a) Pune b) Mumbai
c) Secundrabad d) Ahmedabad

37. What is the full form of MICR?


a) Monitor Input Resource Copy b) Magnetic Ink computer Recognition
c) Magnetic Ink character Record d) Magnetic Ink character Recognition

38. When there is one buyer and many sellers in a market - what is this situation called?
a) Monopoly b) Monopsony c) Monotony d) Oligopoly

39. Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, is named after the Roman god of……..
a) Peace b) War c) Love d) Marriages

40. Who is the famous author of the book ‘What They Don’t Teach You at Harvard Business
School’?
a) Stephen R Covey b) Mack McCormak
c) John Love d) None of the above

41. What is the disease tetanus otherwise known as?


a) Lock Jaw b) Sea Jaw c) Freeze Jaw d) Ice Jaw

42. In the human body, the exocrine glands are considered as a part of which system?
a) Excretory System b) Respiratory System
c) Nervous System d) Digestive System

43. The Italian soccer club that is owned by the automobile company “FIAT AUTO”, is…….
a) A C Milan b) Inter Milan c) Juventus d) Lazio

44. Which country has the oldest National flag in the world?
a) Sweden b) Denmark c) USA d) UK

45. India’s first National flag was designed by


a) Le Corbusier b) Madame Bikaji Cama
c) Rabindra Nath Tagore d) Netaji Subash Chandra Bose

46. Which fish has a prehensile tail?


a) Rohu b) Shark c) Sea Horse d) Whale

47. Who wrote the thriller The Day of the Jackal?


a) John Grisham b) Tom Clancy c) Ken Follette d) Frederick Forsyth

222 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


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48. In reference to American military servicemen, what do the initials ‘G.I.’ stand for?
a) General’s Intense b) Government Issue
c) Government’s Intense d) General Issue

49. Which is the world third largest religion?


a) Islam b) Judaism
c) Christianity d) Hinduism

50. Who did the Germans defeat at the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914?
a) The French b) The Italian
c) The Russian d) The British

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 223


Temple of Learning

BRM Test - 1
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10.(d)
11.(a) 12.(a) 13.(b) 14.(d) 15.(b) 16.(a) 17.(d) 18.(a) 19.(c) 20.(b)
21.(b) 22.(c) 23.(b) 24.(d) 25.(c) 26.(c) 27.(b) 28.(b) 29.(a) 30.(d)
31.(a) 32.(c) 33.(b) 34.(b) 35.(b) 36.(a) 37.(b) 38.(b) 39.(b) 40.(c)
41.(c) 42.(c) 43.(a) 44.(a) 45.(b) 46.(b) 47.(b) 48.(d) 49.(a) 50.(c)

BRM Test - 2
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10.(c)
11.(d) 12.(b) 13.(a) 14.(a) 15.(b) 16.(d) 17.(c) 18.(a) 19.(d) 20.(b)
21.(b) 22.(d) 23.(b) 24.(a) 25.(a) 26.(d) 27.(c) 28.(d) 29.(a) 30.(b)
31.(d) 32.(b) 33.(c) 34.(b) 35.(b) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(b) 39.(d) 40.(b)
41.(c) 42.(c) 43.(d) 44.(b) 45.(c) 46.(b) 47.(b) 48.(c) 49.(a) 50.(b)

BRM Test - 3
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10.(b)
11.(d) 12.(c) 13.(b) 14.(d) 15.(a) 16.(a) 17.(b) 18.(c) 19.(c) 20.(a)
21.(a) 22.(b) 23.(a) 24.(a) 25.(b) 26.(a) 27.(c) 28.(a) 29.(a) 30.(b)
31.(c) 32.(a) 33.(a) 34.(c) 35.(b) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(c) 39.(d) 40.(a)
41.(c) 42.(b) 43.(d) 44.(c) 45.(a) 46.(b) 47.(d) 48.(d) 49.(c) 50.(b)

