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Erin Brophy

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Dr. Werner
Academic Writing
2 March 2015
Annotated Bibliography
Faghih, S, Abhadi, AR, Hedayati, M, Kimiagar, SM. “Comparison of the effects of cows’ milk, fortified soy
milk, and calcium supplements on weight and fat loss in premenopausal women.” Nutrition
Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease 27.1 (2011): 499-503. Print.
This article was a lab report on a study done by four researchers that who studied the effects of
types of milk versus calcium supplements on the human body. The 100 participants of the study ranged
from healthy weight to overweight to obese and were randomly assigned to a diet groups. Each diet
group had a different regimen for consumption and were either told to consume low-fat milk, soy milk
that had been fortified with calcium, or direct sources of calcium through calcium supplements. After an
8 week period of this eating schedule, the subjects’ bodies were measured in three ways: weight, hip
circumference, and waste circumference. After accounting for physical activity and comparing to the
baseline measurements of the participants, it was found that there is a positive correlation between
weight loss and consumption of low fat milk. In other words, low fat milk is the best option for calcium
intake for people who do not want to gain weight. (WC: 160)
I think the public would benefit from learning about this study because it provides evidence as
to why milk does not cause weight gain, like many people have come to think due to the United States
Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) low recommended daily intake of milk, dairy, and other animal
products. In the conclusion of their study, the researches state that “increasing low fat milk
consumption significantly reduces the general and central obesity” (Faghih et al 501). This statement is
supported by the authors’ findings in that the participants on the low fat milk diet lost around 5 pounds,

Commented [CLW1]: As noted many times in class,
people are referred to as “who”—people should not be
referred to as “that.”

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whereas the soy milk group and the group taking calcium supplements lost only 3pounds in a span of 8
weeks, which is close to what the control group lost (a loss of about 2.8 pounds) (citation). While
researching the effects of milk on diet, this is the only study that I have found that juxtaposes weight

Commented [CLW2]: Erin, this is paraphrased
information, which means you must cite it. Without citing
this paraphrase, you are plagiarizing!

and calcium intake due to milk consumption. This study alone shows that milk consumption (though low
fat which is about 3 grams of fat per serving) does not cause weight gain like many people have come to
believe. These people that stop drinking milk to lose weight often become calcium deficient so they take
calcium supplements to boost their calcium levels. This study provides evidence to show that calcium
supplements are not the best option for people who are also looking to lose weight. So, people who are
trying to lose weight by cutting milk out of their diet and adding a calcium supplement are actually
making it harder for themselves to lose weight. They should instead switch to low fat milk for their
calcium needs and exercise to lose weight. (WC 285)
Kush, Linda. “Death in a Bottle: Tainted Milk Scandal.” History Magazine 12.4 (2011): 40-43. Print.
This article by Linda Kush provided a succinct timeline of milk production, regulation, and
consumption over the years (1800s to mid-1900s) and how different government officials, reformers
and philanthropists got involved (or avoided involvement) in the process. In the mid-1800s, rates of
infant death started rising greatly leading people to search for an answer. This brought them to the
consumption of cow’s milk. In those days, it had started to become a fad or a symbol of wealth and
respect to feed your child cow’s milk in place of breastmilk. So, the number of bottle-fed babies
increased along with the rise in infant mortality. Around this time was when Louis Pasteur and other
scientists were studying germ theory and bacteria, which led to pasteurization to kill off bacteria culture
(many times cholera and or typhoid bacteria) found in milk due to contamination and spoiling during
transportation. Often times, milk vendors would mix the milk with flour, borax, and chalk to thicken the
milk along with formaldehyde to make it last longer and dye to bleach it back to a nice white color.
Distributors would also add in water to increase the amount they could sell, but this water was often

Commented [CLW3]: That is SO crazy!

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infested with cholera and typhoid bacteria. A lot of this contamination could have been avoided, but
regulation and change took a long time because the government wanted to support the “poor farmers”
that would have to spend a lot of money to buy new equipment and change their milking processes
(Kush 42). (WC 250)
What I think is most interesting and most important to take away from this article was how long
and how difficult the process of making milk healthy was even though simple solutions had been found.
Though simple, these changes were avoided to satisfy dairy industry’s greed. In the 1900’s, reformers
and philanthropists argued that milk was “the perfect food defiled by evil and corruption.” (Kush 42)
There were absolutely no regulations on milk so greedy distributors created and sold a white liquid

Commented [CLW4]: As noted several times in class, an
in-text citation is literally part of the sentence. Where does
the period go in a sentence—before or after the end of the

consumers believed was milk but in fact it was a whole lot of chemicals and inedible material mixed up
in a deadly concoction. Yes the milk often went rancid because of the rather long transit time from the
utter of the country cows to the mouths of city babies from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and
Chicago. However, what was really making people sick was so much bacteria in the milk from what the
vendors were adding, which is not right. The vendors were killing babies left and right and scientists like

