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# Reaction Energy

Specific Heat
The specific heat of any substance is
the amount of heat required to raise
the temperature of one gram of that
substance by one degree Celsius.
Because different substances have
different compositions, each
substance has its own specific heat.

## Exothermic and Endothermic

Exothermic: Heat flows out of
the system (to the surroundings).
The value of q is negative.
Endothermic: Heat flows into the
system (from the surroundings).
The value of q is positive.

Specific Heat

q = m Cp T
q = heat (J)
Cp = specific heat (J/(g.C)
m = mass (g)
T = change in temperature = Tf

Ti

(C)

Measuring Heat
Heat changes that occur during
chemical and physical processes can
be measured accurately and precisely
using a calorimeter.
A calorimeter is an insulated device
used for measuring the amount of
heat absorbed or released during a
chemical or physical process.

A coffee-cup
calorimeter
made of two
Styrofoam cups.

Phase Changes
Melting

Soli
d

Vaporizati
on

Liqui
d
Freezin
g

Gas

Condensati
on

Sublimation
Melting

Soli
d

Vaporizati
on

Liqui
d

Gas

Freezin
Condensati
g
on
Deposition

## Freezing, condensation and

deposition are exothermic
processes (heat is released).
Melting, vaporization and
sublimation are endothermic
processes (heat is absorbed).

Latent Heat
q = m Hv
q = m Hf
Hv = latent heat of vaporization (J/g)
Hf = latent heat of fusion (J/g)

## Energy and Phase Change

Latent heat of vaporization (Hv) is the
energy required to change one gram
of a substance from liquid to gas.
Latent heat of fusion (Hf) is the
energy required to change one gram
of a substance from solid to liquid.

## Specific Heat Problem

1) The temperature of a sample of iron
with a mass of 10.0 g changed from
50.4C to 25.0C with the release of
114 J heat. What is the specific heat
of iron?

q = 10.0
m Ciron (25.0
T 50.4)
-114
Ciron = 0.449 J/gC

## Specific Heat Problem

2) A piece of metal absorbs 256 J of
heat when its temperature increases
by 182C. If the specific heat of the
metal is 0.301 J/gC, determine the
mass of the metal.

m = 4.67 g

## Specific Heat Problem

3) If 335 g water at 65.5C loses 9750 J
of heat, what is the final temperature
of the water?

Tf = 58.5 C

## Specific Heat Problem

4) As 335 g of aluminum at 65.5C gains
heat, its final temperature is 300.C.
Determine the energy gained by the
aluminum.

q = 70500 J

## Latent Heat Problem

5) How much heat does it take to melt
12.0 g of ice at 0 C?

q = 12.0
m (334)
Hf
q = 4010 J

## Latent Heat Problem

6) How much heat must be removed to
condense 5.00 g of steam at 100 C?

q = 5.00
m (2260)
Hv
q = 11300 J

## Latent Heat Problem

7) If 335 J of heat are added to melting
5.00 g of gold, what is the latent heat
of fusion for gold in J/g?

Lf = 67 J/g

## Latent Heat Problem

8) The latent heat of fusion for platinum
is 119 J/g. Platinum absorbs 735 J of
heat. What is the mass of platinum?

m = 6.18 g

HEATING AND
COOLING CURVES

regions.

changes occur.
vaporization

melting

is constant.

melting

## Kinetic energy increases on any

diagonal line, and potential energy
increases on any horizontal line.

melting

## The melting point temperature is equal

to the freezing point temperature. The
boiling point is the same as the
temperature where condensation takes
place.

melting

## Use q = m Cp T for all diagonal lines.

Use q = m Hf for melting and q = m Hv
for boiling.

melting

regions.

melting

## For a cooling curve, kinetic energy

decreases on any diagonal line, and
potential energy decreases on any
horizontal line.

melting

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
9. What is the freezing point of the
substance?

FP = 5C

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
10. What is the melting point of the
substance?

MP = 5C

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
11. What is the boiling point of the
substance?

BP = 15C

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
12. What letter represents the
temperature where the solid is being
heated?
A

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
13. What letter represents the
temperature where the vapor is being
heated?
E

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
14. What letter represents the
temperature where the liquid is being
heated?
C

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
15. What letter represents the melting
of the solid?

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
16. What letters show a change in
kinetic energy?

A, C and E

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
17. What letter represents condensation?

## 18. What is the melting point of this substance?

19. At what time do the particles of this sample have the lowest average kinetic energy?

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
18. What is the freezing point of this
substance?

FP = 90C

## 18. What is the melting point of this substance?

19. At what time do the particles of this sample have the lowest average kinetic energy?

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
19. At what time do the particles of
this sample have the lowest average
kinetic energy?
16 min

## 18. What is the melting point of this substance?

19. At what time do the particles of this sample have the lowest average kinetic energy?

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
20. How many minutes does it take the
substance to condense?

