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Daniella Chavez
SMT 426
Mineral/ Rock Assessment
November 1, 2013

The word "topaz" is related to the Sanskrit word tapas, which means heat or fire.
The name Topaz was given to the gemstone because cultures believed the sun was accountable
for its color. PlinyTopazos is a small island in the Red Sea where the Romans obtained the rock
which they named, Topaz. Topaz occurs mainly in felsic igneous rocks such as granite, granite
pegmatite and rhyolite, and is often found in veins and cavities in such rocks. Topaz is a wellknown mineral; it has different shapes, sizes, and colors.
Topaz is often preceded by its color, for example Blue Topaz, Pink Topaz, Yellow Topaz,
White Topaz, and Sherry Topaz are the most known.It naturally has various colors like white,
yellow, pink, green and black. When Topaz mineral undergoes irradiation and heat treatment the
colors vary from dark to light colors. Some minerals fade because of the exposure and time in

light or sun, especially those in Siberia. Topaz can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in
different areas like Russia, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway,
Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico; Flinders Island, Australia; Nigeria and the United
States. Brazil is the where the largest amount of the gemstone have been found.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine with the chemical formula
Al2SiO4(F,OH). The composition of Topaz is aluminum fluoro-hydroxyl-silicate. It can be
colorless or white, pink, orange, brown, pink, light purple, gray, light, blue, greenish blue, green
and sometimes multicolored. Its streak is white. Topaz is transparent to opaque. Is luster is
vitreous. Topaz has cleavage; it is perfect in one direction. Is rock type is igneous and it has a
hardness of 8.
The most important Topaz deposits come from Brazilian pegmatite sites in Minas Gerais,
which are bigger in size and weigh hundreds of pounds. The famous golden orange-brown
Imperial Topaz, as well as Topaz of pinkish tones, comes from the famous occurrence in Minas
Gerais at Ouero Prito. Other Brazilian occurrences are Mimoso do Sul, in Esprito Santo, which
has produced very large crystals.
Topaz crystals with bigger weight may be seen in museum collections. The Topaz of
Aurangzeb measured 157.75 carats. The American Golden Topaz, a more recent gem, measured
a massive 22,892.5 carats. A topaz of over four pounds was presented to Pope Leo X to
commemorate his silver anniversary as head of the Catholic Church. Jewelry is another form that
Topaz is highly in use of from rings, to earring, necklaces, and other purposes.
There are a number of notable figures throughout history who owned Topaz gemstones.
Topaz gemstones were made believed that it provided the mind with wisdom and knowledge.
The Braganza diamond was discovered in Brazil in 1740. The Braganza was believed to have

been the largest diamond at that time weighing 1,680 carats. The Braganza diamond was set in
the Portuguese crown .However it turned out to be a colorless Topaz and not a diamond.
Most colors of topaz are fairly common and therefore generally affordable. Red and pink
topazes are rare and subsequently more valuable. Imperial topaz for example is one of the most
valuable. Imperial topaz was named such to honor the Russian czar and royalty, because at the
time, the Ural Mountains of Russia were a leading source of pink topaz and ownership of it was
limited to the imperial family. Today it's generally the reddish-orange or orange-red variety of
topaz that's considered "Imperial." Some also consider yellowish-orange, cognac-colored, and
pure orange to be Imperial topaz. The value is clear when it comes to pure red topaz, which
accounts for less than half of one percent of faceted topaz, is highly sought after, and usually
priced accordingly.
Gemstone Topaz crystals are found in the Gaoligong Mts, Nujiang, Yunnan Province, China
and Mongolia. Large and thick crystals come from Pakistan. Pink and purple Topaz with
exceptionally deep color comes from Katlung, Khyber, Pakistan. White, rounder Topaz crystals
are well-known at Flinders Island, Tasmania, Australia. Classic yellow Topaz crystals once came
from Germany .Water-clear and colorless crystals of top quality come from Klein Spitzkopje, in
the Erongo Region, Namibia. The natural deep blue Topaz come from the St Anne's Mine,
Mwami, Zimbabwe. In Mexico, a famous locality that produces multicolored Topaz with
brownish-red tints is Tepetate, San Luis Potos, and Villa Garcia, Zacatecas. In the U.S., the best
and most well-known Topaz occurrence is the Thomas Range, Utah. Topaz is found in the gem
pegmatites of San Diego County, in localities such as the Little Three Mine in Ramona, and the
Ware Mine in Oak Grove.
Topaz is the birthstone of November (yellow topaz) and December (blue topaz); it is a

talisman for the sign of Sagittarius and the suggested anniversary gemstone for the 4th, 19th or
23rd year of marriage.
Topaz has a legend that during the Middle Ages topaz was thought to heal both physical
and mental disorders and prevent death. The Greeks believed it had power to increase strength
while the Romans believed it had power to improve eyesight. The Egyptians wore it as an amulet
to protect them from injury. The Topaz gemstone has become more popular over the years
because people use for its healing history. It is believed to ward off colds, enhance the breathing
process, and help those with insomnia sleep better at night.
Topaz is a very beautiful gemstone with a multiple of colors, sizes and uses. For those that
own Topaz jewelry simply store in a cool place and avoid getting dirt on your jewelry. To clean
you piece of jewelry place the piece in a warm cup of water with a small amount of dishwasher
liquid soap for ten to fifteen minutes, after simply pat dry with a clean paper towel this will help
maintain the jewelry clean and shiny.