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H thn kinh gm hai phn :

Thn kinh trung ng gm : no, ty sng.


No : no trc (gian no, bn cu i no)
No gia (no trung gian)
No sau (hnh no, cu no, tiu no)
No : cht xm ngoi, cht trng trong
Ty sng : cht trng ngoi, cht xm trong
Thn kinh ngoi vi : gm cc i dy thn kinh

n v cu trc v chc nng ca h thn kinh


Gm : thn, si gai, si trc
Thn :
Thn c hnh dng v kch thc rt khc
nhau (hnh sao, hnh thp, hnh cu)
Mng ca thn c nhiu receptor tip nhn
cht truyn t thn kinh, knh ion ng m
do cht gn
Bo tng cha nhn, ribosom, li ni bo
c ht (tp trung thnh cc th Nissl to mu
xm m thn kinh), ty th, b Golgi,
lipofuscin-sc t gi.

Si gai : Tua bo tng ngn, gn thn v lan ra xung


quanh thn, c nhiu receptor tip nhn c hiu cht
truyn t thn kinh
Si trc : phn cui chia thnh cc nhnh tn cng, u
nhnh tn cng phnh to l cc tn cng cha nhiu
bc nh c cht dn truyn thn kinh v ty th. Gm hai
loi si l si c myelin v si khng c myelin.
Si c myelin c bc bi cc t bo Schwann bi
tit myelin (lipoprotein), c tnh cch in. Bao myelin
khng lin tc, b t qung thnh on 1-1,5mm
cc eo Ranvier.
Si khng myelin : khng c myelin

Ch tip xc gia si
trc neuron ny vi
neuron khc (ui
gai hoc thn) hoc
vi t bo p ng
(c, tuyn)
Gm :
Mng trc synap
Khe synap
Mng sau synap

Nron cm gic
Truyn thng tin v no v ty sng
Nron trung gian (nron lin hp)
X l, lu gi v khi phc thng tin
Nron vn ng
Mang tn hiu cho cc t bo c v cc
hch

Theo quy lut "tt c hoc khng".


Dn truyn theo c hai chiu
Tc dn truyn si trc c myelin nhanh hn
si khng c myelin (xung ng nhy cch qua eo
Ranvier).
Tc dn truyn t l vi ng knh si trc
Cng kch thch cng ln th tn s xung
ng xut hin trn si thn kinh cng cao
Xung ng c dn truyn ring trong tng si
v trn si trc cn nguyn vn.

Xung ng thn kinh kh cc mng trc synap


> m cc knh Ca2+.
Ca2+ vo bo tng cc tn cng, gn vi
receptor mng trong cc tn cng, tng i lc
v ko cc ti cha cht truyn t thn kinh v
mng trc synap.
Cc ti cha cht truyn t thn kinh ho
mng vi mng trc synap, gii phng cht
truyn t thn kinh.

Kch thch sau synap


c ch sau synap
c im dn truyn xung ng qua synap
Dn truyn xung ng theo mt chiu
Cng kch thch cng mnh th tn s xung ng
(in th hot ng) cng cao
Chm synap: Cn nhiu thi gian cho nhiu qu
trnh
Mi synap: Tn s xung pht lc u rt ln nhng
sau gim dn kch thch lin tc do cn kit cht
truyn t thn kinh, bt hot dn cc receptor, ri
lon s phn b cc ion

Oxy : Ngng cung cp oxy trong vi giy th nron s


ngng hot ng (ph no, nhn no).
pH : ti thun l 7,35-7,4.
+ Nhim kim (pH>7,4): tng tnh hng phn nron, tng
tc dn truyn xung ng, gy ra nhng cn co git
+ Nhim toan (pH<7,2): gim hng phn nron, gim hot
ng nron gy biu hin qun, ln, hn m...
Nhit : tng gy tng chuyn ha v co git
Thuc
+ Tng tnh hng phn do gim ngng kch thch: cafein,
theophillin, theobromin.
+ Tng hng phn do c ch cht truyn t thn kinh:
strychnin.
+ Tng ngng kch thch, gim tnh dn truyn qua synap:
thuc m, thuc t.

