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I would like to express my greatest gratitude to
the people who have helped & supported me
throughout my project. I am grateful to my
teacher Ms.Tina for her continuous support for
the project, from initial advice & contacts in the
early stages of conceptual inception & through
ongoing advice & encouragement to this day.
A special thank of mine goes to my colleague who
helped me in completing the project & she
exchanged her interesting ideas, thoughts & made
this project easy and accurate.
I wish to thank my parents for their undivided
support and interest who inspired me and
encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I
would be unable to complete my project. At last
but not the least I want to thank my friends who
appreciated me for my work and motivated me and
finally to God who made all the things possible...


Certified that this is the bonafide work of

has completed the project under my guidance.

To the best of my knowledge and belief

this is her original piece of work and
has not been submitted elsewhere.

In our daily life there are so many unhygienic and

contaminated things for our health. Most of our things our
contaminated. Even the food, which we eat, is adulterated.
Now a question arises that what is adulteration? The answer
is that the deliberate contamination of food material with
low quality, cheap and non-edible or toxic substances is
called food adulteration. The substance, which lowers or
degrades the quality of food material, is called an
adulterant. Adulteration brings a lot of easy money for the
traders, but it may spoil many lives. Food adulteration can
lead to slow poisoning and various kinds of diseases, which
can even result in death. Adulteration makes the food items
used in our daily life unsafe and unhygienic for use. An easy
example of food adulteration is vanaspati ghee in desi ghee.
The traders use it for their economic benefit without
thinking about its effect on the common population of our
country, which consumes it. For preventing it our
government has made some certain commissions and laws.
Still it prevails in our country on large scale. Adulteration
should be checked properly in common food items so as to
save people from its bad effects. Adulteration is the
government and we for the common people therefore
something should do a type of curse against it.
In our country, the most common type of food adulterations is of following
1. Milk: - It is adulterated by the addition of water, starch, skim milk powder
and removal of cream.
2. Ghee: - It is adulterated with vanaspati and animal fats such as pig's fat.
In order to improve the flavor of adulterated ghee tributyrin is added.
3. Cereals :- Rice and wheat are mixed with stones sand grit and mud to
increase the bulk.
4. Flour :- Wheat flour is mixed with soapstone and Bengal gram flour is
adulterated with Kesari dal or lathyrus flour.
5. Pulses :- They are adulterated with Kesari Dal stones are added to pulses
such as mott urad, and masoor. Toxic chemical such as metanil yellow are
added to old stocks of pulses to improve their colour appearance.
6. Edible Oil :- They are mixed with cheaper oil, toxic oil (e.g. argemone oil)
and mineral oil.
7. Honey :- It is adulterated with sugar and jaggery.
Material required
1. Glass Wares
➢ Test Tube, Beaker, Slides
2. Food Samples
➢ Ghee, Milk, Oil, Pulses samples, sugar, salt, tea, red chilli
powder, turmeric powder, pepper
3. Chemical Required
➢ Conc. HCl., Conc. Nitric Acid
4. Test Tube stand
5. Distilled water
6. Flasks
➢ Flat bottom flask, conical flask
7. Measuring cylinder
8. Thermometer
Adulteration in the food material can be detected in
the following ways.
1. Vanaspti in Ghee :- Took one tea spoon full of liquid
ghee. Added equal quantity of conc. HCl shook this mixture in a
test tube. Now added a pinch of common sugar. Shook it well
for about one minute and then allowed it to stand for 5 minute
and observed the result.
2.Starch in the given sample of milk:-
Presence of starch in milk can be detected by exploiting the
formation of blue colour complex with Iodine 5ml. of milk was
taken in a test tube and was boiled and after cooling a few
drops of iodine solution or tincture of iodine were added and
the contents were shaken , appearance of blue colour indicated
the presence of starch in the milk.
3. Agremone oil in edible oil :- Took some
amount of edible oil in a test tube. Poured 3-4 drops of conc.
nitric acid. Shook it well and observed the result.
4. Metanil yellow in Dal :- Took 5 gms of
sample. Add 5ml of water and a few drops of dil. HCl and
observed the result.
5. Adulterants in Sugar:-to the sample of
sugar,20cc of water was added and presence of unstable
substance and observed the result.
6. Adulterants in turmeric powder:-
To the small quantity of turmeric powder conc. HCL was added
and observed the result.
7.Dried papaya’s seed in pepper:-to
the glass full of water the sample was added dried papaya’s
seed being lighter floats over water while the pure pepper
seeds settle at the bottom.
8.Chalk powder in salt:-to the sample of salt
some water was added and observed the result.
TABLE A:-Detection of vanaspati ghee in butter
1. To a small quantity of fat, few drops of 2% alcoholic solution of
furfural were added and the mixture is shaken vigorously.
Appearance of red colour in the acid layers confirms the
presence of vanaspati ghee in the sample.
TABLE B:-Presence of starch in given sample of milk
1. If it is pure then there will be a deep yellow colouration due to
casein, a protein of milk.
TABLE C:-Agremone oil in edible oil
1. The given sample had appearance of oil.
TABLE D:-Metanil yellow in dal
1. The given sample turned yellow in colour.

Table E:-Detection of adulterant in SUGAR

1. When sugar was dissolved in water, insoluble substance was

2. Sugar adulterated with washing soda.

Table F:-Adulterants in turmeric powder

1. The presence of yellow dye was observed because of yellow


Table G:-Presence of dried papaya seed in pepper

1. Some seeds were floating over water and were tested .They
were dried papaya’ seeds.

Table H:-Presence of chalk powder in salt

1. Undissolved material present which was settled to the bottom

showing that salt was adulterated.
 Oils catch fire easily. So, they
should be heated carefully.
 Test tube should be held with test
tube holder while doing the
 All the solids should be liquefied
before doing any reaction by
 Sugar and dal should be powdered
before using.
By these tests, we can test the adulterant in
the common food and save our health from any
kind of disease!!!
Laboratory manual
• C

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