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TE802:GuidedLeadTeachingUnitPlanandReport

Name:CarlyAtkinson
MentorTeacher:SarahFelsing
Classandgradelevel:8thgrade,Earth
Science

School:HayesMiddleSchool
Date:10/27/14

PartI:InformationabouttheLessonandUnit
Topic:Minerals/Rocks
Abstract
ThisactivitysequencewillfeatureaTOPEinquirysequenceonthetopicofmineralsand
rocks.Thetechniquesthatstudentswillbelearningarethetoolusedformineralidentification
(hardness,color,cleavage,etc.).Studentswillmakeobservationsofmineralsamples,andusing
thetechniques,observethepatternofnamesoftheminerals.Studentswillusethesepatternsto
explainhowdifferentcompositionsandformationconditionsaffectdifferentproperties.This
explanationwilloccurwhenwetransitionfrommineralsintorocksandtherockcycle.

PartII:ClarifyingYourGoalsfortheTopic
A.BigIdeas
Mineralsarethebuildingblocksofrocks;theycanbepresentinvaryingamountsand
differentcompositions.Whencombined,mineralsstillretaintheircharacteristics,andtherefore,
themineralswithinarockcanbeidentified.Mineralscanbeidentifiedbymanydifferent
characteristics,includinghardness,color,cleavage,luster,andstreak.Havingtheabilityto
identifymineralshelpstothenidentifyrocksandhowtheyformed.Eachmineralhasavery
specificsetofconditionsunderwhichitforms.Knowingthisinformation,andbeingableto
identifymineralswithinrocks,youcanthenunderstandhowandwherethatrockformed.
Mineralsareidentifiersofpastgeologicandenvironmentalconditions.(HSCEE3.p2)
Mineralsarearesourceofeconomicimportance;humansusemineralsformanythings,
rangingfromhalite(salt)tobauxiteforaluminum.Havingtheabilitytoidentifyminerals,know
howandwheretheform,canaidinpredictingthelocatingofthesemineralsforeconomicaluse.
Itisimportanttoconservetheseresourcesduetothetimescaleoftheirformation,mineralsarea
nonrenewableresource,andmorewillnotbeformedwithinourlifetimes.(HSCEE2.4,NGSS
HSESS31)Mineralsarealsoanimportantfactorindetermininggeologicage.Usingthe
isotopesofcertainatoms,locatedinthechemicalstructuresofminerals,radioactivedatingcan
beusedtodeterminetheageoftherock,whichcontainsthemineral.(HSCEE5.3x,NGSSHS
ESS16)

B.StudentPractices
1.Namingkeypractices
Studentswillbeusingthepracticesassociatedwithinquiry,todevelopascientific
understanding.Studentswillaskquestionsinordertoidentifyminerals;theywillusethe
techniques(hardness,color,etc.)tofindtheanswerstothesequestions.Oncetheycanidentify
minerals,theywillapplythecorrectmineralnames(pattern)totheobservations.Studentswill
usetheirknowledgeofmineralstoidentifyrocks,anddevelopamodelofwhere/howthose
rocks/mineralsformed.Studentswillusethismodeltoconstructanexplanationforwhycertain
mineralsarelocatedwheretheyare.

C.PerformanceExpectationsforStudentLearning
PerformanceExpectation

Associated
NGSSPractice

NGSSPerformanceExpectation(s)
1.MSESS31.Constructascientificexplanationbasedonevidenceforhowtheuneven
distributionofEarthsminerals,energyandgroundwaterresourcesaretheresultofpast
andcurrentgeoscienceprocesses.

Constructing
explanations

SpecificLessonObjective(s)
1.Identifydifferentmineralsbasedondistinctphysicalproperties.
2.Discriminatebetweendifferentmineralsamplesusingcolor,streak,hardness,luster,and
cleavage.
3.Identifymineralswithinrocksandapplyknowledgeofmineralcrystalsize,rocktexture,
etc.toidentifywhattypeofrockandwhereitformed.

Askingquestions
Analyzingand
InterpretingData
Constructing
explanations

PartIII:ExampleActivitySequence
A.StorylinefortheActivitySequenceinContext
Stage

RoleinStoryline

Lessonsbefore
Mass,volume,densitywillallbecoveredinpreviouslessons;willbehelpfulwhenidentifying
yoursequence
certainmineralcharacteristics.Labsafetywillalsobecovered,andhelpfulwhenthe
mineralIDlabsarecompletedwithinthissequence.
Lesson1

Therewillbetwopartstothislesson,andthiswillserveasthetechniquesportionofmyTOPE
activitysequence.First,studentswillbetakingCornellnotesonthedifferentcharacteristics
ofminerals(hardness,color,etc.).

Lesson2

Studentswillbeparticipatinginamineralidentificationlab,wheretheywillhavetoobserve5
minerals,completeachartwitheachmineralshardness,color,etc.Oncetheyhavemadeall
oftheirobservations,theywillthenneedtouseamineralchartanddeterminethenameof
themineral,basedontheobservations(pattern).

