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FUNDAMENTALS OF THE JUMPS

COMMON EVENT GROUP PRINCIPLES


THE JUMPS

Horizontal Jumps:
Long Jump
Triple Jump

Vertical Jumps:
High Jump
Pole Vault

source: iaaf-cecs
BASIC BIOMECANICS
The length (height) of
a jump depends on:

a. Take-off speed
b. Take-off angle
c. Height of CM at take off
d. Landing / Clearance efficiency

(The Key Factor is to achieve


high take-off speed)

source: iaaf-cecs
Basic Jumping Principles

• Apply forces in the direction of the jump


• Freeze take off position
• Use appropriate swing of free limbs
• Use appropriate muscle actions
• Control rotations in the air
• Set up an efficient landing

source: iaaf-cecs
The Fundamental Phases
of Jumping
1. The approach run 3. The flight phase
Entry Initial wait – holding the take-off
position
Acceleration phase
Control of rotations
Preparation for take-off
Clearance / preparation for
landing
2. The take-off
4. The landing
Foot plant
Safety
Muscle action
Efficiency
Free limb movements

source: iaaf-cecs
The Take-off
• The athlete must be
“tall’
• Foot plant is active
(down and back)
• Minimal contact time
with take-off foot
• Free thigh is “punched”
through to horizontal
• Free knee is bent
• Arm(s) bent and
moving in conjunction
with free knee
• Full, fast extension of
contributing joints

source: iaaf-cecs
Flight Phase

• Initially hold take-off position


• Control rotations
Decrease rotations by
• Achieve efficient bar
- making a long thin shape clearance / landings by:
- creating opposite rotations Choice of technique
Increase rotations by Technical mastery
- making a short squat shape Control of rotations
Body positioning

• Prepare for landing

source: iaaf-cecs
Control of Rotations

Long thin shape – slow rotation

Short squat shape – high rotation

Arm & Legs rotate forward – Torso rotates back


source: iaaf-cecs
The Landing

VERTICAL JUMPS
Safety
Nature of Pit
Control of body HORIZONTAL JUMPS
Safety
Nature of pit
Body positioning
Efficiency
Optimal leg extension
Movements in flight
Landing methods
e.g. swing away landing

source: iaaf-cecs
QUESTION

• HOW TO TRANSFER RUN-UP SPEED TO


QUICK AND POWERFUL TAKE-OFF ?

• HOW TO IMPROVE THE LEVEL OF


- SPEED STRENGTH?
- EVENT SPECIFIC STRENGTH ?