4 min

## Heating/Cooling Curve Problem

melting
21. What is the temperature range for
the substance to be a vapor?

## Heating Curve for Water

Section D:
Section A:
Water
is C:
Section
Section
B: Boiling.
Ice is being
heated
Water is
ice
to theThe
melting
being heated
is
melting.
point.
to the boiling
Section E:
point.
Steam is
being heated.

Heating Curve
for D
WaterSection E
Section
Section
Section
B
C q = mHv q = m Cp T(gas)
Section A
qq==mH
m fCp T(liquid)
q = m Cp T(solid)

Solving Problems

For water:

Heat
Ice
Below
0 C

Melt
Ice
At
0 C

Heat
Water

Boil
Water

100 C

At
100 C

+
0 C -

Heat
Steam

+ Above

100 C

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat

22) How much heat does it take to heat
12 g of ice at 6 C to 25 C water?
Round to a whole number.

## You begin at ice below 0 C. Note:

The final temperature for this
process cannot exceed 0 C.

q= 1
m2(2.05)
Cice (0
T- 6)
q = 148 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

12 g of ice at 6 C to 25 C water?
Round to a whole number.

## Since the temperature needs to rise

to 25 C, you must melt the ice next.

q = 12
m (334)
Hf
q = 4008 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

12 g of ice at 6 C to 25 C water?
Round to a whole number.

## You now have water at 0 C. The

final temperature of the water should
be 25 C.

q = 12
m (4.18)
Cwater (25
T - 0)
q = 1254 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

12 g of ice at 6 C to 25 C water?
Round to a whole number.

together.

q = 5410 J

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat

23) How much heat does it take to heat
35 g of ice at 0 C to steam at 150 C?
Round to a whole number.

## You begin with ice at 0 C, so you

should melt it first.

q = 35(334)
m Hf
q = 11690 J

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat, cont.

How much heat does it take to heat 35 g of
ice at 0 C to steam at 150 C? Round to a
whole number.
You now have water at 0 C. The final
temperature of the steam is to be 150 C.
You must take the water to 100 C before
you can even convert it to steam.

q = 35
m (4.18)(100
Cwater T - 0)
q = 14630 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

35 g of ice at 0 C to steam at 150 C?
Round to a whole number.

## Now you have water at 100 C.

Convert this to steam.

q = 35
m (2260)
Hv
q = 79100 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

35 g of ice at 0 C to steam at 150 C?
Round to a whole number.

100 C to 150 C.

q = 35
m (2.02)(150
Cice T - 100)
q = 3535 J

## How much heat does it take to heat

35 g of ice at 0 C to steam at 150 C?
Round to a whole number.

together.

q = 108955 J

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat

24) How much heat does it take to
convert 16.0 g of ice to water at 0 C?

(5340 J)

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat

25) How much heat does it take to heat
21.0 g of water at 12.0 C to water at
75.0 C?

(5530 J)

## Specific Heat and Latent Heat

26) How much heat does it take to heat
14.0 g of water at 12.0 C to steam at
122.0 C?

(37400 J)

Calorimetry

## For calorimetry problems, use the

equation:
m Cp T = m Cp T
which is based on the law of
conservation of energy.
Heat lost equals heat gained.

Calorimetry Problem
27) 125 g of water at 25.6C is placed
in a foam-cup calorimeter. A 50.0 g
sample of the unknown metal is
heated to a temperature of 115.0C
and placed into the water. Both
water and metal attain a final
temperature of 29.3C. Determine
the specific heat of the metal.

## 125 g of water at 25.6C is placed in a foam-cup

calorimeter. A 50.0 g sample of the unknown metal is
heated to a temperature of 115.0C and placed into the
water. Both water and metal have attain a final
temperature of 29.3C. Determine the specific heat of
the metal.

q = 125
m (4.18)
Cwater (29.3
T 25.6)
q = 1930 J

## 125 g of water at 25.6C is placed in a foam-cup

calorimeter. A 50.0 g sample of the unknown metal
is heated to a temperature of 115.0C and placed
into the water. Both water and metal have attain a
final temperature of 29.3C. Determine the specific
heat of the metal.

## Since heat lost equals heat gained,

determine the specific heat of the metal.

m Cmetal (29.3
T 115.0)
-1930q == 50.0
Cmetal = 0.450 J/gC

Calorimetry Problem
28) You put 352 g of water into a foamcup calorimeter and find that its
initial temperature is 22.0C. What
mass of 134C lead can be placed in
the water so that the equilibrium
temperature is 26.5C?

m = 477 g

Calorimetry Problem
29) You put water into a foam-cup
calorimeter and find that its initial
temperature is 25.0C. What is the
mass of the water if 14.0 grams of
125C nickel can be placed in the
water so that the equilibrium
temperature is 27.5C?

m = 58.0 g