Lessonsin
between
sequence

Wewillmoveontorocktypes,therockcycleandrockidentification.Thestudentswillneed
thisinformationinordertomoveontotheexplanationportionoftheinquirysequence.

Lesson3

Studentswillbeprovidedwithrocks,andtheywillidentifymineralswithinthoserocks,and,

usingthatinformationandtheirknowledgeofmineralsandhowtheyform,theywill
interpretwhattypeofrockitis/whereintherockcycleitwasformed(metamorphic,
igneous,sedimentary).
Lessonsafter
sequence

Therewillbeonemorerockcycleactivity,rockcycledicegame,whichwillwrapuptherocks
unit.Therewillbearocksandmineralstest,beforemovingontoEarthstructureandthen
relativeandabsolutedating.

B.ActivitySequenceDetails
FocusObjective
Objective
3.Identifymineralswithinrocksandapplyknowledgeofmineralcrystalsize,rock
texture,etc.toidentifywhattypeofrockandwhereitformed.

NGSSPractice
Constructing
explanations

3.TOPEInquirySequence
StagesinYourTOPESequence
Stage
Techniques
Observations
Patterns
Explanations

TeachingActivities
Mineralidentificationtools(color,streak,hardness,luster,cleavage)
Observingmineralspecimens
Findingmineralnames,usingtheobservationsobtainedthroughusingthe
techniques
Explainwhattypeofrock,andunderwhatconditionsitformed,usingminerals
identifiedinthatspecimen

C.LessonPlans
Lesson1Materials

Pagesintextbook:Book:EarthScience,HoltMcDougalPages:117122

Notebookpaper

Lesson1Introduction(10minutes)

Welcome,takeattendance
Recaplastweek,Lastweekwelearnedthatthereare4questionsthatweasktodetermine
ifsomethingisamineral.Whatarethose4questions?Isitsolidwithacrystalshape?Is
itinorganic?Isitformednaturally?Doesithaveaspecificchemicalcomposition?We
alsotalkedabouthowwecanclassifymineralsinto2categories,silicateandnonsilicate.
SilicatemineralscontainBOTHSiandO,whilenonslilicatescancontainEITHERSiOR
O,butnotboth.Wealreadyknowthatmineralscanbeputinto2categories,buthowcan
wegoevenfurtherandidentifyindividualminerals?

Lesson1MainTeachingActivities(35minutes)

Introducedaysactivity,Cornellnotetakingonmineralidentificationtechniques,they
willturntopage117,andbegintakingCornellnotes,notesshouldcoverpages117122
Thiswillbedoneindividually,andquietly
Cornellnotesareanotetakingstrategythatisbeingimplementedbytheentireschool,
thislinkexplainsCornellnotes,ifyouareunfamiliar
(http://coe.jmu.edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes.html)

Lesson1Conclusion(10minutes)

Iwillreviewwhatkeypoints/mainideasthatthestudentshouldhaveincludedintheir
Cornellnotesbeforetheyleave,tomakesurethattheyareintherightpathbeforethey
leave
Iwillprepthemforthenextdaysactivities,andtellthemthatitwillbeimportanttohave
thenotesfinishedbecausetheywillbeputtingthemtouseinthenextactivity

Lesson2Materials

Mineralspecimens(5mineralsper
group,8groups,40mineralstotal)

MineralIdentificationchart
(attached)

MineralIdentificationlabsheet
(attached)

Cornellnotes
Nail

MineralIdentificationlab
instructions(attached)

Porcelaintile

Penny

Glass

Lesson2Introduction(10minutes)

Welcome,attendance

Reviewfrompreviousday,Iwillgothroughwhattheyshouldhaveincludedintheir
Cornellnotes,ex.Streak,canbeobservedbyscratchingaporcelaintilewiththemineral
specimen.Iwilltellthemwhatallthemainideasshouldhavebeen,andIwill
demonstratehowtouseeachtechnique.

Lesson2MainTeachingActivities(45minutes)

Studentswillbesplitintogroupsof4(ish)andeachgroupwillbegiven5mineralsto
observeandeventuallyidentify.Theywillneedtofillineachboxinthechart,before
lookingatthelistofmineralnames.Thelistofnameswillbepassedoutduringthe
activity,notbefore,topreventthemfromlookingahead.

Lesson2Conclusion(10minutes)

Whenstudentsstarttofinishup,Iwillinstructthemtopleaseputmineralsbackintothe
propercase,intheproperspace.

Iwillgothroughwhateachmineralwas,includingthecorrectname,andanysignature
characteristicsthattheyshouldhaveobserved.Theywillturnintheiridentification
sheet.
Iwillgivethemapreviewofthefollowingday,whichwillbeginrocks,whichare
composedofminerals!

InbetweenLessons:Studentswillbeusingtheirknowledgeofminerals,andapplyitto
mineralresources,includingmining.Rockswillbecoverednext,includingrockcycle,
processesinvolvedintherockcycle,rocktypes,androckidentification.