BRM Test - 4
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10.(a)
11.(d) 12.(a) 13.(a) 14.(c) 15.(a) 16.(c) 17.(b) 18.(a) 19.(d) 20.(b)
21.(b) 22.(a) 23.(d) 24.(d) 25.(b) 26.(a) 27.(b) 28.(c) 29.(a) 30.(a)
31.(a) 32.(d) 33.(a) 34.(c) 35.(b) 36.(b) 37.(c) 38.(b) 39.(b) 40.(a)
41.(b) 42.(a) 43.(d) 44.(c) 45.(b) 46.(d) 47.(a) 48.(c) 49.(a) 50.(d)

BRM Test - 5
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10.(b)
11.(c) 12.(a) 13.(a) 14.(c) 15.(b) 16.(b) 17.(d) 18.(c) 19.(c) 20.(a)
21.(c) 22.(d) 23.(a) 24.(c) 25.(a) 26.(b) 27.(c) 28.(a) 29.(b) 30.(b)
31.(c) 32.(d) 33.(b) 34.(a) 35.(b) 36.(c) 37.(c) 38.(b) 39.(d) 40.(c)
41.(b) 42.(b) 43.(b) 44.(a) 45.(c) 46.(d) 47.(c) 48.(a) 49.(b) 50.(c)

BRM Test - 6
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10.(a)
11.(d) 12.(b) 13.(b) 14.(d) 15.(a) 16.(c) 17.(b) 18.(d) 19.(c) 20.(c)
21.(c) 22.(d) 23.(c) 24.(d) 25.(a) 26.(c) 27.(c) 28.(c) 29.(c) 30.(b)
31.(d) 32.(b) 33.(d) 34.(c) 35.(c) 36.(c) 37.(a) 38.(a) 39.(b) 40.(b)
41.(a) 42.(b) 43.(c) 44.(a) 45.(d) 46.(a) 47.(c) 48.(a) 49.(c) 50.(b)

224 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM


Temple of Learning

BRM Test - 7
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10.(b)
11.(a) 12.(a) 13.(d) 14.(c) 15.(a) 16.(a) 17.(d) 18.(d) 19.(c) 20.(b)
21.(c) 22.(d) 23.(b) 24.(a) 25.(d) 26.(c) 27.(b) 28.(c) 29.(a) 30.(a)
31.(b) 32.(c) 33.(c) 34.(c) 35.(a) 36.(d) 37.(c) 38.(b) 39.(a) 40.(d)
41.(a) 42.(b) 43.(d) 44.(c) 45.(a) 46.(d) 47.(a) 48.(c) 49.(d) 50.(b)

BRM Test - 8
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10.(a)
11.(c) 12.(c) 13.(c) 14.(c) 15.(d) 16.(c) 17.(a) 18.(d) 19.(a) 20.(a)
21.(a) 22.(b) 23.(b) 24.(b) 25.(c) 26.(a) 27.(a) 28.(a) 29.(a) 30.(d)
31.(c) 32.(b) 33.(d) 34.(a) 35.(c) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(d) 39.(d) 40.(a)
41.(d) 42.(a) 43.(d) 44.(d) 45.(b) 46.(c) 47.(d) 48.(c) 49.(c) 50.(a)

BRM Test - 9
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10.(c)
11.(a) 12.(c) 13.(a) 14.(a) 15.(c) 16.(a) 17.(a) 18.(c) 19.(b) 20.(d)
21.(c) 22.(d) 23.(b) 24.(b) 25.(b) 26.(a) 27.(d) 28.(a) 29.(c) 30.(c)
31.(a) 32.(a) 33.(d) 34.(c) 35.(a) 36.(b) 37.(a) 38.(a) 39.(a) 40.(d)
41.(c) 42.(b) 43.(c) 44.(b) 45.(a) 46.(a) 47.(b) 48.(d) 49.(b) 50.(d)

BRM Test - 10
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10.(c)
11.(c) 12.(a) 13.(b) 14.(a) 15.(c) 16.(a) 17.(c) 18.(c) 19.(d) 20.(a)
21.(b) 22.(d) 23.(d) 24.(c) 25.(c) 26.(d) 27.(b) 28.(c) 29.(b) 30.(a)
31.(a) 32.(d) 33.(b) 34.(c) 35.(a) 36.(a) 37.(b) 38.(d) 39.(d) 40.(k)
41.(b) 42.(b) 43.(c) 44.(a) 45.(d) 46.(c) 47.(a) 48.(c) 49.(b) 50.(d)

