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Perspectives on curriculum development / curriculum delivery model

Content

Outcome/
Product

Theorist

Bell
Lawton

Ralph Tyler

Curriculum
is:

- Defined in
terms of
subject
matter

- A systematic
process
- Prescriptive
- A process of
changing
peoples
behaviour

Consist of

- A collection of - Stated purposes


courses,
aims and
subjects,
objectives
disciplines,
- Relevant
cultural
curriculum
tenets
content
strategies
- Assessment
criteria

Focus

- What
- Acquisition of
students
knowledge and
should know
skills
(Kelly 1989:
- Behaviour
- Content (Kelly - methodological
1989: 46)

Emphasize

- Nature of
knowledge
which also
includes

- What students
should do or
perform at the

Process

Print

Praxis

Bevis and
Watson
William E Doll
Nicholls and
Nicholls
- Interaction of - Interactions and
educators,
transactions
learners and
- Underpinned by
knowledge
principles of
- What actually
experiential
happens in the
learning
teaching- (De Villiers
learning setting 2009: 37).
- (De Villiers
2009: 36)
- Planned
- 5 cyclical actions
learning
which are
experiences
situation
- Consists of 3
analysis,
phases:
selection of
organisation,
objectives,
development
content
and approach
organisation,
- Learner
teaching
centred
methods
approach
selection and
evaluation
strategies
- on learning
- Based on
- focus is away
dynamic
from outcomes learning through
and content
discovery,
BUT is on
dialogue and
knowledge
critical reflection
- learning a
- (De Villiers
process
2009: 37).
- procedure
principles
- Personal
- Collaborative
experiences
teaching
contribute to
- Experiential
learning
learning

cultural
end of a study
consideration programme
s (Kelly 1989: - Is objectives
27)
driven
- Getting
knowledge

Education is - Transmission - A technical


seen as:
of knowledge- experience
content (Kelly
1989: 28, 45)

Learners
- Passive
expectancie
receivers of
s
information

- Question and
challenge the
status quo (Uys
& Gwele 2005:
13-14)
- Psychosocial
beings are at one
with society

Evaluation

- Formative and
summative
evaluation in
form of tests,
examinations
and
assignments

- Demonstrate what
learners have
learnt using
curriculum content
- Observation of
skills and
behaviours

Purpose

- Essentialism
- To perform skils
and
competently
perenialism
- Reconstuctionis
- Transmission
m methodology
of worthwhile - To reconstruct
bodies of
the social order
knowledge
through critical
that has
understanding of
accumulated
social, political
- (Uys & Gwele
and economic
2005: 13-14)
determinants
- To forster
commintment to
collective
reflection and

- Understanding - (De Villiers


rather than
2009: 37).
acquisition of
knowledge
(Kelly 1989:
87).
- Learner
development
As social
- A continuous
process and
process with
learning climate
no end
is that of
- A process of
dialogue.
development
(Kelly 1989: 87) (De Villiers 2009:
37).
Contribution
- Activities that
to social
lead to higher
reconstructio
order thinking,
n
judgements
- Learning
through
and decision
discvery,
making
reflection
- Taught on
and dialogue
congnition
- (De Villiers
skills
2009: 37).
- (de Dilliers
2009: 36)
Ability to apply
- Ability to
learning gained
showcase
in real-life
problemsettings such
solving and
critical thinking as community
health centers
ablilities
To contribute to
- To develop
social
learners
reconstruction
intellectual
through
(cognition),
ability to learn education
(metacognition
) and technical To emancipate
learners and
proficiency
develop their
- (De Villiers
abilities to
2009: 36)
shape their own
- Understand
destinies
nursing as
inextricably
Contribute to
intertwined
social
with the world reconstruction

Known as

Dangers

- Essentialist
and
perennialistic
curriculum
(Uys &Gwele
2005: 13).
- Subject-based
curriculum
Passive learning
Teacher has
control of what
he or she wants
to teach
regardless of
relevance
Lack of
independent
learning
Few
competences
can be
mastered due to
passive learning
Teaching can
become
irrelevant if a
direct link
between theory
and practice is
not clearly
established
Can lead to over
teaching

action of change
we live in
in the health of
therefore a
the community
democratic
- Attain
approach in
transformative
health issues
competencies for (Uys & Gwele
individual and
2005: 14).
society
- (Uys & Gwele
2005: 13-14).
- Linear- Developmental
prescriptive
model
curriculum
- Cyclical
curriculum

Both teacher and


learner must learn
new ways of
working
Fragmentation due
to lack of
coherence of
curriculum
Over specialization
of disciplines
Students are left
out of the picture,
outcomes are not
clear and reduced
problem solving
teaching
(Kelly 1989: 62-63;
Uys & Gwele 205:
13-14)

Too broad a
curriculum which
means little
Degree of
uniformity can
vary due to
subjectivity of
curriculum on
learners

(De Villiers 2009:


37).

Emancipatory
curriculum.
(De Villiers 2009:
37).

Real-life
experiences are
context specific
thereby limiting
scope of
learning

Lack of
progress to
progress if the
Difficult to get
weak student
educator and
through an exam
learners are not
able to form a
Limitation of
learning if teacher good rapport to
enhance
in not fully
engaged
learning
experiences
Learning
becomes ends if
students are
unable to apply
knowledge

Many teachers
are required if
schools are large
thus affects
uniformity
Changes
demands lots of
time

Inadequate
learning
material can
hamper the
interactive
learning
experience
Affected by
change in
research
findings and
treatment

regimens if
frequent
making it
unstable
Subjective
evaluation if
criteria not clearly
defined

Sources consulted:
De Villiers, L. 2009. Developing Health Sciences Curricula: Principles and Process.
Only Study Guide for HSE3704. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Kelly, AV. 1989. The curriculum: theory and practice. 3rd edition. London: Paul
Chapman Publishing.

Uys, LR & Gwele, NS. 2005. Curriculum development in nursing: process and
innovation. Routledge.

From:

http://toniau.ac.ir/doc/books/curriculum%20development%20in%20nursing.pdf
(accessed 02 March 2015).