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1.1

New Spaces from Old


Proposition

A continuous surjective map q : X Y is a quotient map if and only if it


takes saturated open subsets to open subsets, or saturated closed subsets to
closed subsets.
Proof Suppose q : X Y is a quotient map. Let U X be a saturated
open subset. So U = q 1 (V ) for some subset V Y . Since q is a quotient
mapping, then V is open in Y . Thus, q maps saturated open sets to open
sets. Moreover, if U X is a saturated closed set then U = q 1 (V ) for
some subset V Y . Again, since q is a quotient map, V must be closed.
Therefore, q maps saturated closed sets to closed sets.
Suppose q maps saturated open sets to open sets. Let V Y be open.
Since q is surjective, there exists U X such that q(U ) = V . Since q is continuous, q 1 (V ) = U is open in X. Clearly if U X is open, then q(U ) Y
is open. Therefore, q is a quotient mapping.

1.2

Proposition

Any composition of quotient maps is a quotient map.


Proof:
x=

 
X
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0

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