BRM Test - 11
1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10.(b)
11.(a) 12.(c) 13.(d) 14.(d) 15.(c) 16.(a) 17.(b) 18.(d) 19.(a) 20.(c)
21.(a) 22.(b) 23.(d) 24.(a) 25.(c) 26.(c) 27.(a) 28.(a) 29.(c) 30.(a)
31.(c) 32.(c) 33.(c) 34.(a) 35.(b) 36.(a) 37.(b) 38.(a) 39.(d) 40.(b)
41.(d) 42.(b) 43.(b) 44.(d) 45.(b) 46.(a) 47.(a) 48.(c) 49.(b) 50.(c)

BRM Test - 12
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10.(b)
11.(c) 12.(b) 13.(c) 14.(b) 15.(c) 16.(a) 17.(a) 18.(c) 19.(a) 20.(c)
21.(b) 22.(c) 23.(b) 24.(c) 25.(d) 26.(b) 27.(b) 28.(b) 29.(c) 30.(c)
31.(b) 32.(d) 33.(d) 34.(b) 35.(b) 36.(c) 37.(a) 38.(b) 39.(a) 40.(c)
41.(d) 42.(a) 43.(c) 44.(b) 45.(b) 46.(b) 47.(c) 48.(d) 49.(a) 50.(d)

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BRM Test - 13
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10.(c)
11.(b) 12.(c) 13.(d) 14.(b) 15.(b) 16.(c) 17.(a) 18.(b) 19.(a) 20.(a)
21.(b) 22.(b) 23.(d) 24.(a) 25.(a) 26.(b) 27.(b) 28.(d) 29.(b) 30.(d)
31.(a) 32.(c) 33.(a) 34.(a) 35.(c) 36.(c) 37.(c) 38.(d) 39.(a) 40.(d)
41.(a) 42.(c) 43.(a) 44.(c) 45.(b) 46.(c) 47.(a) 48.(a) 49.(b) 50.(c)

BRM Test - 14
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10.(c)
11.(c) 12.(c) 13.(a) 14.(a) 15.(a) 16.(d) 17.(a) 18.(d) 19.(b) 20.(a)
21.(b) 22.(d) 23.(a) 24.(b) 25.(d) 26.(b) 27.(a) 28.(a) 29.(d) 30.(a)
31.(c) 32.(d) 33.(d) 34.(b) 35.(d) 36.(c) 37.(d) 38.(c) 39.(c) 40.(d)
41.(c) 42.(c) 43.(a) 44.(a) 45.(b) 46.(c) 47.(a) 48.(c) 49.(a) 50.(d)

BRM Test - 15
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10.(b)
11.(b) 12.(d) 13.(c) 14.(a) 15.(b) 16.(b) 17.(b) 18.(a) 19.(c) 20.(c)
21.(b) 22.(a) 23.(b) 24.(a) 25.(c) 26.(d) 27.(c) 28.(b) 29.(b) 30.(a)
31.(c) 32.(b) 33.(d) 34.(b) 35.(a) 36.(c) 37.(c) 38.(a) 39.(c) 40.(c)
41.(d) 42.(b) 43.(a) 44.(b) 45.(a) 46.(c) 47.(d) 48.(c) 49.(b) 50.(a)

BRM Test - 16
1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (d) 10.(a)
11.(d) 12.(c) 13.(b) 14.(d) 15.(a) 16.(b) 17.(a) 18.(d) 19.(d) 20.(b)
21.(d) 22.(c) 23.(a) 24.(c) 25.(b) 26.(d) 27.(d) 28.(c) 29.(b) 30.(a)
31.(b) 32.(c) 33.(a) 34.(d) 35.(b) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(d) 39.(b) 40.(c)
41.(c) 42.(a) 43.(a) 44.(c) 45.(d) 46.(c) 47.(a) 48.(b) 49.(c) 50.(a)