Commented [CLW5]: Is this an appropriate tone for your

Louis Pasteur and Herbert Conn, who were active in germ theory research, were finding that milk could
be protected through pasteurization and cooling but this process took a little while so the city officials
didn’t take immediate action even though it was causing so much sickness and death. This type of
blatant disregard for the well-being of a population (mostly the poor city population who couldn’t afford

Commented [CLW6]: Erin, this sentence is a four-line
long run-on sentence. Where can you edit for clarity and

pasteurized country milk) is a good example of how greed often trumps the health of a population. I
think this would be great to mention in my paper, because this type of lazy regulation happens in the
modern day world with many different foods, not just milk and dairy, and obesity is just one of the many
health related illnesses associated with the greedy food industry. (WC: 301)

Commented [CLW7]: As noted in class, a comma before
“because” is not appropriate. “Because” is not a FANBOYS

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Levenstein, Harvey. Fear of Food: A History of Why We Worry About What We Eat. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2012. Print.
Harvey Levenstein is a food historian and in his book, Fear of Food: A History of Why We Worry
About What We Eat, Levenstein follows the history of food and why nutritionists have advised the
avoidance or consumption of certain foods over time. There is a chapter in his book where Levenstein
specifically talks about milk. In this chapter, Levenstein presents opinions on milk consumption and how
they’ve have changed over time in America specifically. In the 1800’s, milk was seen as a dangerous
substance because it was went bad easily if it wasn’t kept cool, and many people blamed milk for the
high number of infant deaths at this time. One doctor in 1889 proposed that these deaths were a result
of ingesting “’millions of living insects’ called ‘microorganisms, or bacteria’ that came from diluting milk
with water that was polluted by ‘drainage from the sick chamber’” (Levenstein 18). People were
skeptical of milk and when typhoid and tuberculosis became rampant in the mid 1800’s, milk was
viewed it as a mysterious white death liquid. Even when pasteurization was introduced it took about 30
years for milk to earn a good reputation. In the 1920’s, milk was highly advertised as “the perfect food”
by milk producers to increase the sale and consumption of this beverage (Levenstein 21). The Dairy
Council, the New York State Dairymen’s League, and the two major milk producers, Borden’s and
National Dairy Products, all recommended a dramatic increase of milk consumption, but the real
question is, why? WC: 250
What fascinated me most about the chapter “Milk: ‘The Most Valuable and Dangerous Food’”
was how much of an influence the food industry had on public’s opinion of milk. Levenstein’s timeline of
milk consumption juxtaposed with the abundance of advertisements for milk shows that public’s view of
milk is highly persuaded and regulated by milk producers even when little information backs up their
claims. From 1916 to 1945, just 25 years, the amount of milk consumed by the American population
tripled due to big companies and dairy organizations promoting the health benefits of milk with the help

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of nutritionists (Levenstein 22). One nutritionist, Elmer McCollum, justified the consumption of milk
through a comparison study between Americans and people of Asian descent who he referred to as
“Orientals” (Levenstein 22). McCollum stated that the milk consuming Western diet of Americans was
more beneficial to one’s proper growth and development because “Orientals” who stopped drinking
milk after weaning were “shorter and less vigorous” (Levenstein 22). Just a decade before this, however,
consumption of milk had been decreasing steadily due to implications that it actually carried loads of
diseases causing bacteria. In addition to this, the chief of the U.S. Bureau of Chemistry, Harvey W. Wiley,
told the public that the pasteurization of milk, which had started to become commonplace, actually
“depleted milk of its nutritional qualities” (Levenstein 19). However, just 10 years later, companies can
say that milk allows us to live to “an extreme and yet healthy old age” (Levenstein 22). How can public
opinion change so quickly with such little evidence? Is that what is happening presently with milk
consumption? WC 265

Teicholz, Nina. The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat & Cheese Belong in a Healthy Diet. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2014. Print.
In this book, Nina Teicholz, provides evidence as to why eating a low fat and low carb diet really
isn’t actually as heart healthy as many nutritionists have been claiming over the years. Teicholz is a
journalist that has written for Gourmet magazine, The New York Times, and The Washington Post. In the
Introduction of her book, Teicholz talks about her personal experience with weight loss and other
factors that have led her to research and write about why saturated fats do not deserve the negative
stigma they carry in modern day America.
Teicholz’s recent findings have actually started to suggest that the lack of saturated fat (present
in butter, meat and dairy) is what has been causing problems and leading to an increase in nutrition-

Commented [CLW8]: Strong use of citations for
paraphrased information in this paragraph, Erin.

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related illnesses such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Throughout her book, she talks a lot about
the importance of eating a balanced diet that includes animal products containing saturated fat, like
milk. She references studies and pulls quotes from her individual interviews with nutritionists,
researchers, and dieticians. WC: 151
This book is an incredibly helpful resource that offers helpful diet information, because it relates
both recent and past studies and controversies about the “ideal” diet with modern day views on
saturated fat in the diet. Teicholz notes that many of the regulations put forth by government
organizations like the USDA are based on longitudinal case studies that have been monitoring people

Commented [CLW9]: This is not a Point sentence, Erin.
What is your argument based on reading this book? What is
the point you are going to make in this paragraph?

over their lifetimes. She states that these studies are “weak and impressionistic” and I agree (Teicholz 3).

