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Running head: ESL

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Evidence of Student Learning:

Planning Cycle Caitlin Carr Towson University

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  • A. Learning Context , Topic, & Objectives

Thomas Johnson Elementary Middle School is located in south Baltimore City, serving

students from Federal Hill and South Baltimore neighborhoods. This is a diverse school that

consists of students from various cultural backgrounds. Thomas Johnson Elementary Middle

School houses approximately 500 students, 66% of the students in this school are Caucasian,

24% are African American, and 5% are Hispanic. This school serves students from pre-

kindergarten to grade 8, with an early learning program for three-year-olds. The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) test is used to assess

student’s level at the beginning of every year. Students are then placed into specific groups

depending on similar reading levels to create homogenous groups. Text Reading and

Comprehension (TRC) is a progress monitoring reading assessment program to assess student’s

levels frequently to ensure students are making progress. Thomas Johnson Elementary Middle

School reading curriculum for grade Pre-k through 5 th grade is SRA’s Open Court Reading

Program. The Scholastic Guided Reading Program is also implemented to support students build

reading strategies and skills. According to Scholastic Guided Reading Program Levels, students in Kindergarten

should be at reading levels of A-D. By the end of the Kindergarten year, students should be at a

level D to be considered at grade level. Students in the Purple group reading level are about a B

level. Students in this particular group used in this lesson are significantly below grade level. Thomas Johnson Elementary Middle School implements the full inclusion model to

provide special education services to students with special needs. Students write and speak with

the standard English conventions appropriate to the Kindergarten level. Out of the 21 students,

one student receives English for Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) services for Spanish

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and one student receives speech and language therapy for articulation and has difficulty on

expression. This unit was taught to a group of four students in the Kindergarten class. Out of the four

students there are one boy and three girls. There are twenty one students in this particular

Kindergarten class. Out of the twenty one students there are eleven boys and ten girls. One

student has Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) for speech and language therapy and a

second student has an IEP for behavioral difficulties. These two students will not be participating

in this particular lesson. The purple group will be partaking in this specific lesson; these four

students in the purple group have the lowest reading level in the class. This lesson will support

students by allowing them to practice and improve skills they have previously learned. It will

allow students to increase reading fluency and gain a deeper understanding of the skills needed

for reading comprehension. In this class behavioral issues are minimal but, students can be talkative and get off track

at times. To keep students on task during this unit, students will follow the green, yellow, and red

light system, put into place for behavioral management of the classroom. Each week new reading strategies and skills are reviewed and/ or learned in guided

reading lessons. This reading unit was taught in compliance with the Maryland Common Core

State Standards (MCCSS). The MCCSS aligned with this unit are RL1 With prompting and

support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K), RL10 Actively engage in

group reading activities with purpose and understanding, and RI2 With prompting and support,

identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K). The unit was taught over the

course of three days, an assessment was given daily to ensure each group comprehended the

lesson. The lessons focused on students reading a book then identifying and understanding the

main idea and details in the story. Main idea and details vocabulary will be used in the lesson for

students to gain a deeper understanding of the sequence. The purple group will have an

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appropriate book and instructional activity depending on reading level, skills, and needs. This

unit was selected because reading strategies and skills are reviewed and/ or learn weekly in

guided reading lessons. The purpose of these lessons is for all students to improve on literacy

skills to become successful readers.

Day 1

Objective: Students will read “It is Spring” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Maryland State Common Core Standards Alignment:

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K)

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

Essential Skills and Knowledge:

  • 1. Apply appropriate reading strategies and skills while reading the text.

  • 2. Apply appropriate vocabulary discussed prior to reading.

  • 3. Use prior knowledge to understand the text.

  • 4. Use evidence from text to complete activity.

  • 5. Participate actively and appropriately in discussions.

  • 6. Determine the main idea and details of the story.

Day 2

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Objective: Students will read “Animal Sounds” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Maryland State Common Core Standards Alignment:

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K)

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

Essential Skills and Knowledge:

  • 1. Apply appropriate reading strategies and skills while reading the text.

  • 2. Apply appropriate vocabulary discussed prior to reading.

  • 3. Use prior knowledge to understand the text.

  • 4. Use evidence from text to complete activity.

  • 5. Participate actively and appropriately in discussions.

  • 6. Determine the main idea and details of the story.

Day 3

Objective: Students will read “On The Farm” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Maryland State Common Core Standards Alignment:

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K)

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

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Essential Skills and Knowledge:

  • 1. Apply appropriate reading strategies and skills while reading the text.

  • 2. Apply appropriate vocabulary discussed prior to reading.

  • 3. Use prior knowledge to understand the text.

  • 4. Use evidence from text to complete activity.

  • 5. Participate actively and appropriately in discussions.

  • 6. Determine the main idea and details of the story.