BRM Test - 17
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10.(c)
11.(d) 12.(d) 13.(a) 14.(b) 15.(d) 16.(d) 17.(c) 18.(a) 19.(a) 20.(d)
21.(b) 22.(b) 23.(a) 24.(b) 25.(c) 26.(c) 27.(b) 28.(a) 29.(a) 30.(b)
31.(c) 32.(d) 33.(b) 34.(d) 35.(a) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(c) 39.(c) 40.(a)
41.(c) 42.(c) 43.(c) 44.(a) 45.(a) 46.(b) 47.(c) 48.(c) 49.(c) 50.(d)

BRM Test - 18
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10.(b)
11.(a) 12.(a) 13.(b) 14.(b) 15.(b) 16.(c) 17.(b) 18.(a) 19.(b) 20.(a)
21.(c) 22.(b) 23.(a) 24.(b) 25.(a) 26.(c) 27.(a) 28.(b) 29.(b) 30.(d)
31.(a) 32.(c) 33.(c) 34.(c) 35.(a) 36.(b) 37.(b) 38.(c) 39.(a) 40.(c)
41.(a) 42.(b) 43.(b) 44.(d) 45.(c) 46.(a) 47.(a) 48.(b) 49.(b) 50.(a)

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BRM Test - 19
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10.(a)
11.(b) 12.(a) 13.(a) 14.(c) 15.(c) 16.(a) 17.(d) 18.(a) 19.(c) 20.(d)
21.(b) 22.(a) 23.(d) 24.(b) 25.(a) 26.(c) 27.(a) 28.(c) 29.(a) 30.(d)
31.(b) 32.(b) 33.(c) 34.(a) 35.(d) 36.(b) 37.(a) 38.(d) 39.(d) 40.(b)
41.(c) 42.(a) 43.(b) 44.(c) 45.(a) 46.(b) 47.(d) 48.(a) 49.(b) 50.(c)

BRM Test - 20
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10.(a)
11.(c) 12.(d) 13.(b) 14.(a) 15.(a) 16.(d) 17.(b) 18.(c) 19.(a) 20.(a)
21.(c) 22.(d) 23.(b) 24.(c) 25.(b) 26.(a) 27.(a) 28.(d) 29.(d) 30.(b)
31.(c) 32.(c) 33.(d) 34.(b) 35.(d) 36.(b) 37.(d) 38.(b) 39.(b) 40.(b)
41.(a) 42.(d) 43.(c) 44.(b) 45.(b) 46.(c) 47.(d) 48.(d) 49.(c) 50.(c)

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 227


Temple of Learning

Annexure

The Constitutional Amendment Acts (1951 - 2002)