Nm trong ng sng, di #45cm, c mng ty bao


bc
Ty sng gm hai phn : cht xm ( trong), cht
trng ( ngoi).
Cht xm do thn neuron v si khng c myelin
to nn. Hnh ch H gm 2 sng trc, 2 sng
sau, 2 sng bn.
Cht trng do si thn kinh khng myelin to nn,
hp thnh b

Dn truyn cm gic i ln
Theo r sau dy thn kinh ty vo ty sng bng
hai ng : dng li cht xm ty, tip tc ln cc
trung tm cao hn ca trc no.
ng dn truyn cm gic bt cho sang bn
i din.
Dn truyn vn ng i xung, bng hai ng :
ng thp : 9/10 bt cho; 1/10 i thng xung
ri cng bt cho sang bn i din.
ng ngoi thp : chi phi phn x thng bng,
t th, chnh th.

Ty sng l trung tm ca phn x


Phn x trng lc c : trng thi bnh thng
ca c.
Phn x gn-c : g ln gn ca c no s
gy co c.
Phn x thc vt : phn x i tin, tiu tin,
cng sinh dc.
Phn x da : gi nh ln da (da bng, da bu, da
gan bn chn) gy co c gn hoc di .

Hin tng chong ty : khi ty sng b t ngang


t ngt mt mi cm gic, vn ng, phn x
gn xng, mt trng lc, hn m, tt huyt p.
Hi chng Brown-Sequard : hu qu ca t
ngang ty.

Bn phn chnh : thn no, tiu no, gian no, i


no.
Thn no : hnh no, cu no, trung no
Gian no : trn trung no, gia hai bn cu i
no.

Hnh thi v cu to : phn phnh to nht ca h


thn kinh, nm trn ty sng, cu no pha trn
hnh no.
Chc nng :
Dn truyn : cm gic v vn ng
Trung tm phn x : iu ha h hp, tim mch,
tiu ha, h hp, gic mc
iu ha trng lc c : hnh no c nhn tin
nhtng trng lc c, no gia c nhn
gim trng lc c

Cu trc : No gia trn cu no gm cung no


v c no sinh t. Cung no c nhn
Chc nng :
Dn truyn : tng t ty sng v dn truyn
thnh gic
C no sinh t trc : trung tm phn x nh
hng mt vi nh sng
C no sinh t sau : trung tm phn x nh
hng vi m thanh
Nhn : gim trng lc c, phn x t th
v chnh th

Hnh thi : thn no, gian no do thn, si trc,


ui gai. Thn neuron to thnh cc nhn.
Chc nng :
Nhn li gian no : K/thchgim phn x
ty v gin c.
Nhn li hnh cu no gia : k/thchcon
vt thc tnh
Si ca cu to li : dn truyn xung ng lan
ta trn v no, hot ha v no.
Hnh thnh thi , hnh vi, x tr, xc cm.

Nhp ngy m
Xung cm gic
Thnh phn ni mi : O2, CO2
Hormon : adrenalin, noradrenalin, tuyn gip
Thuc : m, ng, an thn.

Hnh thi, cu to : bu dc,


to thnh t nhiu nhn xm,
gm 4 nhm nhn : trc,
sau, trong, ngoi.
Chc nng :
Trm dng ng cm gic
trc khi ln trung tm v.
Trung tm di v cm gic
au.
iu ha vn ng biu hin
cm xc.

V tr : nn no, di i th
Chc nng :
iu ha hot ng ni tit
Sinh dc : bit ha th thc hot ng sinh dc
thi k bo thai
Chng bi niu
Chuyn ha
Thc vt : na sau l trung tm cao cp , na
trc l trung tm cao cp h p
iu nhit : trung tm chng nng, na sau trung
tm chng lnh
Dinh dng : trung tm no
Thc ng, xc cm, hnh vi

Hnh thi, cu to : sau thn no, k bn trc noty. Ct ngang : cht xm nm v, cht trng
nm bn trong, v c nhiu khe, chia thnh nhiu
thy.
Theo tin ha : nguyn tiu no, tiu no c, tiu
no mi.
Chc nng tiu no :
Dn truyn : cm gic, vn ng
Nguyn tiu no : thng bng c th
Tiu no c : iu ha trng lc c, tham gia
phn x t th v chnh th
Tiu no mi : iu ha trng lc c

