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Development

of Plot Plan
Basis of Site Selection
1. Location
1.1 Area Allocation
1.2 Transport Facilities
1.3 Manpower availability
2. Industrial Infrastructure
3. Community Infrastructure
4. Availability of Water
5. Availability of Power
6. Effluent Disposal
7. Availability of Industrial Gas
8. Site Size
9. Ecology
10. Pollution
Plot plan is master plan locating each unit/facility within
the plot boundary for process industry such as…

1. Refinery
2. Chemical /Agro Chemical / Petro Chemical / Organic
Chemical / Inorganic Chemical
3. Fertilizer
4. Pharmaceutical
5. Metallurgical
6. Power Generation
Data to be collected before starting
1.1 Civil
1.1.1. Plane table survey map.
1.1.2. Contour survey map(at 10M grid).
1.1.3. Soil Bearing capacity.
1.1.4. Nature of Soil
1.1.5. Rail/Road Access.
Data to be collected before starting

1.2 Electrical
1.2.1. Location of Electric Supply Point.
1.2.2. Supply voltage levels.
1.2.3. Fault Levels.
1.2.4. Voltage Levels required within the unit.
1.2.5. Proposed distribution scheme.
1.3 Non Plant Facilities
 Administrative Block
 Canteen
 Workshop
 R&D, QC Lab and Pilot Plant
 Gate House/Time office
 Security Arrangements
 Vehicle Parking
 Medical Centre
 Ware House
 Covered Area

 Open Area

 Solid Warehouse

 Liquid Warehouse

 Steel / Scrap Yard


 Fire Station
 Weigh Bridge
 Staff Colony
1.4 Meteorological Data

 Minimum, Maximum and Normal Temperature during the


year
 Rainfall
 Intensity and Direction of the wind(wind rose)
 Seismic zone
 Wet and Dry Bulb temperatures
 Flood level
1.5 Process Data
 Size/Capacity of the process unit
 Knowledge on the type of plant
 Sequence of process flow
 Hazardous nature of the plant
 The Overall operating philosophy
 Fully Automatic

 Partially Automatic

 Manual

 Batch/Continuous

 Raw material receipt and product dispatch philosophy


 Storage Philosophy
 Effluent plant capacity and discharge points, incirneration
requirements, etc.
 Type of Hazard
 No of flares
1.6 Data on Utilities
 Source and/or supply point of raw water
 Quality of Water available
 Water Consumption for the process
 Requirement of different types of utilities such as Steam, Air,
Nitrogen, DM water, Brine, etc.
 Capacities and Grouping philosophy
 Utility grouping philosophy
1.7 Statutory Requirements

 State Industrial Development Corporation(SIDC)


 Central / State Environmental Pollution Control Boards
(PCBS)
 Factory Inspectorate
 State Electricity Boards (SEB)
 Chief Controller of Explosives (CCOE)
 Static and Mobile Pressure Vessel Rules (SMPV)
 Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC)
 Aviation Laws
 Chief Inspector of Boilers (CIB)
 Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD)
 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
 Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF)
1.8 Expansion Philosophy
 Within the unit
 Additional Units
 Near future expansion
 Far future expansion
Points to Note
 Normally Construction is permitted on 50% of the plot area
with total built up area equal to area of the plot (i.e. F.S.I. = 1
(Depending upon the regulation governing the area and the
type of industry))
 Area reserved for tree plantation shall be 1/3 of the area
occupied.
 Water storage capacity - 24 hr. minimum.
 Domestic water - 100 litres per person per day