Number of Year Affected Articles Amended Subject


Constitutional
Amendment

First 1951 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 1. Right to equality, Right to liberty and Right to property
341, 342, 372, 376; were restriced in public interest.
Articles 31A, 31B and Ninth 2. The Land reform Acts were put into Ninth Schedule to
Schedule Added make them out of jurisdiction of the Courts.
3. The Sessions of Legislatures, appointment of Judges
and provision relating to reservation of seats were
also affected.
Second 1953 81 Representation of States in the Parliament.
Third 1954 7th Schedule The Subject of raw cotton, food production, animal
husbandry etc. were shifted to the Concurrent List.
Fourth 1955 31,31A, 305 and The Compensation given in lisu of acquisition of property
Ninth Schedule may be specified and the amount of compensation is to be
beyond the jurisdiction of the Courts.
Fifth 1955 Art.3 The President was given power to specify time within
which the States shall express their opinion with respect
to a proposed legislation affection the boundaries and
name of the States.
Sixth 1956 269, 286, 7th Schedule The Parliament was given the power to tax the goods
List I and List II involved in the inter-State trades.
Seventh 1956 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 1. State reorganization in 14 States and 6
168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, Union Territories.
222, 224, 230, 231, 232, 239, 2. Reallocation of Seats in the House of the
240, 253, 298, 371. Articles People, the Council of States and the State
added are: 290A, 350A, 350B, Legislatures.
372A, 378A, Article deleted 3. Provision for the appointement of acting and
are: 238, 242, 243, 259, 278, additional Judges andjurisdiction of High
306, 279-80. The Second, Courts.
Fourth, Seventh Schedules 4. Provisions for Union Territories.
were also affected. 5. Special provisions for the States of Andhra
Pradesh, Punjab and Bombay.
Eighth 1960 330, 332, 333, 334 The Reservation of seats in Legislatures in favour of SC/
ST and the Anglo-Indian Community extended upto 1970.
Ninth 1960 First Schedule Provisions regarding transfer to Berubari Union areas to
Pakistan.
Tenth 1961 240, The First Schedule Dadra & Nagar Haveli admitted to the Union of India.
Eleventh 1961 66(1), 71(4) Provisions relating to the Electoral College for the election
of the President and the Vice-President.
Twelth 1962 Art.240, First Schedule Goa. Daman and Diu admitted to the Union of India.
Thirteenth 1962 Art. 371A was added Nagaland was given the Status of a State and special
Fourteenth 1962 239A; 240(1), First and Fourth provisions were made for the State of Nagaland.
Schedules Pondicherry was admitted in the Union of India as a Union
Territory and provisions were made for the constitution
of the Legislative Assembly and the Council of Ministers
in that UT.
Fifteenth 1963 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 224A, 1. The retirement age of the Judges of the High Courts
226, 297, 311, 316, was raised to 62 years from 60 years.
Seventh Schedule 2. Provision for the re-employment of the retired Judge
of the High Courts.
3. Extension to the jurisdiction of the High Courts.
Sixteenth 1963 19, 84, 174, Second Schedule The States were given the power to restrict the Right to
Liberty.

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Seventeenth 1964 31A, Ninte Schedule The State redefined, provisions regardings the Judicial
Review.
Eighteenth 1966 Art.3 The ‘State’ redefined.
Nineteenth 1966 Art.324 Election Tribunals abolished, the provisions relating to
electoral disputes.
Twentieth 1966 Art. 233A added. Provisions regarding appointement to District Judges.
Twenty-first 1967 Eighth Schedule Sindhi language was added in the Eighth Schedule.
Twenty-second 1969 Articles 244A and 371B. Establishment of the Union Territory of Meghalaya and
Added. special provision with respect to the State of Assam.
Twenty-third 1970 331, 332, 333, 334 The reservation in Legislatures in favour of SCs/STs and
Anglo-Indian Community was extended upto 1980.
Twenty-fourth 1971 Art. 13, 368 The Parliament was given power to amend any part of
the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights.
Twenty fifth 1971 Art. 31. Art 31C were The Fudamental Rights were subordinated to the Directive
added Principles as given in the Art.39.
Twenty-sixth 1971 Art. 312A added and Article The privy purse and other priveleges of the princess were
314 was deleted. abolished.
Twenty-seventh 1971 Articles 239B and 371C were Reorganisation of North-Eastern States.
added.
Twenty-eighth 1972 Art. 312A added and Art. 314 Privileges availed by the member of I.C.S. abolished.
deleted.
Twenty-ninth 1972 Ninth Schedule The Land Reform Acts passed by the Legislature of the
State of Kerala, put into the Ninth Schedule.
Thirtieth 1972 Art. 133 The limit of Rs.20,000 for making an appeal to the
Supreme Court in civil matters abolished.
Thirty-first 1973 Articles 81, 330, and 332 The membership of the House of the People increased to
545 members from 525 members.
Thirty-second 1973 Article 371 affecred and Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra
Articles 371D and 371E added Pradesh.
Thirty-third 1974 Articles 101, 190 Provision was made to the effect that the acceptance of
resignation of Member of Parliament by the presiding
1974 officer is not mandatory.
Thirty-fourth Ninth Schedule The Ninth Schedule extended.
Thirty-fifth 1974 Art. 80 affected, Art. 371F Sikkim was admitted as on associate State of the Union of
added, The Tenth Schedule India.
added
Thirty-sixth 1974 Art. 80 affected, Art. 371F Sikkim was given the status of a full State.
added, The Tenth Schedule
deleted.
Thirty-seventh 1975 Art. 239 A and 240 Provision for the constitution of the Legistative Assembly
and the Council of Ministers in Arunachal Pradesh.
Thirty-eighth 1975 Art. 123, 123, 213, 239B, 352, The ordinance issued by thr President, the Governor and
356, 360 the Lt, Governor made to be out of jurisdiction of the
Courts.
Thirty-ninth 1975 Art. 71, 329affected and Art. The elelctions of the President, the Vice-President, the
391A added, Schedule X Prime Minister and the Speaker of Lok Sabha cannot be
repealed. challenged in the Courts.
Fortieth 1976 Art. 31B, 297 and IXth New laws included in Schedule IX.Parliament was given
Schedule affected power wirh respect to the territorial waters of India.
Forty-first 1976 Art. 316(2) The retirement age of the members of the State Public
Service Commission and the Joint Public Service
Commission raised to 62 years from 60 years.
Forty-second 1976 The Preamble, Art. 31, 31C, 1. The words ‘Secular’, ‘Socialist’ and ‘Integrity’ added
39, 55, in the Preamble.
(Called ‘mini 74, 77, 81, 82, 83; 100, 102, 2. The validity of the Constitutional Amendment can
Constitution’) 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, not be questioned in any Court-368(4).
170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 3. Extension of the Directive Principles of State
208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, Policy.
311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 4. Primacy given to the Directive Principles of state
357, 358, 359, 366, 368, 371F, Policy over the Fundamental Rights.
and Schedule VII. Art. 31D, 5. The Fundamental Duties added.
32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, Part IVA 6. Restriction on the Fundamental Rights widened.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 229