Commented [CLW10]: Comma + FANBOYS error.

The fact of the matter is that the main goal is to find a diet that reduced heart disease, obesity, diabetes,

Commented [CLW11]: Why do you agree? Where is your
evidence, or what did she say in the book that convinced

and many other diet based health issues so when something looks like a plausible cause for these
illnesses, it is readily denoted as “bad for one’s health” because these diseases are so serious that any
helpful bit of information is jumped on.
Nina Teicholz discusses a specific milk study run by nutritionist Elmer V. McCollum that I think is
important to the argument that milk is needed to support a healthy body. McCollum fed one group of
rats a diet high in dairy, meat, and milk products and the other he fed a diet Teicholz called “nearvegetarian” eating solely fruits, veggies, and oats (Teicholz 149). In his study, McCollum found that the
rats fed on milk and dairy products (butter), milk and meat, grew to “normal adult size” and were able
to reproduce and live normally, whereas the vegetarian group grew weaker and only grew to about 60
percent of normal rat size (Teicholz 149). This is important to note because it offers a direct correlation
between milk consumption and proper growth and development.
Nina Teicholz’s book not only presents relative studies and specific facts, she also talks about
her own personal experience and relationship with saturated fats. Teicholz was on a diet that she

Commented [CLW12]: Rather than summarizing
Teicholz’s argument, make a strong argument of your own.

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regulated by the USDA’s low recommended daily allowances for fat intake to lose weight. When Teicholz
moved to New York to write a restaurant review newspaper column, she started to eat cream-laden and
heavy meat meals given to her by the restaurants. To her surprise, Teicholz actually lost 10 pounds nad
was told by her doctor that her cholesterol levels were good. Her story provides a testimonial that could

Commented [CLW13]: Use your spell check. Easily
avoided errors like this one seriously damage your ethos in
readers’ eyes.

be useful in my paper to convince skeptic readers that may doubt scientific fact and prefer hearing a
real-life story on the success of a milk diet. WC 398

Commented [CLW14]: Erin, this entire paragraph is
summary. Why have you included it here if you are not
writing any of your own information? You need to cut this

WWeaver, CV. “Dairy nutrition beyond infancy.” Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 58.2 (2003): 5860. Print.
This is a peer reviewed journal article of a study published in the Australian Journal of Dairy
Technology. This study measured the mineral bone density of the bones in hips and spine and found that
consumption of milk increased mineral bone density and not just in the way you would think. Milk is
well-known for its calcium content, but other nutrients present such as riboflavin, vitamin D,
phosphorous, magnesium, and potassium. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) sets guidelines for
how much of certain nutrients or foods a person should have in one day. These guidelines are called the
Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) and serve as a tool for the American public to regulate their diet.
For example, one liter of milk meets the RDA 100% for Calcium, 150% for Phosphorous, 68% for Protein,
44% for Potassium, 37% for Magnesium, 32% Riboflavin and in North America, this meets 100% of the
RDA for Vitamin D (58). This article really stresses the benefit of consuming dairy products to obtain not
just calcium, but a plethora of other necessary nutrients. WC 178
When considering the health benefits of milk, the common image that comes to most people is
one of bone strength due to calcium intake, which although true, CM Weaver argues that there is a lot

Commented [CLW15]: As noted many times in class, it is
inappropriate to use “you” in formal collegiate writing
assignments. How might you edit this sentence to use a
specific noun like “readers”?

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more to milk that just Calcium in her journal article about the importance of milk consumption after
weaning. This idea that milk offers a plethora of nutrients is the most important from this article. Connie

Commented [CLW16]: This is Weaver’s argument—what
is your argument? Where is your point for the paragraph?

Weaver, a professor and the department head of the Department of Nutrition Science at Purdue
University, states that “most age groups need three to four servings of milk to meet their calcium
requirements” (58). Weaver states that supplements do not provide the same amount of nutrients and
the required intake of calcium can only come from dairy (citation). One reason this is true is because
milk is a source of “bioavailable dairy” meaning the body can naturally and pretty easily absorb it, as
long as the person is not lactose intolerant (Weaver 58). There are very few studies done on the specific
effect of milk in the body so this is a really helpful article to reference when making the argument that
milk is an important aspect of a healthy diet because of all of the nutrients it provides. (WC: 207)

Commented [CLW17]: I don’t understand why this
information is important for your PIE paragraph. Cut it. You
don’t have enough room to waste on details like this—these
are appropriate for summaries, not for argument
Commented [CLW18]: You literally use the term
“Weaver states” which tells me that you are directly
paraphrasing something she said. That means you must cite
her ideas. Where is your in-text citation?