    • B. Assessment Plan

For students to meet the learning objective aligned with the Maryland Common Core State

Standards, students must have learned the skills and strategies taught in the lesson. It is essential

to assess student learning to ensure students comprehend the lesson taught. Teachers can use the

information from assessment to determine their next teaching and learning steps. A summative

assessment is necessary in order to evaluate student learning at the end of a lesson or unit.

Summative assessment

Day 1: Student will have read the book, “It is Spring” and identified the main idea and details.

Students will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer. Throughout the

lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer questions to ensure

reading comprehension. At the end of the lesson, students will complete a Main Idea and Details

Activity that will count as a summative assessment. Students will write and draw the details of

the story in a graphic organizer. (Figure 4)

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Students in this particular group are significantly below grade level in reading and have

trouble in fluency, reading skills, and comprehension. To build fluency, reading skills, and

comprehension students were given an activity that properly fits their instructional level (Figure

1 shown below).

Figure 1

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Day 2: Students will have read the book, “Animal Sounds ”, at the end of the lesson, students

will complete a Main Idea and Details Activity (Figure 2) that will count as a summative

assessment. Students will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer.

Throughout the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer questions

to ensure reading comprehension. (Figure 4)

Students in this particular group are significantly below grade level in reading and have

trouble in fluency, reading skills, and comprehension. To build fluency, reading skills, and

comprehension students were given an activity that properly fits their instructional level (Figure

2 shown below).

Figure 2

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Day 3: Students will have read the book, “On the Farm”, at the end of the lesson; students will

complete a Main Idea and Details Activity that will count as a summative assessment. Students

will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer. Throughout the lesson, the

teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer questions to ensure reading

comprehension. Students will complete a summative assessment on main idea and details to

ensure comprehension. (Picture Figure 3 shown below) Students will be given a summative

assessment at the end of day 3 to assess student comprehension on main idea and details.

(Picture 4 shown below)

Figure 3

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Students in this particular group are significantly below grade level in reading and have

trouble in fluency, reading skills, and comprehension. To build fluency, reading skills, and

comprehension students were given an activity that properly fits their instructional level.

The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) method was implemented in this lesson, all in

this group were clearly read the directions and questions on the activities and assessments. This

method was to help all students understand what is expected of them. To minimize distractions

in the lessons, students were placed at a side half circle table on the side of the room. Having the

students placed at this specific table helped students focus on the lesson and activity. At the

beginning of each lesson new vocabulary was discussed to support students’ vocabulary

development and to improve students’ fluency when reading the books chosen. Students were

required to read text aloud which can help students who are struggling to decode by modeling

pronunciation of letter and word sounds and by making a connection between oral language and

written text. Students were instructed and supported to letter tap and blend the sounds if they

didn’t know specific words. Visual means of representation was implemented into the lesson by

using a visual for vocabulary, pictures on the story, and a graphic organizer was used in the

activity. Having the students complete the graphic organizer to determine the main idea and

details supported practice and performance for the students. Having students complete an activity

for each lesson helps track and monitor student progress. Although there were no IEP

accommodations or modifications needed for this lesson, the assessment was implemented to

assist all learners. Teacher read, repeated, and modeled directions to students to ensure students

understood directions.

Formative assessments monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be

used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. In each

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lesson summative assessments were included and performed to ensure daily student learning.

The teacher will support student reading to ensure fluency and comprehension. Daily

observations of student’s strengths and needs will be recorded by the teacher. Throughout the

lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer questions to ensure

reading comprehension. (Figure 6 display questions, shown below.)

A pre-assessment (Figure 5) is a great way to determine what students know about a

topic before it is taught. In addition, pre-assessments help teachers make instructional decisions

about student strengths and needs and to determine which students are ready for instruction. At

the beginning of the unit, a pretest will occur so the teacher can determine student’s strengths and

needs are. The teacher will read a short paragraph to the students then ask 3 questions related to

the main idea and details of the article. The teacher will read the paragraph and the questions to

the students to focus on the literacy skills instead of student’s fluency and comprehension of the

paragraph. The questions will consist of main idea and detail questions of the paragraph.

The pre-assessment, formative, and summative assessments that are included in this

lesson appropriately correspond to the goals and objectives. Differentiation and the universal

design for learning method were implemented daily depending on student’s strengths, and needs.

All students accomplished the lesson objective because of the daily use of scaffolding in each

lesson.

To asses’ student learning the scoring was similar for each daily activity or summative

assessment. The main idea was provided on each activity; 1 point was given if the “Main Idea”

was written on the top of box or circle of the correct box on the graphic organizer. 1 point was

given for every correct detail they wrote in the graphic organizers. Each activity was scored out

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of 5 points. Since writing isn’t the focus in this lesson spelling wasn’t scored. For the pre-

assessment was scored out of 6 points, 1 point for each question. Below in Part D. displays

student’s answers. 1 point was given for every question correct on the summative assessment;

the assessment was scored out of 5 points.

For my data collection I gathered the daily instructional activities students completed to

assess for comprehension. Observations and pre- assessment data were noted to for further data.

