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Student Profile

SBU Evaluators: Kathleen Callahan

Contact Information: 716-857-0067;

SBU Professor: Dr. Diana Lawrence-Brown

Contact Information: 716-375-2165;

Ashley Allen
Contact Information: 716-982-7623
I. Student Data and Background Information
To maintain confidentiality the student will be referred to as Tina for the
remainder of this profile. The student was born on the 18 th of June in 2011; she is
currently three years and three months old. She is enrolled in a full day prekindergarten program. Tinas placement is an inclusive general education classroom.
There are 17 students in her class; ranging from age two years and eight months to
three years and eight months. She is currently one of five students in the process of
referral to receive an individualized education plan and related services. Two students
in her class have also been identified as to be considered gifted and talented, one of
which is twice exceptional. The classroom is staffed by the primary general education
teacher, a teaching assistant and a classroom assistant. There is a one to seven ratio
for students at age three with a maximum group size of 18.
Referral Information
Prior to Tina starting her schooling, her father had concerns about her speech.
He felt that his daughter had a lot to say but was unable to express it through
language/speech. He had previously enrolled her in a summer program with Buffalo
Hearing and Speech. The father then contacted the classroom teacher and requested
to have Tina evaluated by the committee on preschool education in order to continue
receiving speech services in school. This profile will act as a supplement to the referral
process the school currently has in motion. It will also aide to communicate instructional
recommendations for Tinas classroom teachers and her future service provider. See
attached Referral and Intervention History (Appendix A).
Family History
Tinas home language is English and she is African American. A main concern is
her ability to comprehend spoken language as well as produce spoken language. She
currently lives with her father in the city of Buffalo. Her father has full custody, however
her mother has visitation one day a week and every other weekend. Tina also has an
eighteen year-old half-sister who often stays with her at her fathers home. Her sameage cousins also visit so that Tina has socialization experiences outside of school. She
attends Head Start, a federal program that promotes school readiness of children ages

birth to five from low-income families. She is eligible for all services provided by the
program based on financial need. Tina also has asthma. She has a rescue inhaler and
is prescribed albuterol; the usual dose for prevention of bronchospasm is 1-2 inhalations
every 4-6 hours. She takes a dose in the morning before school and when she returns
home in the evenings. During the screening process no vision, hearing, or other
physical difficulties were documented.
Education History
Tina has been in school for almost a month, so far she has missed three days of
school. A trend was documented and it was determined that she does not attend school
on days that her mother has visitation (Wednesdays as well as Mondays after her
mothers designated weekends). After this trend was noted an attendance alert letter
was sent to her mother stating the importance of regular attendance. This included a
statement that all children enrolled in the program must maintain an 85% attendance
rate in order to maintain their spot.
Academically, thus far, Tina is displaying an exemplary status for prekindergarten. In most academic areas she meets objectives and benchmarks for her
age group. Using the Brigance (Appendix E) screening for age three to four year-olds it
was determined that she is typically developing. She demonstrates emergent reading
and writing skills. She displays knowledge of the alphabet- identifying and naming all
letters upper and lower case. She also uses letter-sound knowledge and applies lettersound correspondence when attempting to read and write. For example, she is able to
identify her name as well as the other students names in the classroom. She also
attempts to write her name and has almost mastered printing her own.
Tinas personality is one of great compassion and optimism. She is almost
always happy and she enjoys cheering her friends up when they are upset. However,
she also has a shy side; she is not one to make herself the center of attention. She is
able to regulate her emotions and behaviors and takes responsibility for own well-being
in the classroom. Also, she sustains positive relationships with her family, peers, and
teachers. She works well with her classmates; however she often participates in
parallel play and does not initiate conversation or play with other students.
II. Present Levels of Performance
See the attached Checklist to Guide Description of Student: Participant in
Learning Environment/Member of the Classroom Community (Appendix B).

At this point in
the school




awareness that

-Unable to ask
and answers

Tina is able to
identify her

year, Tina is
meeting gradelevel
expectations in
reading and

some words
begin the same
-Hears and
awareness of
syllables in
as many as 10
-Produces the
correct sounds
for 1020
- Writes mock
letters or
letter-like forms
segments of
letter forms,
such as lines
and curves)

about text
-Unable to
retell familiar
stories, using
pictures or
props as
-Has not
writing letter
strings (writing
some letters
writing letters in

name as well as
the other
students names
in the
classroom. She
enjoys writing
her name and
has almost
printing it. She
spends a good
portion of free
choice time at
the writing table
practicing, and
also practices
outside with
chalk. At home
Tina uses
applications on
her iPod to
practices letter
and letter-sound

