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Some cognitive processes are seen in a variety of species;

others are unique to human beings.


Through both informall conversations and formal schooling,

adults convey to children the ways in which their culture
interprets and responds to the world.

Social Construction of memory

Collaborative use of strategies

Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools that

make dailty living more effective and efficient.

Situated learning or situated cognition

Thought and language become increasingly interdependent in the first few years of life.

Distributed cignition or distributed intelligence

Complex mental processes emerge out of social activities


Children appropriate their cultures tools in their own idiosyncratic manner.

Children can accomplish more difficult tasks when they have assistance of people more advanced than themselves.

Learners can think more effectively when they acquire the

basic cognitive tools of various activities and academic

Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth.

Play allows children to cognitively stretch themselves.

Children learn and remember more when they talk about their

Social Construction of meaning

Children should have opportunities to engage in activities that

closely resemble those they encounter in the adult world.

Children often acquire better strategies when they collaborate
with adults on complex tasks.

Participation in Adult Activities

Challenging tasks are likely to foster maximum congnitive


Aquisition of teaching skills

Childrens abilities should be assessed under a variety of work conditions.

Dynamic Assessment

Group learning can help children internalize cognitive strategies.

Links to maps for each lesson