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(Art. 51A) 131A, 139A, 7. The power of Judicial Review of the Courts was
144A, 226A, 228A, 257A, restricted.
Part XIVA, 323A and 423A 8. The duration of the House of the People and the
added. Legislative Assemblies of the State extended to 6
years during the National Emergency.
9. Provisions were made for the participation of the
workers in the Management of industries.
10. Provisions for the protection of environment, forests
and wildlife.
11. Provisions for the protection of the children and the
youth against exploitation.
12. The delimitation of the constituencies of the House
of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the
States shall be on the basis of the population of 1971
till the year 2001.
13. No quorum shall be required for conducting the meeting
of the House of the People and the Legislative
Assemblies of the States.
14. The right of the Supreme Court to examine the validity
of the laws of the State under Article 32A abolished.
15. The Jury System was given importance in the
functioning of the Courts.
16. The President shall be bound by the advice of the
Council of Mininsters.
17. The Central Government was given the power to send
Central Forces in any State and the control of such
forces shall rest with the Central Govenment.
18. Emergency Provisions: (a) National Emergency may
be proclaimed in a part of the Territory of India; (b)
The one time duration of the President rule in a State
under the Art.
19. Some subjects - Protection of the forest and the wildlife,
education, weight and measures, population control
and judicial administration shifted to the Concurrent
List.
20. Provisions for the establishment of the Administrative
Tribunals for public servents.
Forty-third 1978 Art, 145, 226, 228, 366 1. Protection of the rights and powers of the judiciary.
affected and 31d, 32A, 131A, Judical Review revived.
144A, 226A, 228A repealed. 2. The provision relating to the power of the Parliament
to declare an organization as AntiNational was
replealed.
Forty-fourth 1978 Art. 19, 20, 30, 31A, 38, 74, 1. The Fundamental Right to Property was abolished
77, 83, 105, 123, 132, 133, 2. The term of the Lok Sabha and the Legislative
134, 139A. 150, 166, 172, 194, Assemblies of the States reduced to 5 years
213, 217, 226, 227, 239A, 3. The disputes relating to the qualifications of the
327, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360, members of the parliament and the State Legislature
371F, and Ninth Schedule shall be decided by the President and the Governors
affected. Art. 19(i) (f), 31, respectively.
257A, 329 repealed. Art. 4. The provisions regarding quorum in the Legislatures
134A, 330A, Chapter IV of was charged to as these were before 42nd Amendment.
PartXII and 361A added. 5. It was provided that dispites relating to the election
of the President and the Vice President shall be decided
by the Supreme Court and that of the election of the
members of the Parliment ant the State Legislature
shall be decided by the State Legislature shall be decided
by the High Courts.
6. The National Emergency shall not be proclaimed
except on the written recommendation of the Cabinet.
7. The Right to Life and personal liberty and the liberty
of the press were restored.

