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Fundamentals of

Turbomachinery
By William W. Peng

1 8O7

BICE

1TE N N 1 A L

Professor of Mechanical Engineering


California State University, Fresno, California

WILEY
2 O O7

B 1 C ENTE N N

1 A L

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC

Contents
Preface
Symbols

Energy Transfer in
Turbomachines 34

IX

xi

Introduction

3.1

1.1

Definition

1.2

Types of Turbomachines

1.3

Applications of Turbomachines

1
3

1.4

Performance Characteristics

1.5

Method of Analysis

1.6

Historical Evolution of Turbomachines

1.7

Organization of the Book

References

8
14

16

4 Centrifugal Pumps

2 Dimensional Analysis
Dimensions and Dimensional
Homogeneity
17

2.2

Buckingham Pi Theorem

2.3

Other Nondimensional Parameters for


Turbomachines
25

2.4

Similarity Laws

Problems

32
32

27

59

17

2.1

References

.12

Review of Fluid Mechanics Related to


Turbomachinery
34
3.2
Energy in Flowing Fluids
39
3.3
Euler Equation
40
45
3.4
Equations for Axial-Flow Machines
3.5
Equations for Mixed- and Radial-Flow
Machines
47
3.6
Degree of Reaction
50
References
56
Problems
56

19

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

Basic Construction and Classification


Basic Working Principles
60
Performance Characteristics
65
Cavitation
66
Perforrnance Modifications
72
Preliminary Design Procedure
77
Pump Performance Tests
87
Pumping Systems
92
Pump Applications
97
Pump Selection
100

59

vi

Contents

References
Problems

105
106

5 Axial-Flow Pumps and Fans


Introduction
109
Flow over Isolated Airfoil
110
Axial-Flow Cascade
116
Preliminary Design Procedure
118
Three-Dimensional Flow Effects: Radial
Equilibrium Requirement
124
5.6
Fan Test
127
5.7
Fan Application
129
5.8
Fans and Systems
133
5.9
Fan Selection
137
5.10
Propellers
145
References
146
Problems
147

Classification
149
Performance Parameters and
Characteristics
150
6.3
Change of Performance
158
6.4
Polytropic Efficiency
162
6.5
Preliminary Design of Centrifugal Fans
6.6
Preliminary Design of Centrifugal
Compressors
171
6.7
Application of Centrifugal
Compressors
179
6.8
Selection of Compressors
184
References
188
Problems
189

7.4

Introduction
191
Basic Theory
193
Preliminary Design of Compressor
Stage
200
Determination of Stage Efficiency

Axial-Flow Compressor Stage


Performance
207

7.7

Surge and Stall in Compressor and


Remedies
209

Problems

6.1
6.2

7.1
7.2
7.3

7.6

References

Centrifugal Fans, Blowers,


and Compressors 149

7 Axial-Flow Compressors

Effects of Compressibility and Shock


Waves
205

109

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

7.5

165

212
212

Gas Turbines

8.1

Introduction

8.2

Thermodynamics of Axial-Flow
Turbine
218

8.3

Degree of Reaction

8.4

Preliminary Design Procedure for Turbine


Stage
223

8.5

Determination of Turbine Stage


Efficiency
226

8.6

Axial-Flow Turbine Performance

215

227

8.7

Compressor and Turbine Matching


Radial-Inflow Gas Turbine

8.9

Thermodynamic Processes in Radial-Inflow


Gas Turbine
239

8.10

Other Topics Related to Gas Turbine


Engine
243

8.11

Applications of Gas Turbine Engines

References

257

Introduction

9.2

Velocity-Compounded Stage

9.3

Classification of Steam Turbines

9.4

Steam Turbine Parameters and


Performance
265

9.5

Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle


Plants
270

Problems

249

254

9.1

References

232

237

255

9 Steam Turbines

204

219

8.8

Problems

191

215

274
274

257
258
262

Contents

10 Hydraulic Turbines

275

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

Introduction to Hydropower
275
Types of Hydraulic Turbines
276
Selection of Hydraulic Turbines
278
Hydraulic Turbine Performance
Characteristics
285
10.5 Pelton Turbine
288
10.6 Francis Turbine and Kaplan Turbine
290
References
294
Problems
294

11 Wind Turbines

296

11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4

Introduction to Wind Power


296
Actuator Theory
299
Types of Wind Turbines
301
Wind Turbine Characteristics and Preliminary
Design Analysis
304
11.5 Variable-Speed Performance of Wind
Turbines
311
11.6 Wind Turbine Applications
312
References
314
Problems
315

A Review On Thermodynamics and


Compressible Flow 317
A.I
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6

Thermodynamic Properties
317
Thermodynamic Processes
318
Other Thermoflow Properties
321
Adiabatic Efficiencies of Flow
Components
322
Thermodynamic Cycles
326
Thermodynamic Cycles of Gas Turbine
Engines
327

A.7
Rankine Cycles with Vapor
335
A.8
Compressible Flow through a Channel
A.9
Normal Shock Waves
341
A. 10 Oblique Shock Waves
345
Problems
348

B Airfoil Characteristics
B.I
B.2
B.3

Flow over Objects


350
Airfoil Geometry
351
NACA Airfoil Specifications

vii

336

350

352

C CFD Applications to Turbomachine Design and Flow


Analysis 356
References

357

D Conversion Factors and Some


Constants 359
E Thermodynamic Properties of
Air, Water, Superheated Steam,
and CO2 at STP (14.7 psia,
60F) 360
Internal Diameter of Standard
Pipe of Schedule 40 361
Index

363