Lesson3Materials

Largerocksamples(2pergroup,8
groups,16total)
Identificationlabsheet(attached)

Magnifyingglass

Previousnotes/assignmentson
mineralandrockID,RockBook

Lesson3Introduction(15minutes)

Welcome,attendance

Reviewpast2weeks,minerals,mineralidentification,rocktypes,rockidentification,and
rockcycle.

Lesson3MainTeachingActivities(30minutes)

Studentswillbeparticipatinginacapstonerocksandmineralslab.Eachgroupwillbe
giventworocksamples,theirtaskwillbetoidentifyatleast3mineralswithinthatrock,
identifywhatrocktype,andtherockname.Theywillalsobeaskedtomakeaprediction
aboutwhereontheEarththatrockmayhaveformed.Therewillbesomefollowup
questionsaftertheyhavecompletedtheidentification.

Lesson3Conclusion(5minutes)

Studentswillbeaskedtopleasereturntheirsamplestothecorrectplace,andtocleanup
theirworkstations.
Iftheyarefinishedwiththefollowupquestions,Iwillcollectthem,ifnotitwillbe
assignedashomework.
Iwillgivethemapreviewofthefollowingday,whichwillbewatchingJourneytothe
centeroftheEarth(Thanksgivingtreat!)

PartIV:AssessmentofFocusStudents
A.FocusObjective
Identifymineralswithinrocksandapplyknowledgeofmineralcrystalsize,rocktexture,etc.
toidentifywhattypeofrockandwhereitformed.

B.DevelopingAssessmentTasks
Myassessmenttask:TellthestoryofagrainofsandonaLakeMichiganbeach.Itwasonce
silicondioxide(quartz)inmoltenmagmafarunderneaththeEarthssurface.Howdidit
moveandwhathappenedtoitonthewaytowhereitisnow?)
Mentorsassessmenttask:Ifyoufoundarockthathadreallybigmineralcrystalsinit,what
mightyouassumeaboutthetimethosemineralcrystalstooktoform?Why?
Instructors assessment task: 1.Ageologistlooksatarocksampleandsays:Ithinkthatthis
rockformedwhenmagmacooledslowlydeepunderground.
a. Whatdoyouthinkthegeologistnoticedabouttherockthatcausedhertosaythis?
b. Whatkindofrockmightthegeologisthavebeenlookingat?
c. Whatmineralsmightshehavenoticedinthatrock?

PartV:AftertheUnitReport
A.DescriptionofChangesinYourPlans
Basedonfeedbackfromtheinstructor,Ihaveaddedinformationaboutthelessonsthat
willtakeplaceaftermyactivitysequence.Ihavealsoincludedmoreinformationaboutthe
lessonsandactivitiesthatwilltakeplaceinbetweenthestagesofmyactivitysequence.Ihave
alsochangedmyassessmenttask,andaddedassessmenttasksfromtheinstructorandthe
mentor.

B.StoryofWhatHappened
Lesson1:ThislessonwastaughtonaMonday,studentsweretiredandlethargic.This
wasalessonthatwasverylowkey,sothatturnedouttobeagoodthing.Studentsweretotake
Cornellstylenotesonachapterinthebook.Thisisaschoolwidenotetakingstrategy;somost
studentshaveencountereditinmostoftheirclasses.Itisusedwidely,howeveritisnotwidely
likedbystudents.Iwasmetwithalittleresistanceatthebeginningonthelesson,lotsof
moaningandgroaning.Ireadthefirstparagraphaloudandmodeledthenotetakingstrategyon
theboard.Studentsweregiventheremainderoftheclassperiodtocompletethenotes,being
homeworkiftheydidnotfinish.Ittookstudentsabout5minutestosettledown,stop
complaining,andgettowork.Oncetheywereworking,itwasaquiethour,withlotsof
productivity.Moststudentswereabletofinishthenotesinclass.Ihadplannedtofinishthe
notesthatday,butIhadtoextendtheactivityintothenextday.
Lesson2:Ibeganthislessonbycontinuinglesson1.Ipassedouthighlighterstothe
students,andinstructedthemtohighlighttheirnotes,asIwentthroughaPowerPointofthe
material.Aftertheirnoteswerehighlighted,Igavethemtimeinclass(10minutes)towritea
summaryofthenotes.
Oncethenoteswerecompleted,wecouldmoveontothenextactivity,amineral
identificationlab.Studentswereingroupsof45,eachgroupwasequippedwith5mineral
samples,astreakplate,glassscratchplate,nail,magnet,penny,mineralidentificationlabsheet
(attached),minerallabinstructions(attached),andamineralidentificationchart(attached).
Studentsspentthenext2daysidentifyingphysicalpropertiesoftheminerals,recordingthedata,
andusingtheidentificationcharttodeterminethemineralnames.Whengroupswerefinished,
theyweretoraisetheirhandsandIwouldcomearoundandchecktheiranswers.Ioffered2
pointsofextracreditonthelabifanygroupscouldidentifyall5mineralscorrectlyontheirfirst
try.Thiswasaveryfrustratingactivityforsomestudents,Iheardthingslike,Thisistoohard!
Icantdothis!Iwalkedaroundandansweredanypossiblequestions;Imodeledthetechnique
tofindhardness,fracture,etc.Somestudents,includingmyfocusstudentDavis,reallyenjoyed
thelab,theyfeltlikeitwasascavengerhunt,findingcluesandthentryingtofindthemineral
name.However,somestudents,includingGlennandNick,feltdefeatedbytheactivityand
didntwanttoparticipateintheirgroup.Allgroupsdideventuallycompletetheidentifying
process,over2days.Onceallofthemineralswereidentified,therewerelabquestionsthat
studentswereresponsiblefor,individually.
Lesson3:Thislessonoccurredaboutaweekafterthemineralidentificationlesson,in
betweentopicsincludedtherockcycle,rocktypes,andarockidentificationactivity.Forthis