All data gathered in the three days is shown below in Part D.

Figure 4

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Figure 5

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Figure 6

Day 1 Formative Questions:

  • 1. What is a main idea?” What are details to the Main Idea?” Turn and talk. The main idea is what the story is about. The details support or tell more about the main idea.

  • 2. “Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!”

  • 3. What pops up in Spring? Why do you think they pop up?

  • 4. What are other things that pop out in Spring?

  • 5. Why do you think animals pop out? Where do they go in winter?

  • 6. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

  • 7. Can someone tell me what we did today and why? We read the book “It is Spring” to find the main idea and details. Finding the main idea helps understand what the book is about and the details support or tell more about the main idea.

Day 2 Formative Questions:

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  • 2. Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!

  • 3. What kind of sound does a dog, cat, and cow make? Has anyone heard a cow make a moo sound?

  • 4. What kind of sound does a pig and bird make? Has anyone seen a pig?

  • 5. What kind sound does a duck, snake, and bee make?

  • 6. Who Dad’s snores? Raise your hand?

  • 7. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

Day 3 Formative Questions:

  • 1. Can someone please tell me what is a main idea of a story? Can someone else tell me what the details are of a story?

  • 2. Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!”

  • 3. Where does a do live? Where does a cow live? What is a barn? Where do you find a barn??

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  • 4. . Where can you find a pig and chicken?

  • 5. Where do you find a goat, duck, and sheep?

  • 6. Where do all the animals live?

  • 7. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

C. Instruction The pre-assessment data displayed students had a low understanding of what a main

idea and details are in a story. Additional students had a low understanding of the vocabulary

used in the lesson. Day 1, 2, &3’s lesson objective was selected because student’s data indicated

that a lesson was required to teach students main idea and details skills and strategies. In small

reading groups, students learn a new reading strategy and set of skills weekly. In this lesson,

students will apply background knowledge along with a new reading strategy to different stories.

To engage and motivate students the lesson started off asking questions on the main

idea, details, and vocabulary. In addition, to asking questions, I had student’s take a look at the

cover and predict what they thought the book would be about by the title of the book and the

illustrations on the cover page. Students appeared to enjoy discussing the cover and making

predictions about what the story is about. Vocabulary words were discussed to engage students

into the lesson. I displayed the vocabulary words on a white board in front of the students so they

can refer back to the board while reading. As we came across the vocabulary in the story, I made

sure to point out the vocabulary words so; students can associate the word to the text. Students

appeared to enjoy and be interest in the introduction to the book/ lesson.

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Introducing new knowledge/ content was discussed throughout the entire lesson. The

definition of the main idea and details were explored before, middle, and end of the reading. The

lesson demonstrated both guided practice and independent practice. Students took turns

reading a page in the book, I supported student reading to ensure fluency and comprehension.

Students were instructed to tap and blend words together if a word was unknown to them. There

were stopping points as students read to discuss the details of the story. If students were having

difficulty I assisted students; this strategy helped students comprehend the main idea and details

discussed in the lesson. Throughout, the story I asked students questions to encourage critical

and creative thinking skills. (Questions are shown below in lesson plan) The topic of

questions required students to think about the main idea and details of the story. I asked students

these questions throughout the story as a formative assessment to check for understanding. I

provided students with clear feedback to their answers to give them approval if they understood

or not. A discussion of the topic if student or students didn’t understand the question asked. At

the end of the lesson, I provided feedback to students when they completed their activity so I

knew they met the objective. This feedback also gave students the approval that they

comprehend the lesson and met the objective. If any student or students didn’t meet the objective

further instruction would be needed; fortunately all students met the objective.

The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) method was implemented in this lesson, all

in this group were clearly read the directions and questions on the activities and assessments.

This method was to help all students understand what is expected of them. To minimize

distractions in the lessons, students were placed at a side half circle table on the side of the room.

Having the students placed at this specific table helped students focus on the lesson and activity.

At the beginning of each lesson new vocabulary was discussed to support students’ vocabulary

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development and to improve students’ fluency when reading the books chosen. Students were

required to read text aloud which can help students who are struggling to decode by modeling

pronunciation of letter and word sounds and by making a connection between oral language and

written text. According to Scholastic Guided Reading Program Levels, students in Kindergarten

grade should be at reading levels of A-D. This particular group reads at a level B book and

reading comprehension below average. This particular book was selected because students could

relate to the books and be able complete an activity which will enhance reading and writing

skills. The instructional activity used in this lesson corresponds to the learning needs and

strengths of the students in this group. Students were instructed and supported to letter tap and

blend the sounds if they didn’t know specific words. Visual means of representation was

implemented into the lesson by using a visual for vocabulary, pictures on the story, and a graphic

organizer was used in the activity. Having the students complete the graphic organizer to

determine the main idea and details supported practice and performance for the students. Having

students complete an activity for each lesson helps track and monitor student progress. Although

there were no IEP accommodations or modifications needed for this lesson, the assessment

was implemented to assist all learners. Teacher read, repeated, and modeled directions to

students to ensure students understood directions.

