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Positive Behavior Support Plan

Positive Behavior Support Plan

Kristen Incorvaia
SPED 498 Internship Seminar Spring 2015
Towson University

Positive Behavior Support Plan

Definition of Specific Behavior

During instruction, Kendell engages in off-task behaviors. Kendell
leaves his assigned area without permission (i.e. walks around the
classroom, changes his seat from the carpet to chair, lays on the floor,
walks out of the classroom), completes very small portions of all his
classwork (i.e. independent, group, homework), and disrupts class (i.e.
talks to peers, calling out, disturbing peers, making inappropriate
comments). Kendell attends a PBIS school that has a school-wide
positive behavior plan that involves the distribution of Panda Paws for
being responsible, respectful, and ready as well as a classroom color
chart with the students names placed on it. The students start on
green each morning and have the opportunity to move up for good
behavior (i.e. blue, purple, super star) or down for misbehavior (i.e.
yellow, orange, red).
Literature Review
Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time
Schedule (Riley, McKevitt, Shriver, & Allen, 2011)
This article contains a study of a teacher using fixed-time delivery to increase two
of her students on-task behaviors. The article described fixed-time delivery, as a schedule
the teacher would follow to provide the students with attention every five minutes. The
teacher would praise the students if they were exhibiting on-task behavior or redirect the
students if they were off-task. The results of the study reveal that fixed-time was effective
in increasing the on-task behaviors of both students. The article states there still needs to

Positive Behavior Support Plan

be more research done on fixed-time but the teacher in the study believed this
intervention was successful and not a distraction to her classroom environment.
A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get Em On Task Interventions for OffTask Behaviors (Kraemer, Davis, Arndt, & Hunley, 2012)
This article compares two Positive Behavior Support Tier II behavior intervention
programs, Mystery Motivator and Get Em On Task. Mystery Motivator is a behavioral
reward system that allows a student to select a mystery reward if they engage in the
targeted positive behaviors. Since the rewards are unknown to the students, studies have
shown that Mystery Motivators are effective in improving disruptive behaviors. Get Em
On Task is a computer-signaling program that teachers can use in their classroom to
monitor student behavior. This program sends random signals throughout the day and
when the signal sounds the teacher scans the classroom and awards points to students
who are on-task. Since the signals are sent randomly, studies have shown students
improve their off-task behaviors throughout the day to be rewarded with points when the
signal goes off. The article includes a study of two fifth grade classes using both
interventions to determine the impact of the two programs. The results of the study show
that Mystery Motivator and Get Em On Task both effectively reduce off-task behaviors
when compared to no interventions.
The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the
Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model (Cheney, Lynass, Flower, Iwaszuk,
Mielenz, & Hawken, 2010)
This article discusses a targeted Tier 2 intervention that has been used to produce
positive social outcomes for students who are at risk of developing behavioral or

Positive Behavior Support Plan

emotional disabilities. Check, Connect, and Expect (CCE) provides students who have
behavioral problems with coaches. Their coaches regularly check in with the students,
provide feedback on academic and social progress, as well as help the students set daily
goals. The article includes a study that followed 18 urban elementary schools for 2 years.
The results of the study show that CCE can reduce problem behavior, reduce referral
rates to special education, and enhance students social behavior.
A Function-Based Intervention to Increase a Second-Grade Students On-Task Behavior
in a General Education Classroom (Germer, Kaplan, Giroux, Markham, Ferris, Oakes, &
Lane, 2011)
This article reviews a case study on a second-grade student who demonstrates
high rates of off-task behaviors. The study was conducted in a general education
classroom and used a comprehensive, integrated three-tiered (CI3T) model of prevention
consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary supports for academic, social, and
behavioral domains. The liaison from Project FUNCTION and the students teacher
agreed on three components of the intervention for the student: antecedent adjustments,
adjusting the reinforcement possibilities, and extinction. The results of the study show
that after a two-month time period, the students on-task behaviors increased, as well as
his social skills.
The Effects of Tier II Check-in/Check-out Including Adaptation for Non-Responders on
the Off-Task Behavior of Elementary Students in a Residential Setting (Swoszowski,
McDaniel, Jolivette, & Melius, 2013)
This article contains a study that evaluates the effects of a Tier II positive
behavior intervention and support (PBIS) intervention, Check-in/Check-out (CICO) as