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Forty-fifth 1980 Art. 330, 332, 333 and 334 The reservation of the seats in the Legislatures in favour
affected. for for SCs/STs and the Anglo-Indian Community was
extended further for 10 years.
Forty-sixth 1982 Art. 269, 286 and Schedule VII The Sales tax imposed by the States was restructured.
affected.
Forty-seventh 1984 Ninth Schedule affected Fourteen new laws relating to the land reforms were
included in the Ninth Schedule.
Forty-eighth 1984 Art.356 The President’s Rule imposed in Punjab was extended
upto two years.
Forty-ninth 1984 Art. 244, Schedules V and VI The Parliament and the Legislature of the State of Tripura
affected shall have power to make laws with respect to the Tribal
Areas of Tripura.
Fiftieth 1984 Art. 33 The Parliament was given the power to restrict by law
the Fundamental Rights with respect to the members of
the Armed Forces.
Fifty-first 1984 Art. 330 and 332 Provisions were made for the reservation of the Scheduled
Caste and the Schedule Tribes of the North-Eastern States
in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of those
States except the seats in the autonomous areas of Assam.
Fifty-second 1985 Art. 101, 102, 190, 191 Provisions relating to the anti-defection law were added
affected & Schedule x added. in the Constitution.
Fifty-third 1986 Schedule I Mizoram was included as the 23rd State of the India Union.
Fifty-fourth 1986 Schedule II The salary and emoluments of the Judges of the Supreme
Court and the High Courts enhanced.
Fifty-fifth 1986 Schedule I Arunachal Pradesh was included as the 24th State of the
Union of India.
Fifty-sixth 1987 Schedule I Goa was included in the Union of India as the 25th State.
Fifty-Seventh 1987 Part XXII and Art. 332 affected The reservation for SCs/STs of Mizoram, Nagaland,
Maghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh in the Lok Sabha and
the State Assemblies made more effective.
Fifty-eighth 1987 Art. 394A added. Provisions for the authoritative text of the Constitution
in the Hindi Language.
Fifty-ninth 1988 Art. 356, 352, 21, and 358 1. The duration of the President’s Rule in Punjab
affected and Art. 359A added extended upto three years.
2. Provisions that the National Emergency can be
declared in the State of Punjab on the grounds of
internal disturbance.
3. The right to life and personal liberty can be suspended
during the Emergency only in the State of Punjab.
Sixtieth 1988 Art. 276 The maximum amount of taxes on profession levied by a
local authority was extended from Rs.250 to Rs.2500.
Sixty-First 1988 Art. 326 The minimum age limit prescribed to get the voting right
was reduced to 18 years from 21 years.
Sixty-second 1989 Art. 334 The reservation for SCs/STs and the Anglo Indian
Community in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative
Assemblies of the States was extended for another ten
years.
Sixty-third 1989 Art. 356 affected and Art. The right to life and personal liberty shall not be suspended
359A repealed in Punjab during Emergency.
Sixty-fourth 1990 Art. 356 The duration of the President’s Rule in Punjab (imposed
on May 11, 1987) was extended to another six months.
Sixty-fifth 1990 Art. 338 The National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and
the Schedule Tribes was given a Constitutional Status.
Sixty-sixth 1990 Schedule IX Fifty-five laws related to land reforms, enacted by the
States were included in the Ninth Schedule.
Sixty-seventh 1990 Art 356(4) The duration of the President’s rule in Punjab was extended
upto four years from the date of enforcement, i.e., May
11, 1987.
Sixty-eight 1991 Art. 256(4) The duration of the President’s rule in Punjab was extended
upto five years.
Sixty-ninth 1991 Art. 239A A and 239AB added The Union Territory of Delhi was named as the National
Capital Territory of Delhi. It also provided for a 70-

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member State Assembly for Delhi.