activity,eachgroupofstudentswasgiven2rocks.Theirtaskwastodeterminetherocktype,
identify3mineralsthatarepotentiallyapartofthatrock,andgivetherockname.Thiswasa
secondrockidentificationexperienceforstudents,addinginthemineralelement.Studentshad
noproblemidentifyingtherocktypeandname,butstruggledwhenitcametotheminerals.In
obviousexamples(micaschist)studentswereabletoatleastidentifyonemineral,butinmore
difficultcases(obsidian)theyhadnoidea.Iallowedthemtouseanyresourcesthattheyhad,
makingitalittlelessdifficult,buttheystillstruggled.Mostgroupswereabletoidentify12
mineralsperrock,butonlyonegroupofstudents,whichincludedDavis,wereabletoidentify3
mineralsineachrock.

C.MakingSenseofFocusStudentsResponses
1.Descriptionsoffocusstudents
Pseudonym

Academic
Standing

PersonalDescription

Davis

93%,A

Whitemale,13yearsold,basketballteam,chatty

Glenn

79%,C+

Whitemale,13yearsold

Nick

65%,D

Whitemale,13yearsold

2.ExcellentResponseorRubric
Myassessmenttask:TellthestoryofagrainofsandonaLakeMichiganbeach.Itwasonce
silicondioxide(quartz)inmoltenmagmafarunderneaththeEarthssurface.Howdidit
moveandwhathappenedtoitonthewaytowhereitisnow?)
Moltenmagmacouldcoolunderthesurface,forminganintrusiveigneousrock.Thatrock
couldbeupliftedtothesurface,undergoweatheringanderosion,becomingasediment(grain
ofsand).Thisgrainofsandwastransportedbyarivertothebeachandisnowsandona
beach.
Mentorsassessmenttask:Ifyoufoundarockthathadreallybigmineralcrystalsinit,what
mightyouassumeaboutthetimethosemineralcrystalstooktoform?Why?
Reallybigmineralcrystalsindicatethatittookalongtimetocool.Ifmagmacoolsquickly,
thereisnttimetoformlargecrystals;soslowcoolinggivestimeforcrystalstogrowvery
large.
Instructors assessment task: 1.Ageologistlooksatarocksampleandsays:Ithinkthatthis
rockformedwhenmagmacooledslowlydeepunderground.
a. Whatdoyouthinkthegeologistnoticedabouttherockthatcausedhertosaythis?
b. Whatkindofrockmightthegeologisthavebeenlookingat?

c. Whatmineralsmightshehavenoticedinthatrock?
a.Thegeologistprobablynoticedthattherewerelargemineralcrystals(coarsegrained
texture)
b.Granite,becauseitisacoarsegrainedigneousrock,thatformsunderground
c.Feldspar,mica,quartz
3.FindingandExplainingPatternsinStudentResponses
Davis:Thisfocusstudenthasgoodbackgroundknowledgetodrawonwhennewtopics
areintroduced.Heisveryoutspokenanditiseasytogaugehisunderstandingbasedonthe
thingshesays.Thefirstassessmentquestioncamefrommymentor,andwasaboutthe
relationshipbetweenmineralcrystalsizeandthecoolingrateofmagma/lavainanigneous
rock.Myfocusstudentseemstoknowtherelationship,butdoesnotdescribewhy.This
indicatestomethathehaslearnedtheconcept,butprobablywouldhaveahardtime
applyingittoanothersituation,becausehedoesntunderstandthelogicbehindthe
relationship.Inrelationtothefocusobjective,thisstudentwouldbeabletoidentifythe
relationshipbetweencrystalsizeandtexture,butnotwhereitformed.