For me, important parts of the lesson were the end of the lesson, on day 3 a few

students were able to define what a main idea and what a detail was. Asking students formative

questions and the summative assessment helped me as the teacher to determine student

achievement for the past two days. It felt amazing to know students comprehended the lesson

when I assessed their learning during the activity. Students had little understanding of main idea

and details prior to day 1’s lesson, day 3 students understood the main idea and details of the

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story. Students also comprehended the graphic organizer given as the summative assessment for

the day. Scaffolding was implemented over the three days; the graphic organizers became less

structured throughout the 3 days. Students learned to look back in the book to complete graphic

organizer; this strategy was taught on day 1. For this particular lesson, students were highly

engaged in the book and activity. Students enjoyed reading and discussing a book about animal

sounds. It allowed students to use background knowledge and use it to help understand the story.

For the future, I will choice books that are similar to ensure student engagement.

Formative and summative assessments were used during the entire lesson to give

students clear feedback. During the lesson, the teacher will support student reading to ensure

fluency and comprehension. The teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. Teacher will collect observational data regarding

difficulty expressed in reading fluency, comprehension, and independently writing. Summative

Assessments, student will have read the books and identify the main idea and details. Students

will complete a graphic organizer activity that covers the main idea and details of the story; they

will have to use character traits to from the word box given to describe them-selves. At the end

of the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer questions to ensure

reading comprehension. At the end of day 3, students completed a summative assessment on the

topic of main idea and details.

In day 1, the objectives were shared with students in age appropriate language to

ensure students understood the expectations for the lesson. “Today we will read the book “It is

Spring” and identify the main idea and details of the story by using evidence and clues from the

text. Then you will complete an activity by identifying the main idea and details by writing and

drawing a picture.” I told students what exactly they should pay attention to in the story so, they

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knew the expectations. The objectives for this lesson was selected by data from student’s pre-

assessment data and aligned with the MCCSS standards. The MCCSS standards used in this

lesson was RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a

text. (SC, K), RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding,

and RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC,

K)

Day 1 Instruction:

Introduction to “It is Spring” By: Cheryl Ryan

About This Lesson

Description

This lesson will be taught to a small group of five students. Students will learn a new reading strategy and set of skills. In this lesson, students will apply background knowledge along with a new reading strategy to the text "It is Spring".

Prerequisites

In small group, students learn reading strategies and skills on a weekly basis to develop reading comprehension. The book “It is Spring” was selected because it is the appropriate reading level book for this group of students. This particular book was selected because students could relate to “It is Spring” book and be able to complete an instructional activity. As a prerequisite, students should be able to read and comprehend suitable level text with limited assistance.

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Potential Use

Purpose

Small Group, Guided Reading, Classroom Instruction

Grade

Kindergarten

Content Areas:

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Maryland Common Core State Curriculum:

English Language Arts Reading Literature Main Idea and Details Reading Foundational Skills

Maryland State Common Core Standards:

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K)

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

Goals

Instructional Goals

The goal of this lesson is for students to identify the main idea and details in the book. This lesson will help students build literacy skills to support reading comprehension of the book.

Objectives

Students will read “It is Spring” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Variability

This group is made up of one student who receives English for Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) services for Spanish. This particular group is below grade level in reading; this lesson will support all students by allowing them to practice and improve literacy skills that are required to enrich reading comprehension. Students will have the opportunity to complete an activity which will enhance math, reading, and writing skills. The lesson objective will be attainable for all students because students will be able to meet the objective through a variety of ways kinesthetically, visually, and verbally.

Assessments

Formative Assessments

During the lesson, the teacher will support student reading to ensure fluency and comprehension.

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Throughout the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. Teacher will collect observational data regarding difficulty expressed in reading fluency,

comprehension, and independently writing. During reading, the teacher will encourage students to use skills used from foundations,

such as letter sounds and blending. The teacher will also give students immediate feedback during this lesson and adjust the lesson as needed.

Summative Assessments

Student will have read the book, “It is Spring” and identified the main idea and details.

Students will complete a graphic organizer activity; they will have to use evidence from the text. Students will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer At the end of the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. At the end of the three days, students will complete a summative assessment on main idea and details.

Instructional Methods

Opening

  • 1. Have students complete Main Idea and Details Pre-assessment.

  • 2. Discuss: Main Idea/ Details, Vocabulary.

  • 3. “Today, we will read the story “It is Spring” then identify the main idea and details. As we read, we will use the evidence and clues from the text to find the main idea and details. Then you will complete an activity by writing and drawing the details of the story.”

  • 4. “Discuss: Main Idea/ Details, Vocabulary.” Turn and Talk

“What is a main idea?” What are details to the Main Idea?” Turn and talk. The main idea is what the story is about. The details support or tell more about the main idea.