Participant in

participates in
a way that she
is able to
maintain focus;
however she
does not often
contribute to
discussion or
make the
connections to
be considered
at grade level
at this point in

expressions of

-Is unable to
feelings, often
emotions to
-Does not often
seek adult help
to resolve
social problems

Tina follows all

classroom rules
and is able to
focus her
attention, she
could easily be
described as
shy as she
keeping to

Member of the

Tina would be

- Seeks a

- Has not

Tina has


borderline for
grade level
expectations of
being a
member of the

pleasure when
seeing a
-Plays near
other children;
uses similar
materials or

strategies for
entering groups
-Does not play
with groups of
children or
more than one


Tina exceeds
for managing
however are
because she is
not always
able to
and initiate

routines, and
transitions with
-Is able to look
at a situation
differently or
confidence in
meeting own
concern about
the feelings of

-Has not yet

an ability to
comforts self
by seeking out
special object
or person
-Does not yet
with a trusted


Meets grade
shows interest
in art/music.

-Explores the
visual arts
dance and

-Does not
explore drama
or musical

befriended a
playmate. The
playmate is an
learner and is
also very quiet.
She and Tina
like to write
letters together,
play with toy
people, and play
tag together in
the gross motor
Tina prefers to
be independent.
She does not
often ask for
assistance and
would rather try
things for
herself. She
and does not
frequently need

Tina shows
great interest in
the arts,
especially fine
arts. She
enjoys painting
drawing, and

The following goals would help Tina to meet grade level expectations as a
participant in learning environment and increase overall achievement in language and
Student's Current Goals

Student's Characteristics


Follow two part directions

Student will act upon

named/described elements in
1-part directions, but needs
more than one repetition of
directions for 2-part directives.

The teacher may say get

your writing journal and sit at
the table. Tina will sit at the
table without retrieving her
journal first.

Participation in simple
conversations with new
speaking partners

Student does not

communicate using
combinations of two or more
words or understandable
representations with her
teachers and peers in the
classroom. She does
communicate further with her

The teacher may ask her

what she is doing over
weekend. She may respond
with mom, implying that she
will be going to her moms
house. She seems
uncomfortable when others
try to initiate conversation
beyond one exchange.

Answering simple wh

An observation of participation
in verbally in structured
language activities by
answering wh type questions
related to ongoing events has
not been noted.

During play students are

often asked to tell what they
are doing or making. Tina will
often avoid answering wh
questions and prefers to
answer yes/no inquiries.

III. Summary & Recommendations

Through classroom observations, student interviews, and parent interviews it is
clear that Tina is having difficulty with receptive and expressive communication and
language. It is believed, that Tina is capable to using these language skills with her
father in a home situation but is very shy and reserved in the classroom and with adults
and peers that she does not know well. Tina needs support to adjust in new settings
and in getting involved in activities. Tina has a hard time fully participating with other
children and she often seems uncomfortable when conversation is initiated. She will
avoid eye contact with the speaker, turn her head and her usual smile will diminish. At
her age level it is important for her to be able to foster interactions and participate in
playing with her peers. The classroom teacher would like to see her participate in
activities both in whole group and small group, respond to wh question with more than
one word or phrase and express her needs through language. Though Tina is very

independent, her teacher is worried that there will be a time when adult assistance is
mandatory and she will not be able to express her need. Her strengths lie in her preacademic skills and interests, her optimistic and caring attitude, and transition to
compliance with school routines and expectations. Tinas father has concerns that
although she is able to comprehend material she is unable to relay the information, he is
worried that if intervention does not begin early that this will become a major problem in
her academic future.
Instructional Strategies
Informed Oral Language Interactions
The role of parents, caregivers, and preschool educators in creating informed
oral language interactions within the students environment is essential. Rich and
responsive experiences from infancy to preschool age directly influence oral language
acquisition that is predictive of later reading and literacy abilities (Smith, Landry, &
Swank, 2000). This instructional strategy involves quality of talk and languagesimulation techniques. Techniques include self-talk, parallel talk, and expansion. In
other words, describing what the child is doing, talking about what the adult is doing,
and expanding on a childs existing expressive language. Using these techniques one
can increase a students talk and language development (Moats & Paulson, 2009).
The following is an example of how adults can incorporate purposeful elaborate
questioning related to a typical 3-year-old childs oral language development:
Repeat what the child has said and expand on it. For example if the child says pretty
leaf, then you could respond by saying Yes that is a pretty leaf. The leaf is bright
yellow. It feels smooth. Do you want to feel it? You may also help them to tell the
purpose of an object they are able to name. If a student names book you may say
Yes, this is a book. What do you do with a book? Right, you read the book. What
book do you like best?
For Tina, a commitment to a rich oral language environment would be beneficial
to help her develop early language. Though she maintains articulation skills that are
typically developing she lacks the vocabulary to express herself. Informed oral
language interactions may help increase her expressive language and vocabulary. This
strategy may be used throughout the day and integrated in all lessons and daily
classroom routines. Also, information would be shared with the parent and used at
home to have the greatest impact. The student would then be assessed by her ability to
produce three to four word sentences as opposed to her current one to two word
Blanks Language Levels
In this social learning strategy, Blank (2002) focuses on young children's early