Myassessmentwasdoneelectronically;studentssubmittedtheiranswerstoadropbox.
Magmacancoolunderneaththesurface,orcomeoutofavolcanoaslavaandformabove
thesurface.Ithinkthismagmacameoutofavolcanoandformedanigneousrockonthe
surface.Thisrockwasthenwornawayintosediments,andtransportedbyariver,and
depositedonthebeach.Thisstudentshowsanunderstandingofthebasicrockcycle,rocks
canbechangedintodifferenttypesofrocks,byprocessesthataredrivenbyenergy.Hehas
usedafewbuzzwords(igneous,sediments,transport,deposit),whichindicatessome
knowledgeofthevocabularyassociatedwiththerockcycle.Hehasntmadeanyerrorsin
hisreasoning,butalsodidntuseallofthecorrect,scientificlanguagethatwastaughtin
class.Ifgivenanotherscenario(startingatadifferentpointintherockcycle),Ithinkhe
coulddevelopalogicalstoryline.
Thethirdassessmentwasgivenaspartofashortanswersectionontheunittest.a.
Largecrystalsb.Igneousrock,maybegranitebecausegraniteformsinsidetheEarthc.Mica
becauseitisshiny,andquartzbecausequartzisineverythingThisstudenthasprovidedall
correctanswers,justwithoutthedepththatwouldsignifythathehasacomplete
understanding.Hehasconnectedthatifitcooledslowlyunderground,itwouldhavelarge
crystals,butdidnotfurtherconnectthattothevocabularyoftexture,coarsegrained.Hehas
identifiedithasanigneousrock,formedfromcoolingmagma,andhasprovideda
completelyplausiblerock,duetohisknowledgeofwhererocksform.Hehascorrectly
identifiedminerals,butwithsomesketchylogic.Micaisshiny,butisalsoacommon
mineralfoundingranite,asisquartz,asasilicatearemuchmorecommonthannonsilicate

minerals.Thisstudenthasusedthequestiontocorrectlyidentifythecrystalsize(without
mentioningtexture),andcorrectlyidentifiedarocktypeusingthatcrystalsize,andthegiven
information(whereitformed).
Glenn:Thisstudentstartedouttheyearstrongly,buthasrecentlygottenintoafunk,not
turninginassignments,andnotpayingattention.Thisfirstassessmentshowsthatheisable
torelatetheconceptsfromclasstoanewscenario,withsomedifficulties.Hecorrectly
identifiedthatittookalongtimeforlargecrystalstoform;howeverusingthecomparison
fromclassisnotthemostaccurate.Largecrystalsinanigneousrockcouldtake100s,
1000s,etc.yearstoform,using2weeksasacomparisonshowsalackofunderstandingof
thelargerpicture.

Thisfocusstudentdidnotsubmitaresponseforthesecondassessment.
a.Bigcrystalsb.igneousc.quartz,itiscommonThisstudentwasabletoidentifythat
arockthatcooledslowlyundergroundwouldhavelargecrystals,butdidnotconnectthatto
atypeoftexture.Hewasabletoidentifytherocktype,butnospecificrockname.Hehas
identifiedamineral,whichiscommon,butwasunabletoexplainwhythatmineralwouldbe
apartoftherock.Inregardstotheobjective,thisstudentcouldnotconnectthecrystalsize
towhereitformed(giveninquestion),butcouldnotextendthatknowledgetoaspecificrock
name.Hewasalsounabletolinkmineraltypestotherocktype,basedonwhereandhow
theyform.
Nick:Thisfocusstudentisastudentwhogenerallyturnsinwork,justwithalackof
quality,whichisprobablyareflectionofthequalityofhisunderstanding.Thefirst
assessmentwasansweredwithacorrectresponse,butlackingintheexplanation.He
correctlyidentifiedthatitwouldtakealongtime,butprovidedageneralexplanationtowhy,
indicatingthathedoesnothaveanunderstandingofthesciencebehindtherelationship.

Agrainofsandprobablycamefromasandstone,becausesandstoneismadeofsand.It
brokeandnowthesandisatthebeach.Thisstudentexhibitsnoknowledgeoftherock
cycle,hepassedovertheinformationaboutmagmaandjustwentstraighttosomethingthat
soundedfamiliar.Thisstudentseessandstoneastheonlyplacesandwouldbeinvolvedin

therockcycle,hedoesntunderstandthecycleaspect,thatallmatterintherockcyclehas
beenchanged,inadifferentplace,etc.Thestudentonlyusedonerelevantword(sandstone)
anddidnotuseitinthecorrectapplication.
a.Bigcrystalsb.sedimentaryc.IdontknowThisstudentisabletoidentifythatifa
rockcoolsslowlythattheirwillbelargecrystals,howeverhecannotmaketheconnection
thatarockformedbycoolingisanigneousrock.Basedonhisanswers,Ithinkheis
attemptingtoapplyhisknowledgeofchemicalsedimentaryrocks(formfromevaporationof
mineralrichwater)andtheideathatevaporationrateaffectscrystalsizeinthesameway
coolingdoes.Hecannotidentifyanyminerals,indicatingtomethathedoesnotunderstand
howmineralsandrocksareconnected(rocksaremadeofminerals).