 Water requirement for Boiler - Steam rating x Working


factor
 Cooling tower - 2% of capacity as drift and blow down
losses
 Washing - 10-15 litres per day per sq.ft. of floor area of the
plant
 Gardening - 5 litres per day per sq.ft. of garden area
Height of Boiler Chimney H (in m) = 14 Q 1/3 where Q is the
amount of
SO2 generated in kg/hr.Inter unit distance based on the type and
nature of
the process.
Safety distances for the storages based on the relevant statutory
regulations.
Data to be generated before developing the
plot plan
2.1 Block dimensions of:
2.1.1 Process plants considering the expansion philosophy.
2.1.2 Utilities based on the grouping philosophy and
expansion requirements.
2.1.3 Electrical receiving station and sub-station.
2.1.4 Uncovered storage spaces.
2.1.5 Solid ware houses.
2.1.6 Non explosive chemical storages Explosive chemical
storages as per classification.
2.1.7 Petroleum Product as per classification.
2.1.8 Fire water storage requirements.
2.1.9 Acid / Alkali storage.
2.1.10 Steel and scrap yard.
2.1.11 Raw material storage and treatment facilities.
2.1.12 Contractor’s shed.
2.1.13 Effluent treatment & Incinerator plants.
2.1.14 Flare stacks.
2.1.15 Control room.
2.1.16 Administrative buildings, workshop, canteen,
laboratories, pilot plant etc.
2.2 Tentative details of pipe rack/sleepers.
2.3 Fire water storage requirements based on the hazard
classification.
Layout of liquid storage
 Classification of Petroleum Products

* Class-A - Liquid which has flash point less than 23


deg cel.
* Class-B - Liquid which has flash point 23 deg cel. and
above below 65 deg cel.
* Class-C -Liquid which has flash point of 65 deg cel.
and above but below 93 deg cel.
* Excluded
Petroleum : Liquid which has flash point above 93 deg
cel.
Fig.3: Equipment Layout - Explosive Tank farm
Regulatory quantity above which License
is necessary

* Petroleum Class A - 30 litres in case of motor conveyance of


stationary engines, capacity of fuel tank.

* Petroleum Class B - 2,500 litres provided it is contained in a


receptacle not exceeding 1,000 liters capacity.

* Petroleum Class C - 45,000 litres


Layout consideration for Explosive Tank
Form
 Petroleum Storage tanks should be located in dyked enclosures
with roads all around the enclosures.
 Dyked enclosure should be able to contain the complete
contents of the largest tank in the tank farm in case of an
emergency. Enclosure capacity shall be calculated after
deducting the volume of the tanks (other than the largest tank)
upto the height of enclosure. A free board of 200 mm shall be
considered in fixing the height of the dyke.
 In case of excluded petroleum the capacity of the dyked
enclosure could be based on spill containment and not
containment on tank rupture.
 The height of tank enclosure dyke shall be at least 1 M and
shall not be more than 2 M above average ground level inside.
However, for excluded petroleum it can be 600 mm.
Class A and/or Class B petroleum can be stored in the same dyked
enclosure.
When Class C is stored together, all safety stipulations applicable to Class
A
and Class B shall apply.
Excluded petroleum shall not be stored in the same dyke.
Tanks shall be arranged in two rows so that each tank is approachable
from
the surround road. The tank height shall not exceed one and a half times
the
diameter of tank or 20 M whichever is less.
Layout consideration for Explosive Tank
Form…
 The tank height shall not exceed one and a half times
the diameter of tank or 20 M whichever is less.
 Minimum distance between the tank shell and the
inside of the dyke wall shall not be less than one half
the height of the tank. Height is considered from
bottom to the top curb angle.
 It is better that the corner of the bund should be
rounded and not at right angle as it is difficult
extinguish fire in a 900 angle corner because of the air
compression effect.
There should be a a minimum of two access points on
opposite sides of the bund to allow safe access/ escape in
all wind directions
Distances to be observed around facilities in an installation
shall be as per the relevant chart furnished in the
Petroleum Rules. (Refer Fig. 3 & relevant Table in the
Petroleum Rules).
Layout of Gas Storage