Positive Behavior Support Plan

well as the effects of an additional Check-up within the intervention for students who
werent responsive to CICO. The study shows that the students off-task behaviors
reduced when exposed to CICO. The students who were not responsive to CICO and
were exposed to Check-in/Check-up/Check-out also saw a decrease in their off-task
Cheney, D., Lynass, L., Flower, A., Iwaszuk, W., Mielenz, C., & Hawken, L. (2010) The
check, connect, and expect program: A targeted, tier 2 intervention in the
schoolwide positive support model. Preventing School Failure, 3 (54), 152-158.
Germer, K.A., Kaplan, L.M., Giroux, L.N., Markham, E.H., Ferris, G.J., Oakes, W.P., &
Lane, K. (2011) A function-based intervention to increase a second-grade
students on-task behavior in a general education classroom. Beyond Behavior, 3
(20), 12-30.
Kraemer, E.E., Davis, S.C., Arndt, K., & Hunley, S. (2012) A comparison of the mystery
motivator and the get em on task interventions for off-task behaviors.
Psychology in the Schools, 2 (49), 163-175.
Riley, J.L., McKevitt, B.C., Shriver, M.D., & Allen, K.D. (2011) Increasing
behavior using attention delivered on a fixed-time
schedule. Journal of
Behavioral Education, 3 (20), 149-162.
Swoszowski, N.C., McDaniel, S.C., Jolivette, K., & Melius, P. (2013) The
effects of tier II check-in/check-out including adaptation for nonresponders on the off-task
behavior of elementary students in a
residential setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 3 (36), 6379.
Baseline Data Collection
I am currently interning at Halstead Academy with a special
education teacher. The special educator teaches a fifty-five minute
phonics/guided reading small group with four fourth grade students
who are below grade level. She also pushes into the fourth graders
math class for forty-five minutes a day as well as into their

Positive Behavior Support Plan

reading/language arts class for forty-five minutes three days a week.

Kendell is a member in the small group as well as the two classes we
push into, so I was able to observe him not only in a small group
setting, but also in a whole group English Language Arts and Math
settings. I was able to observe Kendell three different times during the
school day as well as with three different teachers.
I formally observed Kendell on two days in his English Language
Arts class. I also observed Kendell in his math class just to see if his
behaviors were similar in both classes. I took notes on my observations
in my notebook and listed the different behaviors I saw as they
occurred, how many times they occurred, and if there was a
consequence to the behavior.
I also reviewed Kendells file with my mentor. My mentor stated
that Kendells behaviors have never been a problem until this year so
while I was observing his behavior, she was having his homeroom and
math teachers record his on task behaviors and work habits.
The three behaviors I looked for during my observations were:
1. Leaving his assigned area (i.e. walks around the classroom,
changes his seat from the carpet to chair, lays on the floor,
walks out of the classroom)
2. Completes very small portions of all his classwork (i.e.
independent, group, homework)
3. Disrupts class (i.e. talks to peers, calling out, disturbing

Positive Behavior Support Plan

Student: Kendell
February 12, 2015
Observed by: Kristen Incorvaia
Time: 10:40 11:25
Whole Group Instruction
English Language Arts
Number of Times
Leaving Assigned
Teacher asks student

to sit down, Clip gets

Not on carpet with

moved, Teacher

class, Not in seat,

ignores student

Walks out of class

Completes Small

Portions of

Teacher redirects the


writing assignment
Disrupts Class


Teacher asks student

Positive Behavior Support Plan

Talks to peers, Calling

to be quiet, Teacher

out, Disturbing peers

moves clip

Student: Kendell
February 19, 2015
Observed by: Kristen Incorvaia
Time: 10:40 11:25
Whole Group Instruction
English Language Arts
Number of Times
Leaving Assigned
Clip gets moved,