D.ImprovementsPartsIIV
ThefirstthingthatIwouldchangewouldbetheobjective.Itendedupbeingtoobroad
ofanobjective,andmoststudentsstruggledtoachieveit.Itinvolvedalotofdifferentconcepts
alltiedintooneobjective,ifstudentdidntunderstandoneofthoseconcepts,theywouldbe
unabletomeetthewholeobjective.IfIweretodothissequenceoveragain,Iwouldalterthe
objectivetobelesscomprehensive,andmoresequenceoriented.Thiswouldhavebeenagood
unitgoal,buttoomuchcontentforjustoneactivitysequence.
ThesecondthingthatIwouldchangewouldbetheamountoftimespentin
betweenlessons.Thewaythissequencewassetup,mineralswerecoveredfirst,andthenrocks.
ThisleftaboutaweekinbetweenthestepsofmyTOPE.IthinkthatifIwerebetterableto
incorporatebothtopics(rocks/minerals)intocohesivelessons,studentswouldhavebeenbetter
preparedtoconquertheexplanationoftheinquirysequence.Thematerialswerepresentedina
ratherdisjointedfashion,soattheendwhenitwasallsupposedtotietogether,somestudents
wereunabletoseetheconnections.
Thethird,andfinal,thingIwouldchangewouldbethemethodofassessment.Iusedan
onlinedropboxtypemethodforoneoftheassessmentsusedintheunit.Studentsweregivenan
assignmentonlineandsubmittedtheiranswerselectronically.Ithinkthisdrasticallyreducedthe
amountoftimetheyspentthinkingaboutandansweringthequestion.Idontbelievethatmy
studentstakeusingtechnologyasseriouslyasamorecommonassignment.Theythinkof
technologyasanextraandthereforegenerallydontputinasmuchworkwhenusingit.I
wouldliketochangethemodeoftheassessment,andgiveitasawrittenquestion.Withwriting,
studentsmaytakemoretimeandputmorethoughtintoansweringthequestion.Thiswould
hopefullyleadtoadeeperthoughtprocess,andeventuallyabetterunderstandingoftheconcept
(a.k.a.betteranswer).

E.ImprovementsinYourUnderstandingofScienceTeaching
ThemostimportantthingthatIlearnedaboutteachingscienceduringthissequenceis
thatallconceptsmustbewoventogethertocreateanunderstandingofthetopic.Inthis
example,theconceptsrelatedtomineralidentificationwerecarriedoverintothestudyofrocks.
Mineralpropertiesandcharacteristicswereusedinidentifyingrocktypesandenvironmentsin
whichtheyformed.Ifstudentswentintotherockunitwithoutasolidunderstandingofminerals,
theywouldnothavehadagoodplatformtobuildtheirunderstandingon.Teachingthis

sequencereallyexhibitedtometheimportanceofscienceconceptsbuildingononeanother,
whichisanidea,whichIbelievetobetrueinallsciences,notjustEarthscience.
AnotherimportantthingthatIlearnedwasthatstudentswillpickupdifferentconceptsat
differentrates,andtheamountoftimespentonthingswillchange,basedonhowwellornot
wellstudentsunderstand.Mystudentsendedupreallygettingtheconceptofcoolingrate
affectingcrystalsize.Ihadawholeotheractivityplanned,thatIneverimplementedbecause
theyreallyunderstoodtheconceptandwerereadytomoveontoapplyingtheknowledge.Inthe
sameway,therewillbetimeswhenstudentsdontgrasptheconceptsandmoretimewillneedto
bespent.

Attachments
Lesson2:MineralIdentificationLabinstructions

Identifying Physical Properties of Minerals


Problem: Can minerals be identified using specific physical
properties?
Procedure
1. Examine each mineral and record its color.
2. Examine each mineral again and record its luster
3. Rub each mineral across the steak plate. Observe the
color of the streak.
1. Be sure to wipe the streak plate clean before you test
the next mineral.
2. Record the color of each minerals streak. Some
minerals will scratch the streak late. If a mineral
scratches the plate, write no streak in the
appropriate place in the chart.

b. Observe the mineral carefully. Are there any visible breaks


in the sample? If so record whether the break is a fracture
or cleavage.
c. Examine the relative hardness of the mineral by using your
fingernail, a copper penny, a steel nail, and a piece of
glass. The approximate hardness values of these items
relative to the Mohs Hardness Scale are shown in the table
below.
d. Record the name of each mineral.
Common Objects and Their Hardness Values
2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

8.0

Fingernail

Penny

Iron nail

Glass

Quartz

Lesson2:MineralIdentificationLabsheet

Mineral
Classification
Worksheet
#

Colo Luster
Strea Fractur Hardness
r
(metallic/non k
e or
(Mohs
metallic)
cleava Number)
ge
Mineral name
1
2
3
4
5

Lesson2:MineralIdentificationChart
METALLIC TO SUBMETALLIC MINERALS
FRACT
URE
CLEAV
AGE