language development. The theory goes as follows, as children's understandings of

words and use of words improves, so does their ability to reason, which further
enhances their ability to use the words in complex settings. The implication is that early
childhood educators can improve young children's language and reasoning
development by enhancing their own dialogue, questioning and talking with children.
Blank purposes four levels of dialogue complexity, where the children are active
participants in the communicative context. The teacher initiates and shapes the
dialogue so that the children respond at a more appropriate and advancing level of
linguistic complexity (See Appendix G).
Referring to Blanks Language Levels, Tina language complexity would currently
be considered at a level one, matching experiences. Once this level is mastered she
would be able to move on to level two, classification. The following are suggested
practices (Hay & Fielding-Barnsley, 2012) for increasing skills at her current level:
-Provide student with settings and activities where they talk and listen to others about
common activities, for example how I made the castle out of blocks.
-Expose student to new vocabulary on a regular basis.
-Keep your language at a suitable level of complexity and clarification for the student to
engage in a conversation with you.
- Expand on the student's utterances and have the child respond again.
-Spend more time talking about the meanings of words.
-Talk about the relationship of words 'what is another word for small?
-Have the student say the new words they have heard.
Multisensory Structured Language Lessons
Structured lesson planning supports and integrates linguistic components, giving
the teacher framework to deliver systematic sequence of individualized curriculum the
students need to master (Birsh & Schedler, 2011). This lesson planning has a set
structured format as follows:
1. Ordered daily presentation of activities and materials
2. Precise steps and procedures
3. Rapid rotation of activities
4. Periodic measurement of progress
The instruction in a multisensory structured language lesson plan must be direct,
explicit, and sequenced (Gersten et al., 2008). To be direct means to say or define what
students are going to learn and why they are learning it. Explicit teaching means stating
concepts clearly and not allowing any room for confusion. Lastly, teaching sequentially
is learning concepts in a logical order from the most simple to the more complex.
The last component of this learning strategy is the inclusion of multisensory
procedures using the students eyes, ears, hands, and mouth to help link the sight,

sound, and feel of the spoken language directives. It is believed that the combination of
set structure, direct, explicit, and sequenced instruction, and multisensory input would
be greatly beneficial for Tina. One of her goals is to follow two part directions, this sort
of instruction would help her to improve her ability to more complex directions. Also, a
more structured environment may help her feel more secure as she becomes familiar
with the routines and process this planning offers.
IV. References
Blank, M. (2002). Classroom discourse: A key to literacy. New Paradigms in Research
and Practice, 151-173.
Breidenbach, D.H., French, B.F. (2012). A factor-analytic study of the structure of the
Brigance comprehensive inventory of basic skills-II. Journal of
Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(5), 478487.
Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C., Dominio, J., Santoro, L., & Linan-Thompson, S.
(2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to intervention and
multi-tier intervention in the primary grades. The Institute of Education
Science, 2009(4045).
Hay, I. & Fielding-Barnsley R. (2012). Social learning, language and literacy.
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(1), 24-29.
Moats, L.C. & Paulson, L.H. (2009). Early Childhood LETRS. Longmont, CO: Sporis
West Educational Services.
Norris, J.A. (1998). Test review of the clinical evaluation of language fundamentals:
Preschool 2 (CELF Preschool-2). The thirteenth mental measurement yearbook.
Retrieved from the Buros Institutes Test Reviews.
Birsh, J., & Shedler, J. (2011). Planning multisensory structured language lessons. In
Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, (3rd ed.), 459-484. Baltimore,
MD: P.H. Brookes Publising.
Smith, K.E., Landry, S.H., & Swank, P.R. (2000). The influence of early patterns of
positive parenting on children's preschool outcomes. Early Education and
Development, 11(2), 147-169.
Spinelli, C. G. (2006). Classroom assessment for students in special and general
education (2nd ed.), 103. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
V. Appendices
A. Referral and Intervention History Forms