Seventieth 1992 Art 54 The members of the Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and
Pondicherry were given the right to participation in the
election of the President.
Seventy-first 1992 Schedule VIII Nepali, Konkani and Manipuri languages included in the
Eighth Schedule.
Seventy-second 1992 Art.332 It provided for provisionally deciding the number of seats
reserved in the legislative Assembly of Tripura in favour
of the Scheduled Tribes.
Seventy-third 1992 Art. 243 revived and Schedule Provisions relating to the Constitution, elections, finance
XI added and functions of the Panchayati Raj bodies.
Seventy-fourth 1992 Art. 243 revived and Schedule Provisions relating to the Constitution, election, finance
XII added and functions of the Municipalities.
Seventy-fifth 1994 Art. 323 Provisions for the establishment of a special Administrative
Tribunals for the speedy disposal of the disputes between
the householders and the tenants.
Seventy-sixth 1994 Schedule IX The laws relating to reservation enacted by the Tamil
Nadu Assembly included in the Ninth Schedule.
Seventy-seventh 1995 Art. 16(4A) Provisions made for the reservation for SCs/STs in the
promotions in public services.
Seventy-eighth 1995 Schedule IX Some land reform acts of different States included in the
Ninth Schedule.
Seventy-ninth 1999 Article 334 The reservation of the seats for the Scheduled Castes and
the Scheduled Tribes as well as for the Anglo Indians in the
House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of
the States extended for another ten years.
Eightieth 2000 Article 268, 269, 270, 272 Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance
Commission, alternative scheme for sharing the taxes
between the Union and the States.
Eighty-first 2000 Article 16 The unfilled vacancies of a year which were reserved for
the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being
filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for
the reservation made under Article 16 of the Constitution
shall be considered a special class of vacancies to be filled
up in any succeeding year of years.
Eighty-second 2000 Article 335 The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335 shall
prevent the State from making any provision in favour of
the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
Tribes for the relaxation in qualifying marks in any
examination or lowering the standard of evaluation for
the reservation in the matters of promotion to any class
or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of
the Union or of a State.
Eighty-third 2000 Article 243M If provides that no reservation in Panchayats need to
made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh
wholly inhabited by the tribal population.
Eighty-fourth 2000 Article 1, 2, and First and Creation of the new States of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal
Fourth Schedule and Jharkhand.
Eighty-fifth 2002 Article 16(4A) Restoration of reservation in promotions in services to
the members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Eighty-sixth 2002 Article 21(A), 45 & 51A Right to Education has been made the fundamental right
and fundamental duty has been fixed to the parent and
guardian to province opportunities for education to the
his child on ward between the age of 6 and 14.
Eighty-seventh 2003 Article 81, 82, 170, 332 Provisions were made so that each state shall be divided
into territorial Constitutions in such a manner that the
ratio between the population as per 2001 Census, of each
constitutions and number of seats allotted to it is, so far as
practiciable, the same throughout the state.
Eighty-eighth 2003 Article 268A, 270, Seventh Taxes on services was encluded in the Union List.
Schedule

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Eighty-ninth 2003 Article 338 Provisions for creation of separate commission for
Schedule castes.
Ninty 2003 Article 332 Provisions under which the Scheduled Tribes and non-
Scheduled Tribes in the Bodoland Territorial Areas District,
so notified, and existing prior to the Constitution of the
Bodoland Terrtorial Areas District shall be maintained.
Ninty-first 2003 Article 75, 164, 361B, Tenth Provisions were made regarding the strength of Council
Schedule of Ministers in Union as well stage of 15% of the total
member of Lok Sabha or concerned Vidhan Sabha
respectively.
Ninty-second 2003 Eighth Schedule Bodo, Dogri, Maithilli and Santhali were added in the
Eight Schedule of Constitution
Ninty-Third 2005 The Private Professional Educational Institutions
(Regulation of Admission and Fixation of Fee) Act

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