“Let’s review some vocabulary. Turn and talk to a partner to discuss definition.”

Worm

Leave

Everywhere

During

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“Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!”

  • 2. Have students read pg. 3

  • 3. Have students read pg. 4-5. What pops up in Spring? Why do you think they pop up?

  • 4. Have students read pg. 6-7. What are other things that pop out in Spring?

  • 5. Have students read pg. 8-9. Why do you think animals pop out? Where do they go in winter?

  • 6. Have students read pg. 10. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

  • 7. Give directions to the activity. Provide support and allow students to look back in the book for spelling.

Closing

Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

  • 8. Give directions to the activity. Provide support and allow students to look back in the book for spelling.

End/ Closing Statement:

  • 12. “Can someone tell me what we did today and why?

We read the book “It is Spring” to find the main idea and details. Finding the main idea helps understand what the book is about and the details support or tell more about the main idea.”

Review

Review and discuss lesson objective to ensure students comprehend lesson.

Materials

Book “It is Spring”

Pencils/ Crayons

Main Idea and Details Activity Worksheet

Pre- Assessment Test

White Board

“It is Spring” Graphic Organize Activity (Shown Below)

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Day 2 Instruction:

In day 2, the objectives were shared with students in age appropriate language to ensure

students understood the expectations for the lesson. Today you will read the book “Animal

Sounds” and identify the main idea and details of the story by using evidence and clues from the

text. Then you will complete an activity to identify the main idea and details from the story using text

evidence.” I told students what exactly they should pay attention to in the story so, they knew the

expectations. The objectives for this lesson was selected by data from student’s pre-assessment

data and aligned with the MCCSS standards. The MCCSS standards used in this lesson was

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K),

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding, and RI2 With

prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

For me, important parts of the lesson were the end of the lesson, on day 3 a few

students were able to define what a main idea and what a detail was. Asking students formative

questions and the summative assessment helped me as the teacher to determine student

achievement for the past two days. It felt amazing to know students comprehended the lesson

when I assessed their learning during the activity. Students had little understanding of main idea

and details prior to day 1’s lesson, day 3 students understood the main idea and details of the

story. Students also comprehended the graphic organizer given as the summative assessment for

the day. Scaffolding was implemented over the three days; the graphic organizers became less

structured throughout the 3 days. Students learned to look back in the book to complete graphic

organizer; this strategy was taught on day 1. For this particular lesson, students were highly

engaged in the book and activity. Students enjoyed reading and discussing a book about animal

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sounds. It allowed students to use background knowledge and use it to help understand the story.

For the future, I will choice books that are similar to ensure student engagement.

Introduction to “Animal Sounds” By: Ned Jensen

About This Lesson

Description

This lesson will be taught to a small group of five students. Students will learn a new reading strategy and set of skills. In this lesson, students will apply background knowledge along with a new reading strategy to the text "Animal Sounds".

Prerequisites

In small group, students learn or review reading strategies and skills on a weekly basis. The book “Animal Sounds” was selected because it is the appropriate reading level book for this group of students. This particular book was selected because students could easily relate to “Animal Sounds” book. As a prerequisite, students should be able to read and comprehend suitable level text with limited assistance.

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Potential Use

Purpose

Small Group, Guided Reading, Classroom Instruction

Grade

Kindergarten

Content Areas:

Maryland Common Core State Curriculum:

English Language Arts Reading Literature Main Idea and Details Reading Foundational Skills

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RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K)

RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

Goals

Instructional Goals

The goal of this lesson is for students to identify the main idea and details in the book. This lesson will help students build literacy skills to support reading comprehension of the book

Objectives

Students will read “Animal Sounds” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Variability

This group is made up of one student who receives English for Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) services for Spanish. This particular group is below grade level in reading; this lesson will support all students by allowing them to practice and improve literacy skills that are required to enrich reading comprehension. Students will have the opportunity to complete an activity which will enhance math, reading, and writing skills. The lesson objective will be attainable for all students because students will be able to meet the objective through a variety of ways kinesthetically, visually, and verbally.

Assessments

Formative Assessments

During the lesson, the teacher will support student reading to ensure fluency and

comprehension. Throughout the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. Teacher will collect observational data regarding difficulty expressed in reading fluency,

comprehension, and independently writing. During reading, the teacher will encourage students to use skills used from foundations,

such as letter sounds and blending. The teacher will also give students immediate feedback during this lesson and adjust the lesson as needed.

Summative Assessments

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Student will have read the book, “It is Spring” and identified the main idea and details.

Students will complete a graphic organizer activity; they will have to use evidence from the text. Students will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer At the end of the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. At the end of the three days, students will complete a summative assessment on main idea and details.

Instructional Methods

Opening

  • 1. Have students complete Main Idea and Details Pre-assessment.

  • 2. Discuss: Main Idea/ Details, Vocabulary.