 Storage Vessels are not allowed below ground level.They are


to be installed above ground level.
 Vessels shall be located in open.
 Vessels are not to be installed above one another.
 If vessels in the installation are more than one, the
longitudinal axis of vessels should be parallel to each other.
 Top surfaces of vessels are required to be made in one plane.
 Vessels installed with their dished ends facing each other shall
have screen walls in between them.
 The distances to be observed between two vessels in one
installation and distance from building or group of building or
line of adjoining property are given in Table 1 & Table 2.
The area where vessels, pumping equipment, loading and
unloading
facilities and direct fired vaporisers are provided shall be
enclosed by
an Industrial Type Fence at least 2 M high along the perimeter of
Safety
Zone.
The minimum distances to be observed around installation shall
be as per
the guidelines in SMPV which are reproduced in Table 1 and 2.
TABLE 1
Minimum Safety distances for flammable,
corrosive & toxic gases
Sl. No. Water capacity of Vessels Minimum distance Minimum distance
( in litres ) from Building or between Pressure
Group of bldgs/line of Vessels
adjoining property

i Not above 2000 5 metres 1 metre

ii Above 2,000 but not 10 metres 1 metre


above 10,000

iii Above 10,000 but not 15 metres 1.5 metres


above 20,000

iv Above 20,000 but not 20 metres 2 metres


above 40,000

v Above 40,000 30 metres 2 metres


TABLE 2
Minimum Safety distances for non-toxic gases

Sl. No. Water capacity of Vessels Minimum distance Minimum distance


( in litres ) from Building or between Pressure
Group of bldgs/line Vessels
of adjoining
property

i Not above 2000 3 metres 1 metre

ii Above 2,000 but not 5 metres 1.5 metre


above 10,000

iii Above 10,000 but not 10 metres 2 metres


above 20,000

iv Above 20,000 15 metres Diameter of larger


vessel

Note : The distances specified above may be reduced by the Chief Controller in
cases where he is of the opinion that additional safety measures have been provided.
STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE
DEVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN

 Study the contour map and establish the grade


levels/terraces.
 Establish the N-S and E-W (or X-Y) grids, the plant
north in relation to geographical north.
 Establish the N-S and E-W (or X-Y) grids, the plant
north in relation to geographical north.
 Establish the free area along the plot boundary as per
the statutory norms.
 Work out the area requirements for the green belt,
vehicle parking etc. as per the norms.
 The process blocks shall be located in the sequential
order of process flow so that material handling
(solid/liquid) is minimum.
The blocks shall also be arranged considering
prevailing wind
direction so that flammable gases do not get carried
to sources
of ignition.
Storage tanks shall be grouped according to
process classification.
Centralised control room shall be located in safe
area close to
process plant.
STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE
DEVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN
 Two adjacent process units shall be located based on
annual shut down philosophy so that hot work shall not
affect the operation.
 Process unit shall be located on higher ground away
from the unwanted traffic.
 Process units shall be serviced by peripheral roads for
easy approach.
 Utility block shall be kept at safe area close to process
plants.
 Electrical sub-stations shall be placed at the load
centre to minimise cabling
 Receiving station shall be placed near the supply point.
 Ware houses shall be located close to the material gate
to avoid truck traffic within the process area.
Flares, Furnaces/Heaters, cooling towers, etc. shall be
placed depending on the wind direction.
Provision of future expansion shall be considered.
Raw water storage shall be placed closer to water source.
Fire and raw water tanks shall be located together.
STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE
DEVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN
 Fire stations shall be away from the hazardous area and
nearer to main gate.
 Effluent treatment plant shall be located away from the
process and utility area on the downwind direction.
 Workshop, contractor’s shed, storage yard, etc. shall
be at centralised location serviced by peripheral roads.
 Two gates are preferred, one for the material entry
with weigh bridge and the other one for man entry.
 Administrative block, laboratories, etc. shall be located
closer to the man entry gate.
 Process unit can be separated within a fencing
providing additional gate.
 Consider recommendation from the statutory
authorities for inter unit distances.
 Residential colony shall be located away from the
plant more closer to the city limits.
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