STREAK

COLOR

yellow

yellow,

or
brown

brown,
black

HARDN
ESS

FRACTUR
E

LUSTER

DIAPHAN
EITY

CLEAVAGE
one
5 - 5.5

direction
indistinct

submetalli
c

transluce
nt

OTHER
PROPERT
IES
silky,
fibrous
appearanc

SPECI
FIC
GRAVI
TY
3.3
-4.3

MINERAL
NAME

GOETHITE

e
white,
yellow,
or brown
CLEAV
AGE
colorless

black

white,
red
yellow,
brown,
green,
black
dark
green,
dark
brown,

perfect
3.5 - 4

cleavage in

transluce
nt

6 directions

tough,

2.8 3.2

BIOTITE

flexible
marks
paper,
soils
fingers,

2.23

GRAPHITE

5.02

PYRITE

5.56

HEMATITE

black,

cleavage

metallic

sometimes

or
submetalli
c

opaque

metallic

opaque

indistinct
conchoidal

black

brassy
yellow

6 - 6.5

fracture

reddish

red
-brown,
black,

5 - 6.5

fracture

silver
black

SPHALERI
TE

transluce
nt

or black

1-2

3.9 4.1

thin flakes,
submetalli
c

cleavage in
one
direction

silver,

2.5 - 3

looks like
resin

perfect

or gray

black

brittle,
submetalli
c

slippery
sometimes

metallic
or
submetalli
c
metallic

opaque

in crystal
shapes
sometimes
oolitic or
magnetic
strongly

fracture

or
submetalli
c

opaque

magnetic

5.18

MAGNETIT
E

brownish

fracture

metallic

opaque

weakly
magnetic

4.58 4.65

PYRRHOTI
TE

brassy
yellow

3.5 - 4

fracture

metallic

opaque

brittle

4.1 4.3

CHALCOP
YRITE

5.0
-5.1

BORNITE

or
silver

FRACT
URE
black
greenish
black

brassy
with
black

iridescent
colors

indistinct
3

cleavage

iridescent
metallic

opaque

peacock
colors

NONMETALLIC MINERALS
HARDNESS (7 - 4)

STREAK

COLOR

HARDN
ESS

FRACTUR
E

LUSTER

DIAPHAN
EITY

vitreous dull

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

vitreous

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

CLEAVAGE
white
or
colorless
white
or
colorless
white

green
to
black
white,
gray,
pink,
clear,
green,
yellow
white,
gray

one
6-7

direction
indistinct
two

6 - 6.5

directions
at 90
degrees
two

OTHER
PROPERT
IES

MINERAL
NAME

typically
pistachio
green

3.35
-3.4

EPIDOTE

2.5 2.6

ORTHOCL
ASE

few if
any
striations

transpare
nt,

SPECI
FIC
GRAVI
TY

striations

or

clear,
blue

colorless

green

white

colorless,

or
colorless

gray,
white
green,
gray

5.5 - 6

brown,
black

5 - 5.5

greenish
CLEAV
AGE
colorless

brown,
dark
green,

yellow

black
yellow,

or
brown

white

white
to
gray
white,
yellow,
or brown

white

brown,
or black
green,
brown
yellow,
pink
violet,
etc.
greenish,
yellowish
,
black
white,
red
yellow,
brown
green,
black
pink,
white
gray,
and
others

5-6

5 - 5.5

directions
at 90
degrees

greasy -

direction
indistinct
two
directions
intersects
at
90 degrees
two
directions
intersects
at
56 & 124
degrees
one

vitreous

3-5

3.5 - 4

cleavage in
one
direction

3.5 - 4

PLAGIOCL
ASE

2.6 2.65

NEPHELIN
E

3.2 3.6

AUGITE

3.0 3.4

HORNBLE
NDE

3.3 4.3

GOETHITE

3.1 3.2

APATITE

2.3

SERPENTI
NE

3.9 4.1

SPHALERI
TE

2.85

DOLOMITE

softer than
quartz,
cleavage

translusc
ent

brittle
appears

translusc
ent

vitreous

fibrous
or silky
appears

dull to
admantin
e

translusc
ent

vitreous

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

fibrous
or silky
brittle,
fractured
masses

greasy

direction
indistinct

to
waxy

perfect

resinous

6 directions

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

to
dull

one

cleavage in

2.6
-2.8

vitreous

poor
5

on
cleavage
faces

one

direction
indistinct

translusc
ent

vitreous

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

vitreous

rhombic

pearly

sometimes
fibrous
brittle,

translusc
ent

to
adamanti
ne

3 direction,

varigated,

looks like
resin

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

indistinct

HCl fizz
only with
powder

NONMETALLIC MINERALS
HARDNESS (4 - 1)

STREAK

COLOR

HARDN
ESS

FRACTUR
E

LUSTER

DIAPHAN
EITY

vitreous

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

vitreouspearly

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

CLEAVAGE

white

white

any color
clear,
yellow
purple,
blue
white,
gray
red,
brown
clear, etc.
white,
gray

perfect
4

four

OTHER
PROPERT
IES

SPECI
FIC
GRAVI
TY

MINERAL
NAME

sometimes
fluorescent

3.18

FLUORITE

4.3 4.6

BARITE

directions
perfect
3 - 3.5

3 directions
small faces
perfect

transpare
nt,

very heavy
for
a
nonmetallic
mineral
breaks
rhombic

white

green,
yellow

colorless

clear, etc.
dark
green
dark
brown

3
directions,

vitreouspearly

translusc
ent

nonmetalli
c

translusc
ent

transpare
nt

"rhombic"
perfect

or black
colorless

yellow to

perfect

vitreous

to

brown in
thin
sheets

in
one
direction

to

gray

greenish,

to

gray,

green

black
clear,
white
yellowish
,
silvery,
etc.

