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Psychological Disorders > Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders
Explaining Mood Disorders
Depression
Bipolar Disorder

Psychological Disorders > Mood Disorders

Explaining Mood Disorders


When most people think of mood disorders, they typically think of depression and
bipolar disorder.However, there are two milder versions of these mood disorders,
respectively termed dysthymic disorder (or dysthymia) and cyclothymic disorder
(or cyclothymia).
Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal
relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general
health.Symptoms include very low mood, feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate
guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred.
Dysthymia and depression have symptoms in common, including depressed
mood, disturbed sleep, low energy, and poor concentration.
Individuals with bipolar disorder experience episodes of an elevated or agitated
mood known as mania (or hypomania, depending on the severity) alternating with
episodes of depression.
Cyclothymia is a milder or version of bipolar disorder, with the two "poles" being
dysthymia and hypomania (as opposed to depression and mania in bipolar
disorder).It is characterized by extreme mood disturbances, with periods of
hypomanic symptoms alternating with periods of mild or dysthymia.
Mood disorders have various causes including: genetics, medical conditions,
environmental factors, substance abuse, or some combination of these.Together,
cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication, have been found to be highly
effective treatments.

Bipolar Disorder

Psychological Disorders > Mood Disorders

Depression
Individuals with depression may be preoccupied with thoughts and feelings of
worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and
self-hatred.They may indicate feeling nothing at all.Importantly, not all depressed
people experience all of the same symptoms.
Causes of depression can be broken up into 3 categories: precipitating causes
(events that significantly change your life), perpetuating causes (things that
worsen your current condition, such as inability to sleep or lack of exercise), and
predisposing causes (biology, personality, and history).
Each year about 6.7% of U.S adults experience major depressive
disorder.Women are 70% more likely than men to experience depression during
their lifetime, and non-Hispanic blacks are 40% less likely than non-Hispanic
whites.
The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy,
medication, and electroconvulsive therapy.

Symptoms of Depression

Psychological Disorders > Mood Disorders

Bipolar Disorder
Mania, the defining feature of bipolar disorder, is a distinct period of elevated or
irritable mood, which can take the form of euphoria, and lasts for at least a
week.Features include an increase in energy, decreased need for sleep, and
irrational or risky decision-making.
The depressive phase of bipolar disorder includes persistent feelings of sadness,
anxiety, guilt, anger, isolation, hopelessness, and/or a variety of other
symptoms.Major depressive episodes are required to last for at least two weeks
(if no intervention occurs) for diagnosis.
A mixed affective episode is a condition during which symptoms of mania and
depression occur simultaneously.Typical examples include weeping during a
manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode.Most suicides
occur during these episodes.
There are four sub-types of bipolar spectrum disorder: Bipolar I, Bipolar II,
Cyclothymia, and Bipolar disorder NOS (not otherwise specified).Each features a
different combination of mania, depression, hypomania or mixed affective states.
Evidence suggests that environmental factors play a significant role in the
development and course of bipolar disorder, and that individual psychosocial
variables may interact with genetic dispositions.It is often treated with
psychotherapy and medication, typically lithium.

Brain Composition and Bipolar Disorder

Psychological Disorders

Key terms
cognition Any element of knowledge including attitude, emotion, belief, or behavior.
cognitive-behavioral therapy A therapeutic approach that combines behavioral and cognitive therapies to address maladaptive
behaviors and thoughts in order to shift negative emotions.
dysthymia A milder form of clinical depression, characterized by low-grade depression which lasts at least 2 years.
lithium Lithium carbonate or other preparations of lithium metal used to treat manic depression and bipolar disorders.
mania A state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/or energy levels.
psychotherapy the treatment of people diagnosed with mental and emotional disorders using dialogue and a variety of
psychological techniques.
resilience The mental ability to recover quickly from depression, illness or misfortune.
serotonin An indoleamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine) that is involved in depression and is crucial in maintaining a
sense of well-being and security.
SSRI Short for Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors; a class of medications typically used as antidepressants in the
treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders.

Psychological Disorders

What is the main cause of affective disorders?

A) Any combination of these.

B) Genetics.

C) Environmental factors.

D) Neurological chemical imbalances

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Psychological Disorders

What is the main cause of affective disorders?

A) Any combination of these.

B) Genetics.

C) Environmental factors.

D) Neurological chemical imbalances

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Psychological Disorders

Which of these describes dysthymia?


A) It is a less-severe version of depression, and must last at least two
years to merit diagnosis.
B) It is a less-severe version of bipolar disorder; must last at least two
years to merit diagnosis.
C) It's colloquially used to describe depression, though is not serious and
should not be diagnosed.
D) It is the same thing as major depressive disorder (MDD).

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Psychological Disorders

Which of these describes dysthymia?


A) It is a less-severe version of depression, and must last at least two
years to merit diagnosis.
B) It is a less-severe version of bipolar disorder; must last at least two
years to merit diagnosis.
C) It's colloquially used to describe depression, though is not serious and
should not be diagnosed.
D) It is the same thing as major depressive disorder (MDD).

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Psychological Disorders

When a psychologist states that a particular client experienced a


great loss prior to the onset of a major depressive episode, what
type of cause is the psychologist referring to?
A) A principle cause

B) A perpetuating cause

C) A precipitating cause

D) A predisposing cause

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Psychological Disorders

When a psychologist states that a particular client experienced a


great loss prior to the onset of a major depressive episode, what
type of cause is the psychologist referring to?
A) A principle cause

B) A perpetuating cause

C) A precipitating cause

D) A predisposing cause

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Psychological Disorders

What is a criticism of how depression is understood by the DSM?


A) Depression is not bound by a two week episode but exists on a
continuum of duration and severity.
B) The DSM exaggerates the prevalence of depression in society.

C) Depression is no more prevalent in women than in men.

D) None of these answers.

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Psychological Disorders

What is a criticism of how depression is understood by the DSM?


A) Depression is not bound by a two week episode but exists on a
continuum of duration and severity.
B) The DSM exaggerates the prevalence of depression in society.

C) Depression is no more prevalent in women than in men.

D) None of these answers.

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Psychological Disorders

Joe presents to the ER after a month of repeated cycles of erratic,


impulsive behavior followed immediately by periods of extreme
sadness. What diagnosis should he be given?
A) Bipolar I.

B) Bipolar II.

C) Cyclothymia.

D) Major depression.

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Psychological Disorders

Joe presents to the ER after a month of repeated cycles of erratic,


impulsive behavior followed immediately by periods of extreme
sadness. What diagnosis should he be given?
A) Bipolar I.

B) Bipolar II.

C) Cyclothymia.

D) Major depression.

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Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/

Psychological Disorders

What is a major difference between a depressive episode and a


manic one?
A) Depressive episodes involve a lapse in normal affect; manic episodes
involve a tendency to violence.
B) Depressive episodes involve low mood; manic episodes involve
periods of elation or irritability.
C) Depressive episodes involve lowered pulse; manic episodes involve
extended periods of uneven pulse.
D) None of these answers.

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Psychological Disorders

What is a major difference between a depressive episode and a


manic one?
A) Depressive episodes involve a lapse in normal affect; manic episodes
involve a tendency to violence.
B) Depressive episodes involve low mood; manic episodes involve
periods of elation or irritability.
C) Depressive episodes involve lowered pulse; manic episodes involve
extended periods of uneven pulse.
D) None of these answers.

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