P. 1
gis_part2_week4_280207

gis_part2_week4_280207

|Views: 107|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Dr Richard Haddlesey on Apr 25, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

COMPUTERS AND STATISTICS IN ARCHAEOLOGY Week 4.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - 2
© Richard Haddlesey www.medievalarchitecture.net

Aims
q q q q q q

WEEK 4 Examine the differences between vector and raster graphics Discuss which data types are best represented by each Examine how ArcGIS treats vector graphics Outline vector data sources Create new vector themes by digitising in ArcGIS WEEK 5 Discuss the use of photography and satellite date in GIS Outline raster data sources Load and geo-reference aerial photographs in ArcGIS Examine different display options when using raster images in ArcGIS

q q q q q

Key text

Conolly J, Lake M 2006. Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology: Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge

Geographical Information Systems are a powerful technology that offer a host of analytical possibilities for investigating the spatial organisation of cultural and humanenvironment relationships (p31)

Data models

Data models and data structures: [are] the digital representation of spatial phenomena A GIS works by manipulating the digital representations of real world entities…[this is known as a]

data model

(Conolly and Lake, 2006: 24)

Two main types of Data models in GIS
q

Vector
– Objects represented as nodes (X,Y points) and connecting lines, attributes of objects attached as database tables

q

Raster
– Geographical space represented as a grid of cells, numerical values represent attributes of each cell

Vector and Raster GIS
Vector Raster

Forest Site

Lake Road

Grassland

Strengths
Vector
q q q q q

Raster
q q q q q

Spatial precision Compact data storage Scalable presentation Object based Database linkage

Analytical capabilities Surfaces Continuous quantities Pixellated data Photographs

Vector applications

Spatially referenced database applications (information about objects):
• Location maps • Sites and Monuments • Artefacts

 

Mapping applications Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) elevation models

Vector applications

Downside:
• Very CPU intensive • Boundedness • Elevation is hard to express without a TIN

Raster applications

Each cell can be given:
• A quantitative value that signals the mean elevation • a single attribute

This is simple, in comparison to a vector, but that is it’s strength:
• It can be mathematically manipulated and displayed much quicker than a vector

 

Fuzzy boundaries Map algebra
(Conolly and Lake, 2006: 28)

Raster applications

Downside:
• Fixed resolution (not multiscalar) • It’s difficulty in representing discrete entities (too blocky) • Limited ability to handle multiple attribute data through a DBMS

(Conolly and Lake, 2006: 30-1)

The good news: Hybridisation
Vector/raster systems
q

Most modern GIS software packages combine both vector and raster capabilities Image processing q Aerial and satellite integration ESRI desktop GIS suite q ArcView q ArcCatalog and ArcMap

q

q

The good news: Hybridisation

Vector/raster systems Most modern GIS software packages combine both vector and raster capabilities Image processing
• Aerial and satellite integration • DBMS integration

ESRI desktop GIS suite (www.esri.com)
• Arc Info • ArcEditor • ArcView

• ArcReader • ArcGIS extensions

ArcCatalog and ArcMap

Hybridisation through layers in ArcView

MSc lecture notes 2005/6

Software
q

CAD/CAM
• AutoCAD, Microstation

q

Image processing
• MicroBrain, ERDAS Imagine

q

Raster GIS
• Idrisi, Grass (Unix), Grassland, Spans, MapII (Mac)

q

Vector GIS
• ArcInfo, ArcGIS, MGE

q

Desktop mapping
• ArcView ≤3, MapInfo

Map objects
q

Point Line/Polyline Area/Region/Polygon Text
ABC

q

q

q

Database linkage
Map objects = attributes

Mapping to Database
q

Most mapping applications are intimately linked with a database of objects:
• • • • • • Territories Historical records Sites Museum objects Features Excavated/collected artefacts
Attributes

Graphical objects

Layers / themes

Why themes?
q q

q

Logical breakdown of data - related objects in each theme Assemble maps for different purposes by combining themes Examine interaction between themes, create new themes
Paper maps use symbolism to distinguish between layers, to compensate for the limitations of the technology

Data collection (1)
q

Conventional databases
• Point data • Attributes for line & area objects

q

Digital vector data sources
• Geographically referenced
– – – – Worldwide, DCW BGS National (e.g. Ordnance Survey) Other e.g. Developers plans etc

• Drafting / surveyors’ plans (DXF)

Data collection (2)
q q

Map digitising Considerations:
• • • • • Accuracy, costs, heads-up/down Projection, geodetic system, topology Topographic / projected Plans / unprojected Historical maps & plans

Data collection (3)
q

EDM, GPS & conventional survey Field survey & recording Surface collection Excavation
• Architectural survey • Sites • Survey units / material count • Individual artefact locations

q

q q

– Units & features as objects – 3D / volumetric systems / voxels – Artefacts

• Vastly increased data requirements

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->