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Grade 10

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Acid → litmus colour → red


Base → litmus colour → blue
Turmeric is a natural indicator

Reaction with metals


In most cases, metals replace hydrogen from acids
Zn H 2SO4 ZnSO4 H 2

Acids with metal carbonate and hydrogen carbonate


Na 2CO3 2HCl 2NaCl H 2O CO2
Carbonate + Acid → Salt + Water + CO2

Acid–Base reaction
Acid + Base → Salt + Water
NaOH HCl NaCl H 2O

Metal oxide + Acid


Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water

In water solution
Acid → H+ ion ; H+ + H2O → H3O+
Base → OH– ion
HCl H 2 O H 3O Cl
H 2O
NaOH Na OH
+
Higher H concentration → Strong acid
Lower H+ concentration → Weak acid
Higher the OH– concentration → Stronger the acid

pH → Measure of acidity → Measure H+ concentration on the scale (0 – 14)


pH 7 → Neutral solution
pH < 7 → Acidic solution
pH > 7 → Basic solution
Human body pH = 7.0 – 7.8
Change in pH in body causes → Tooth decay, stomach pain, burning pain (Honey bee)

Salts’ pH = 7
Common salt NaCl

NaCl + H2O

Electric current (Electrolysis)

H2 (Cathode) Cl2 (Anode) NaOH (solution)


(Fuel, margarine, ammonia Water treatment, swimming De-greasing, soaps
pools, PVC, Disinfectants, & detergents,
CFC, pesticides paper-making,
artificial fibres

HCl Bleach
For cleaning steel, production of
ammonium chloride, medicines, cosmetics

Bleaching powder → CaOCl2 Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O


Use –
cotton in textile industry
1. Bleaching of wood pulp
clothes in laundry
2. Oxidising agent
3. Disinfecting material

Baking soda – (NaHCO3) Sodium hydrogen carbonate


NaCl H 2O CO2 NH3 NH 4Cl NaHCO3 (Mild, non-corrosive base)

Use –
(i) Making baking powder (Baking soda + Mild acid, like tartaric acid)
(ii) Ingredient for antacids
(iii) Soda–acid fire extinguisher

Washing soda – Na 2CO3.10H2O


Use –
(i) In glass, soap, paper industries
(ii) Making sodium compounds such as borax
(iii) As domestic cleaning agent
(iv) Removing permanent hardness of water

Plaster of Paris –
1 1
CaSO 4 H 2O 1 H 2O CaSO 4 2H 2O (solid)
2 2 Gypsum

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