  • 3. “Today, we will read the story “Animal Sounds” then identify the main idea and details. As we read, we will use the evidence and clues from the text to find the main idea and details. Then you will complete an activity by writing and drawing the details of the story.”

  • 4. “Discuss: Main Idea/ Details, Vocabulary.” Turn and Talk to a partner to discuss what a main idea is. Remember we talked about it yesterday.

“What is a main idea?” What are details to the Main Idea?” Turn and talk. The main idea is what the story is about. The details support or tell more about the main idea.

“Let’s review some vocabulary. Turn and talk to a partner to discuss definition.”

Oink

Buzz

Snore

During

Guided Practice:

  • 5. “Read the Cover page;

“Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is

about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!”

  • 6. Have students read pg. 3

  • 7. Have students read pg. 4-5. What kind of sound does a dog, cat, and cow make?

Has anyone heard a cow make a moo sound?

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  • 8. Have students read pg. 6-7. What kind of sound does a pig and bird make? Has

anyone seen a pig?

  • 9. Have students read pg. 8-10. What kind sound does a duck, snake, and bee make?

    • 10. Have students read pg. 11-12. Who Dad’s snores? Raise your hand?

    • 11. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the

main idea?

  • 12. Give directions to the activity. Provide support and allow students to look back in

the book for spelling.

Independent Practice: Students complete Main Idea and Details Activity. Students will work independently on the activity; if they need help I will assist them. Students will have a chance to look back in the book to complete activity. If students finish early, student may color pictures.

Closing

Can someone tell me what we did today and why? We read the book “Animal Sounds” to find the main idea and details. Finding the main idea helps understand what the book is about and the details support or tell more about the main idea.”

Review

Review and discuss lesson objective to ensure students comprehend lesson. I will review and discuss main idea and details of the story “Animal Sounds”. I will ask students to define a character trait and provide examples.

Materials “Animal Sounds” book Pencil Crayons Main Idea and Details Activity (Activity Shown Below)

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Day 3 Instruction:

In day 3, the objectives were shared with students in age appropriate language to ensure

students understood the expectations for the lesson. “Today you will read the book “On The

Farm” and identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the

text. Then you will complete an activity to describe character traits of Firefighters from the story using

text evidence.” I told students what exactly they should pay attention to in the story so, they knew

the expectations. The objectives for this lesson was selected by data from student’s pre-

assessment data and aligned with the MCCSS standards. The MCCSS standards used in this

lesson was RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a

text. (SC, K), RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.,

and RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC,

K)

Introduction to “On The Farm” By: Cheryl Ryan

About This Lesson

Description

This lesson will be taught to a small group of five students. Students will learn a new reading strategy and set of skills. In this lesson, students will apply background knowledge along with a new reading strategy to the text "On The Farm".

Prerequisites

In small group, students learn reading strategies and skills on a weekly basis to develop reading comprehension. The book “On The Farm” was selected because it is the appropriate reading level book for this group of students. This particular book was selected because students could relate to “On The Farm” book and be able to complete an instructional activity. As a prerequisite, students should be able to read and comprehend suitable level text with limited assistance.

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Students will read “On The Farm” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Potential Use

Purpose

Small Group, Guided Reading, Classroom Instruction

Grade

Kindergarten Content Areas:

Maryland Common Core State Curriculum:

English Language Arts Reading Literature Main Idea and Details Reading Foundational Skills

RL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

(SC, K) RL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

RI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K)

Goals

Instructional Goals

The goal of this lesson is for students to identify the main idea and details in the book. This lesson will help students build literacy skills to support reading comprehension of the book.

Objectives

Students will read “On The Farm” and be able to identify the main idea and details in the story by using evidence and clues from the text. Students will complete an instructional activity by comprehending the main idea and writing and drawing the details.

Variability

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This group is made up of one student who receives English for Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) services for Spanish. This particular group is below grade level in reading; this lesson will support all students by allowing them to practice and improve literacy skills that are required to enrich reading comprehension. Students will have the opportunity to complete an activity which will enhance math, reading, and writing skills. The lesson objective will be attainable for all students because students will be able to meet the objective through a variety of ways kinesthetically, visually, and verbally.

Assessments

Formative Assessments

During the lesson, the teacher will support student reading to ensure fluency and

comprehension. Throughout the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. Teacher will collect observational data regarding difficulty expressed in reading fluency,

comprehension, and independently writing. During reading, the teacher will encourage students to use skills used from foundations,

such as letter sounds and blending. The teacher will also give students immediate feedback during this lesson and adjust the lesson as needed.

Summative Assessments

Student will have read the book, “On The Farm” and identified the main idea and details.

Students will complete a graphic organizer activity; they will have to use evidence from the text. Students will write and draw the details of the story in a graphic organizer At the end of the lesson, the teacher will prompt students to verbally discuss and answer

questions to ensure reading comprehension. At the end of the three days, students will complete a summative assessment on main idea and details.

Instructional Methods

Opening

  • 1. Have students complete Main Idea and Details Pre-assessment.

