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Chapter 7 Section 3

Give 3 examples of natural selection in action

Outline the process of speciation

VOCABULARY:
 Generation time
 Speciation
The ways that populations change in response to the
environment through ongoing natural selection

Well-adapted individuals are likely to survive and


reproduce

Examples of natural selection in action:


 Adaptation to Hunting
 Insecticide Resistance
 Competition for Mates
Ex: Hunting in Uganda is affecting the
elephant population

Elephants are hunted for their ivory tusks

Elephants born without tusks has risen from


1% in 1930’s to 15% today

Fewer elephants with tusks are making to


survival
Insecticides are used to control the insect population

Some insects are resistant to the insecticide

These insects pass this resistant trait on to their


offspring

Insects have a short generation time (average time


between one generation and the next) so the
population soon becomes resistant to the insecticide
Competition for mates can select for adaptations

Ex: in bird populations, females prefer colorful


mates

Colorful males produce more offspring than non-


colorful males

The proportion of colorful males will increase over


generations
A new species may form when the group is
separated from the original population

The new population can no longer reproduce with


the original population and produce fertile
offspring

Speciation: the formation of a new species as a


result of evolution
Speciation occurs when a part of the
population gets separated from the rest

Can happen in several ways:


 Newly formed canyons
 Mountain ranges
 Lakes
After two groups have separated, natural
selection acts on the group

Evolve a different set of traits over time

If environmental conditions differ, the


adaptations will also differ
Over many generations, 2 separated groups
become very different

Even if the geographic barrier is removed,


they can no longer interbreed

They have become different species


Construct a concept map that shows how a
population of mosquitoes can develop
resistance to a pesticide