B. Checklist to Guide Description of Student: Participant in Learning

Environment/Member of the Classroom Community
C. Student Observations and Interview
1. Student Observations:
Tina was observed periodically for approximately two and a half weeks during
various parts of the school day. Observation protocol was used from Teaching
Strategies Gold objectives assessment (2010). These goals are used by Tinas
classroom teacher to determine progress of grade-level achievements. At Tinas age,
three years and three months old, she should be close to or on level four (of nine) for
each objective. A score between not yet and two would indicate a weakness, and a
score above four indicates strength in meeting that objective. The observer used the
following objectives based on Tinas strengths, weaknesses, and goals pertaining to the
1. Regulates own emotions and behaviors
a. Manages feelings
b. Follows limits and expectations
c. Takes care of own needs appropriately
2. Establishes and sustains positive relationships
a. Forms relationships with adults
b. Responds to emotional cues
c. Interacts with peers
d. Makes friends
3. Participates cooperatively and constructively in group situations
a. Balances needs and rights of self and others
b. Solves social problems
16. Demonstrates knowledge of the alphabet
a. Identifies and names letters
b. Uses lettersound knowledge
18. Comprehends and responds to books and other texts
a. Interacts during read-alouds and book
19. Demonstrates emergent writing skills
a. Writes name
It was determined through observations that at this point in the school year, Tina
is meeting grade-level expectations in reading and writing. She exhibited a heightened
interest in pre-literacy skills including letter identification, phoneme awareness, and prewriting activities. Also, Tina exceeds grade-level expectations for managing

behavior/emotions she demonstrated proficient independence skills and a high ability to

manage her emotions and behaviors. However, her social interactions were limited
because she did not demonstrate an ability to communicate and initiate necessary
In addition, it was observed that Tina participates in a way that she is able to
maintain focus; however she does not often contribute to classroom discussion or make
the necessary connections to be considered at grade level for objective two or three.
She showed interest in befriending one particular student and showed compassion for
other students who were upset. Asking questions like are you okay? and reassuring
them by saying its okay. Lastly, it was observed that Tina became very vocal and at
the end of the day when her father came to pick her up. She would tell her father about
her friends, what she played with, and details about her day stating such things as I
made the letter T with blocks. These interactions were directed only to her father, all
other documentation portrayed the student as being shy and reserved.

E. Test Results.
Test Administered
Preschool Screen II
3-year-old and

Students Score: 71
Cutoff Score <55

Date Administered:
Student Age:
3Y 3.3M

Clinical Evaluation
of Language

Within Normal

Interpretation of
This screening
provides a simplistic
measurement of
skills that are
predictors of school
success, including
language, cognitive,
self-help, and socialemotional skills.
Tina showed
strength is all
categories with the
exception of gross
(will be monitored.)
Also, an inability to
form complete
sentences was
Preschool-2 helps to

Technical Adequacy
Composite scores
from the Brigance
Preschool Screen II
appear to be
suitable for such
low-stakes uses as
monitoring half-year
to yearly student
progress and
identifying areas of
strength and
(Breidenbach &
French, 2012)

It has been
determined that the

Preschool 2nd
Edition (CELF
Date Administered:
Student Age:
3Y 3.7M

Standard Score: 79
Percentile: 8
Severity: Mild Delay
-------------------------Word Structure
Raw Score: 3
Percentile: 5
Raw Score: 6
Percentile: 16
Raw Score: 2
Percentile: 16

test language skills
of preschool childre
n providing in-depth
info on semantics,
morphology, and
syntax. It was
determined that Tina
demonstrates a mild
delay in both
subtests of
vocabulary and
recalling sentences
as well as a
moderate delay in
word structure

CELF Preschool-2
is an improvement
from the Clinical
Evaluation of
(CELF-4). The
CLEF-2 accurately
identifies whether or
not there is a
language disorder,
describes the
nature of the
disorder, evaluates
underlying clinical
behaviors and
evaluates language
and communication
in context (Norris,

F. Teacher Interview:
The teacher making the referral was interviewed using the Teacher Interview
Checklist: Student Work Study Behaviors (Spinelli, 2006). This interview was chosen
because it closely reflected the purpose for the referral in that it outlined the students
ability to participate in learning environment, be a member of the classroom community,
and her social/behavioral skill sets. It also touched on the students current goals. This
interview helped to illustrate where Tinas needs lie, what skills are emerging and what
skills she has mastered. In comparison to the other students in the classroom the
teacher feels that Tina is progressing fairly well and has the most concern regarding her
unwillingness to connect to the adults and peers in the classroom community. She feels
that Tina would benefit from social emotional teaching strategies to help her to feel more
comfortable expressing herself and participating in group situations.
G. Blanks Language Levels

Student Project Disclaimer: Readers of this report are asked to interpret the results
and recommendations with the understanding that it has been developed as a project
for graduate-level assessment course. The author is a qualified teacher in an advanced
academic program. The contents may be limited by the as-yet-developing expertise of
the author, time limitations of the course, etc.