colorless

2.5 - 3

2.5 - 3

2 - 2.5

white

perfect
2 - 2.5

white

white

gray,
yellowish
white,
gray

2 - 2.5

blue, red

2 - 2.5

clear
white,
gray
brown,
red
clear &
others
green,
gray
white,
silver
& other
colors

pearly

1.5 - 2

cleavage in
one
direction
one
direction
but usually
indistinct

2.71

CALCITE

tough,

2.8 3.2

BIOTITE

flexible
frequently
a
copper like

2.68

PHLOGOPI
TE

vitreous
dull pearly

2.6 3.3

CHLORITE

2.7 3.0

MUSCOVIT
E

2.6

KAOLINITE

2.16

HALITE

2.3 2.4

GYPSUM

2.7 2.8

TALC

luster
transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

indistinct

white,
white

perfect in
one
direction

HCl
reaction
double
refraction
thin flakes,

cleavage in
one
direction

white
CLEAV
AGE

vitreous
to

dull,
earthy
vitreous

3 directions
at 90
degrees

to

scaly
appearanc
e
splits

transpare
nt

pearly

perfect

foliated or

translusc
ent
transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

into thin
sheets
plastic
when wet
crumbly
when
dry
water
soluble,
tastes salty

pearly
transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

perfect in
one
direction

vitreous

2 indistinct
one
direction

pearly
pearly

translusc
ent,

but usually

to

opaque

indistinct

greasy

to

sometimes
as
fibrous
masses
feels
greasy,
tiny flakes
upon
rubbing

NONMETALLIC MINERALS
HARDNESS (9 - 1)

STREAK

COLOR

HARDN
ESS

FRACTUR
E

LUSTER

DIAPHAN
EITY

CLEAVAGE
brown,
colorless

pink, blue

colorless

& others
black,
green
brown,

fracture,

vitreous

sometimes

to
adamanti
ne

with parting
7 - 7.5

fracture

vitreous

transpare
nt,
translusc
ent

OTHER
PROPERT
IES
sometimes
has
hexagonal

SPECI
FIC
GRAVI
TY

MINERAL
NAME

4.02

CORUNDU
M

3.02 -

TOURMALI

crystals
transpare
nt,
to

sometimes
striations

colorless

colorless

pink
yellow
usually
red,
green,
black
or any
color
any color

6.5 - 7.5

fracture

conchoidal
fracture

FRACT
URE

colorless

green,
brown
red brown,
silver,
or black

reddish

5 - 6.5

fracture

fracture

white

brown,
or black
white,
gray
yellow,
red
brown

3.5 4.3

GARNET

opaque
transpare
nt
to
translusc
ent
transpare
nt

crystals
sometimes
has
hexagonal

2.65

QUARTZ

to
translusc
ent

as granular

3.27 4.27

OLIVINE

5.26

HEMATITE

2.7 4.3

LIMONITE

2.00 2.55

BAUXITE

to

to

resinous
vitreous
to

vitreous

dull

opaque
translusc
ent,

yellow,
yellowishbrown

isometric

sometimes

conchoidal
6.5 - 7

NE

vitreous

greasy
olive,

3.2
opaque
transpare
nt,

4 - 5.5

fracture

dull

opaque

crystals
frequently

masses
sometimes
oolitic or
magnetic
earthy
color and
appearanc
e

translusc
ent,
1-3

fracture

dull earthy

opaque

pisolitic

Lesson3:IdentificationLabSheet
Rock#

1.
2.

Mineral#1

Mineral#2

Mineral#3

RockType

(Igneous,
Sedimentary,
Metamorphic)

RockName

Questions
1. Usingyourobservations,whereonEarthmightrock#1haveformed?Underwhattypeof
conditionscouldthistypeofrockform?Howcanyoudeterminethis?
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
2. WhereonEarthmightrock#2haveformed?Underwhattypeofconditionscouldthis
typeofrockform?
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
3. Whatmineralsarecommonlyfoundinigneousrocks?Sedimentary?Metamorphic?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4.Ageologistlooksatarocksampleandsays:Ithinkthatthisrockformedwhen
magmacooledslowlydeepunderground.
a) Whatdoyouthinkthegeologistnoticedabouttherockthatcausedhertosaythis?
b) Whatkindofrockmightthegeologisthavebeenlookingat?
c) Whatmineralsmightshehavenoticedinthatrock?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

1. GradingRubric
SummaryComments
Commentsonspecificsections.Criteriaforgradingarethebulletedlistsineachsection.
I:Abstract
IIA:Bigideas
IIB:Practices
IIC:Performance
expectations
IIIA:Storyline
IIIB:Stepsinactivity
sequence
IIIC:Lessonmaterialsand
activities
IV:Assessmenttasks
VA:Storyofwhat
happened
VB:Analysisoffocus
studentresponses
VC:Improvementsfor
nexttime
VD:Improvementsin
yourunderstanding
FinalGrade=