Teacher asks student

Not on carpet with

to sit down

class, Not in seat,

Walks out of class
Completes Small
Portions of
writing assignment

Teacher redirects the


Positive Behavior Support Plan

Disrupts Class


Clip gets moved,

Talks to peers, Calling

Teacher asks student

out, Disturbing peers,

to be quiet

Banging on desk
Hypothesis of Functional Intention
Kendells functional intention behind his problem behaviors is
avoidance of academic work that he struggles on due to being below
grade level in every academic subject as well as attention seeking.
Kendell is diagnosed with Specific Learning Disability, which means one
or more of his psychological processes in understanding or in using
language, spoken or written, which may cause imperfect ability to








manipulatives, and altered/modified assessments (i.e. chucking of

texts) and is more than capable of completing his work when he uses
his accommodations. When Kendell exhibits problem behaviors he is
typically in a group setting, not receiving his teachers full attention.
Replacement Behavior
1. What should the student be doing?
Kendell should remain in his assigned area for the duration of the
lesson unless asked to do otherwise. Kendell should also attempt
to complete all classwork to the best of his ability with the use of
his accommodations. He will raise his hand before speaking.
2. How will you teach it?

Positive Behavior Support Plan


I will teach the replacement behavior by modeling correct

behaviors during all times of the day by pointing out positive
behaviors of his peers. Kendell will be rewarded with a token on a
token board if he models these positive behaviors. If Kendell
receives three of his checks he is able to pick out a reward from
his reward menu as soon as he is rewarded the third check.
3. When will you teach it?
I will teach the replacement behavior whenever I am in the
classroom with Kendell, small group, ELA, and math. I have asked
Kendells teachers to also reinforce this plan.
Positive Behavior Support
1. The first positive support I will put in place for Kendell is a token
reward system. Kendell is in the fourth grade and switches
classes for English Language Arts and Mathematics. I have given
both of his teachers a three check token board, which they can
reward Kendell with a check when he remains on-task. After
Kendell receives all three checks he is able to pick a reward from
his reward menu.
2. The second positive support I will put in place for Kendell is
planned ignoring. A lot of Kendells behaviors are attention
seeking from an adult in the classroom. I have talked to his
teachers, the instructional assistant, and my mentor about how
we are going to ignore Kendells attention seeking behaviors

Positive Behavior Support Plan


(banging on desk/not sitting in the correct location) when they

arent disturbing the class.
3. The final positive support I will put in place for Kendell is
proximity control. When I have Kendell in my small group, I
usually let my students pick where they are going to sit on the
carpet but I am going to assign floor spots to the entire group. By
doing so, I can have Kendell sit at the end so he cant distract his
classmates but not make him realize the floor spots are being
assigned just for him. Also I will have him closest to me so I am
able to redirect him easily if needed.
Data Collection and Visual Representation
Implementation of Plan Kendell will be taught about the token system
that his teachers will be using with him. He will be informed about the
reward menu that he will receive if the earns all of his tokens. Kendell
will get to immediately pick a reward from his menu when all three
checks are earned.
The data sheet attached shows my collections of how Kendell
behaved in class for the three weeks. I originally took the data on postit notes while in his classroom because I was assisting in the class and
didnt want to cause attention to my notes. I then wrote the notes in
my notebook as presented on the sheets provided. I decided this
method was best for my project because my student really wants to fit
in with his classmates and I was already giving him the token board so
I didnt want to bring anymore-unnecessary attention to him.

Positive Behavior Support Plan




token board and

reward menu that Kendell uses in class.