Gim trng lc c, c ng sai tm, sai hng,


lon nhp, lc nhanh, lc chm, c ng cng
phc tp th cng run, lay trng mt, mt thng
bng

Lp cht xm bao quanh hai bn cu i


no, nhn thng tin cm gic th gic,
thnh gic, mi, v v xc gic; iu khin
vn ng, tr nh, xc cm, tr tu, ngn
ng.
Trn v no c nhng rnh v np chia v
no thnh cc hi v thu.
Brodmann chia v no thnh 50 vng
nh s t 1 n 50: vn ng, cm gic,
phi hp.

Vng vn ng v no
1. Vng vn ng s cp (vng 4 theo Brodmann):
chi phi vn ng tu na ngi i bn.
2. Vng tin vn ng (vng 6 theo Brodmann): chi
phi c ng phc tp.
3. Vng vn ng b sung (vng 8 theo
Brodmann): to t th khc nhau
Vng vn ng c bit trn v no ngi
4. Vng Broca : tn thng khng ni c,
nhng vn hiu li, hiu ch vit.
5. Vng Wernicke : tn thng khng ni c,
khng hiu c li ni, ch vit.

Vng cm gic thy nh


Vng cm gic th gic : thy chm
Vng cm gic thnh gic : thy thi dng
Vng v gic : di hi nh thuc thy nh
Vng khu gic : hi hi m thuc thy thi
dng
S phn phi vn ng v cm gic theo hai qui
lut :
1. Qui lut i bn
2. Qui lut ln ngc

Gm 12 i, nh s la m
Ni xut pht si vn ng : m t bo su
trong thn no (nhn vn ng)
Ni xut pht si cm gic : m t bo nm
ngoi no (hch r sau).
Gm :
Thn kinh khu gic (I)
Thn kinh th gic (II)
Thn kinh vn nhn (III)
Thn kinh rng rc (IV)

Thn kinh sinh ba (V)


Thn kinh mt
Thn kinh hm trn
Thn kinh hm di
Thn kinh ging (VI)
Thn kinh mt (VII)
Thn kinh tin nh c tai (VIII)
Thn kinh li hu (IX)
Thn kinh lang thang (X)
Thn kinh ph (XI)
Thn kinh h thit (XII)

Phn vn ng thc vt ngoi vi : giao cm ()


v ph giao cm (p)
Hu ht c quan c chi phi kp
Hot ng i khng nhau
Gm : hch thc vt, si thn kinh thc vt, m
ri thc vt.
Hch thc vt : hch giao cm v hch ph giao
cm
Hot ng da trn cung phn x, gm 3 neuron :
mt neuron truyn vo v hai neuron i ra, ni vi
nhau bng hch thc vt.

Si cholinergic v si adrenergic
Si bi tit acetylcholin si cholinergic
Si bi tit noradrenalin si adrenergic
Si trc hch c h , h p l si cholinergic
Si sau hch h p l si cholinergic
Si sau hch h l adrenergic
Cc receptor c quan p ng
Nm mt ngoi mng t bo
Receptor cholinergic tip nhn acetylcholin
C hai loi receptor khc nhau : muscarinic v
nicotinic

Receptor muscarinic co c trn kh qun, tiu


ha, tit niu, tng tit dch, gin c trn mch
mu, c ch tim, h huyt p.
Receptor nicotinic co c vn, kch thch tim, co
mch, tng huyt p, gin ng t.
Receptor adrenergic : alpha () v beta ()

H TKTV gy ra p ng vi tn s kch
thch rt thp
Trng lc giao cm v ph giao cm
:mc hot ng c s gia 2 h
nygip lm tng hay lm gim hot
ng ca mt c quan nht nh no

Trung tm iu ha : vng di i
Cu to li hnh no, cu no, no gia
cng c tc dng iu ha chc nng t
ng
Nhiu hot ng v no : xc cm, nhp
th, co gin mch nh hng THTV
Hormon tuyn gip, ty thng thn : tng
hot ng TK giao cm