  • 2. Today, we will read the story “On The Farm ” then identify the main idea and details. As we read, we will use the evidence and clues from the text to find the main idea and details. Then you will complete an activity by writing and drawing the details of the story.”

  • 3. “Review/ Discuss: Main Idea/ Details, Vocabulary.” Turn and Talk

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The main idea is what the story is about. The details support or tell more about the main idea.

  • 5. “Let’s review some vocabulary. Turn and talk to a partner to discuss definition.” Barn Chicken Field

During

Guided Practice:

  • 6. “Read the Cover page; “Let’s preview the cover. What are some things you see? What do you think this book is about? Let’s see if you are right! Remember to try to find the main idea and details as we read!”

  • 7. Have students read pg. 3-4. Where does a do live? Where does a cow live? What is a barn? Where do you find a barn??

  • 8. Have students read pg. 5-6. Where can you find a pig and chicken?

  • 9. Have students read pg. 7-9. Where do you find a goat, duck, and sheep?

    • 10. Have students read pg. 10. Where do all the animals live?

    • 11. Who can tell me what the main idea of this book was? What are the details to the main idea?

    • 12. Give directions to the activity. Provide support and allow students to look back in the book for spelling.

Independent Practice:

Students complete Main Idea and Details Activity. Students will work independently on the activity; if they need help I will assist them. Students will have a chance to look back in the book to complete activity. If students finish early, student may color pictures.

Closing

Can someone tell me what we did today and why? We read the book “On The Farm” to find the main idea and details. Finding the main idea helps understand what the book is about and the details support or tell more about the main idea.”

Review

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Review and discuss lesson objective to ensure students comprehend lesson. I will review and discuss main idea and details of the story “On The Farm”. I will ask students to define a character trait and provide examples.

Materials

“On The Farm” book Pencil/ Crayons White Board Main Idea and Details Activity (Shown Below)

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D: Analysis and Instructional Decision-Making

Pre-Assessment

Pre- Test

Student A

Student B

Student C

Student D

Student E

Total

 

Questions

Absent

Questions 1

1

0

0

 
  • 1 2/4

N/A

= 50%

Question 2

0

0

0

 
  • 0 0/4=

N/A

0%

Question 3

0

1

1

 
  • 1 ¾=

N/A

75%

Question 4

0

0

0

 
  • 0 0/4=

N/A

0%

Questions 5

0

0

0

 
  • 0 N/A

0/0=

0%

Question 6

1

1

1

 
  • 1 4/4=

N/A

100%

Total

2/6 =

2/6=

2/6=

3/6=

N/A

 

Class total=

33%

33%

33%

50%

37.25%

Summative Assessment for Day 1

 

Activity

 

Student A

 

Student B

 

Student C

 

Student D

 

Student E

 

Total

       

*Absent

 
             

4/4=

Main Idea

 

1

 

1

 

1

  • 1 n/a

100%

Detail 1

           

4/4=

 

1

 

1

 

1

  • 1 n/a

100%

Detail 2

           

4/4=

 

1

 

1

 

1

  • 1 n/a

100%

Detail 3

1

1

1

  • 1 n/a

 

4/4=

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100%

Detail 4

         

4/4=

1

1

1

1

n/a

100%

Total

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

n/a

Post Assessment/ Summative Assessment for Day 2

 

Activity

Student A

Student B

Student C

Student D

Student E

Total

           

5/5=

Main Idea

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Detail 1

         

5/5=

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Detail 2

         

5/5=

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Detail 3

         

5/5=

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Detail 4

         

5/5=

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Total

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

Post Assessment/ Summative Assessment for Day 3

 

Activity

Student A

Student B

Student C

Student D

Student E

Total

           

5/5=

Main Idea

1

1

1

1

1

100%

Detail 1

         

5/5=

1

1

1

1

1

100%

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Detail 2

           

5/5=

  • 1 1

 

1

  • 1 1

 

100%

Detail 3

           

5/5=

  • 1 1

 

1

  • 1 1

 

100%

Detail 4

           

5/5=

  • 1 1

 

1

  • 1 1

 

100%

Total

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

 

5/5= 100%

5/5= 100%

Summative Assessment Results for Unit

 
 

Day 1

100%

Day 2

100%

Day 3

100%

Class Average

 

100%

Summative Assessment for Unit

 

Pre- Test

Student A

Student B

Student C

 

Student D

Student E

 

Total

 

Questions

   

Absent

Questions 1

  • 1 1

 

1

 
  • 1 2/4

1

= 50%

Question 2

  • 1 1

 

0

 
  • 1 2/4=

1

50%

Question 3

  • 1 1

 

0

 
  • 1 ¾=

1

75%

Question 4

  • 1 1

 

0

 
  • 1 2/4=

1

50%

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Questions 5

1

1

0

1

1

0/0=

0%

Total

5/5=

5/5=

1/5=

5/5=

5/5=

 

Class total=

100%

100%

20%

100%

100%

84%

Pre- Assessment Results vs. Summative Assessment

120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
  • Pre-Assessment

  • Summative Assessment

As the table above shows, students averaged on the summative assessment were 100%.