Positive Behavior Support Plan


Data Summary and Interpretation

Overall, there has been no improvement on Kendells behavior.
Kendell definitely had some good days with my support plan so I dont
believe it was ineffective, but I do believe Kendell needs more supports
that his teachers and I were unable to give him during the three weeks
of the positive supports. I collected data on Kendells attention seeking
and work refusing behaviors for about three weeks. I gave Kendell his
token board on a Monday and that first week he was extremely excited
about it and his behaviors decrease. During the second week of the
plan, Kendell became less interested in the token board. He would
have to be reminded that he was able to work for something but his
behaviors were still better than they were without the board. The final

Positive Behavior Support Plan


week I recorded data, Kendell didnt respond to the token board as well
as he did during the previous weeks. He would wipe off the checks if
his teachers were ignoring him and say he didnt care about the reward
Where Kendells clip ended at the end of the day depended on
how many times he needed to be redirected or talked to by his teacher.
His clip was moved if he was redirected on more than one occasion
about any off-task behavior. Below is a chart of what color Kendell went
home on during the three weeks of my observations.

Green Ready
Green Ready

Red Refocus


Green Ready
Green Ready
Green Ready

Green Ready

Green Ready


Behavior Color
Purple- Reaching
Green- Ready
Yellow- Remind
Orange- Rethink
Red- Refocus

In the graph below, I inputted the data that I collected during my

observations. Kendells most prevalent behavior is disrupting class (i.e.
Talks to peers, Calling out, Disturbing peers, Banging on desk). Kendell
has a Specific Learning Disability and is below grade level for every
subject, which could play a part in why he is disruptive in class.

Leaves Assigned Area

Completes Small Portion
of Classwork
Disrupts Class

The completion of this project helped me grow in my knowledge,
skills, and dispositions in classroom management. It not only taught
me how to try to manage one students behavior in the classroom but
how being able to manage one students behaviors can help manage
the entire classroom. Since Halstead Academy is a PBIS school, they
have a color chart to monitor student behavior. My student and the
whole class responds well to the chart and it influences how they act
during the day. I learned a lot of how to use the color chart in my
classroom management and how to get my students to behave in a
positive manner.
I also feel like I am better at managing a classroom and
managing individual student behavior. Being proactive instead of
reactive is a huge part of classroom management. Getting to know
your students and form relationships definitely plays a huge role in
classroom management especially when it comes to managing
behavior. Knowing what get students frustrated or angry is a huge part
in being proactive when it comes to managing my students behavior. I
got to know Kendell on a personal level, which gave me the
opportunity to gain his trust and have him listen to me when I needed
to redirect his negative behaviors.

Since completing this project, my disposition towards classroom

management has grown. Last semester in our classroom management
class we learned a lot of skills and heard a lot of stories about
situations we might encounter while in the classroom but nothing can
teach me more than actual experience. Being in the classroom five
days a week this semester has really put my knowledge of classroom
management to the test. It also taught me helpful tips and strategies I
can use in the classroom. Classroom management is important for any
type of classroom, in any type of school. Luckily, Halstead is a PBIS
school, which reassures how important classroom management is not
only for the classroom but also for the entire school to operate
Since I will be at Halstead for another four weeks, I am going to
keep up with the token board for Kendell. Some days he responds
extremely well to it and others he doesnt but right now its been a
great way to get data on him for his Individualized Educational
Program. I can generalize this positive behavior support plan to many
of my future students. Positive reinforcements are a great way to
lessen negative behaviors in the classroom and can be manipulated to
an individual students needs.
If I were to do this project again, one thing I would do different
would be to pick a student that I was with all day. Being an intern for
an inclusion special educator, I am all over the school in different

classrooms. I only got to see my student for thirty-five minutes in

English Language Arts and forty-five minutes in Math plus Im testing
all day Tuesdays so I am never in the classroom. I was in contact with
my students instructional assistant so I was able to get the data from
her when I wasnt in the classroom but it would have been better if I
were able to be with my student the entire day. Another thing I would
do differently would be to start working on this project in the beginning
of the school year, not in the middle/end of the year. Students with
disabilities are known to have difficulties with change and giving my
student a new reward system in the middle of the year was a big
change for him. All students need structure and its important to
introduce new topics and plans at the beginning of a quarter or year.