The summative assessment results display 4 out of 5 students comprehended the lesson. I am

extremely pleased with student’s summative assessment scores. The summative assessment

scores displays most students comprehended the lesson taught. Student A and Student B had a

67% growth from the pre-assessment to the summative assessment. These two students showed

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the most growth between the beginning of the lesson and the end of the lesson. Student C scored

13% higher on the pre-assessment compared to the summative assessment. One student results

show, she didn’t comprehend the entire main idea and details lesson. She didn’t show any growth

from the pre-assessment on day 1 to the post assessment on day 3. Additional learning and

intervention is needed for this particular student to comprehend main idea and details of a story.

Student C will have additional one on one daily intervention to comprehend the main idea and

details. Student C will receive additional learning on the reading strategy by using various books

on reading level until she comprehends and understands the skill. Daily assessment will be given

to ensure student growth and when student receives a 90% or better on the assessment. Student D

scores showed he had a 50% growth from the pre-assessment to the summative assessment.

Student D had background knowledge of what a main idea and details are in a story. Student E

was absent during day 1 for the pre-assessment so the data is unavailable. However, Student E

scored a 100% on the summative assessment indicating student comprehended the lesson.

A table for pre-assessment and summative assessment (post- assessment) is shown for

each day. For each table shown, for each student there is question breakdown displayed. Based

on the pre- assessment results, I was able to determine the strengths and needs of the students.

Additional, I was able to determine students background knowledge and vocabulary background

daily based on questions I asked prior to each lesson. These questions weren’t documented but

student’s answers assisted in how in-depth I needed to explain the vocabulary from the story.

Maryland Common Core State Standards and essential skills and knowledge were determined for

each lesson depending on student’s strengths and needs.

Post- assessment tables show data by student and questions; tables display what

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points. Results for all three days show that students made a significant improvement on the

understanding of character traits.

The first table displays the pre-assessment data; the table breaks down each student that

was present and if they scored a 1 or a 0 on each question. For the first two days, Student E was

absent so the data is not available. The next three tables display daily summative assessments;

the table breaks down each student that was present and if they scored a 1 or a 0 on each

question. Table five displays the average daily summative results; I added up students results and

found the average score. Table six compares pre-assessment data to summative assessment for

the unit data; as you can see from the table students displayed significant growth from the pre-

assessment to the summative assessment on day 3. Four out of five students showed significant

improvement. The overall class showed a 45% improvement from the pre-assessment to the post-

assessment. Four out of the five students displayed student achievement from evaluating

student’s results. Student C’s summative assessment scores indicate student didn’t comprehend

the lesson on main idea and details of a story. Overall, student’s achieved the lesson objective by

comprehending the main idea and details of a story.

Typically, student achievement data are reported for whole populations, or as aggregate

data. It is not, however, until the data are disaggregated that patterns, trends and other important

information are uncovered. In all three days, students were able to use their background

information to understand the stories. In day 2 and 3 related better to the books and were able to

determine the main idea and details compared to day 1. I believe this is due to students

understanding what the main idea and details are of a story. Students in day 2 and day 3 were

familiar with the graphic organizer which was used as a daily summative assessment. They were

able to use what they learned from day 1 and apply it into day 2 lessons, day 3 lessons, and

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summative assessments. Disaggregates data based upon contextual factors identified in Part A

such as gender, socio-economic, race, ESOL, special education didn’t play a role into student

achievement in any of the lessons.

Pattern of achievement occurred in all three days; students scored low on the pre-

assessment questions. On the formative and summative assessments data, students displayed

achievement on both forms. However, there is one student who didn’t display achievement from

the pre-assessment and the post assessment. Four of the five students met the objectives and

MCCSS standards and Essential Skills and Knowledge. Some student’s lack of achievement

was displayed during the reading. This particular group lacks the reading skills and fluency to

independently comprehend the lesson. Students needed the teacher to assist in comprehension,

word recognition, and fluency. Since student achievement was successful in all three days

additional instruction, intervention, and assessment isn’t needed besides one particular

student. This student needs additional instruction on the main idea and details so students can

fully comprehend how to determine the skill. Students achieved the lesson objective however;

since their reading level is lower I would want to teach the skills and strategies again to reassure

they learned. Five out of the five students achieved the selected MCCSS standards, RL1 With

prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (SC, K), RL10

Actively engages in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. Four out of five

students achieved the selected MCCSS standards RI2 With prompting and support, identify the

main topic and retell key details of a text. (SC, K) The fifth student will received additional

instruction on identifying the main idea and details of a text.

Overall, I am very satisfied with each group’s improvement from pre-assessment to post-

assessment. The results show me that every student met the lesson objectives. Additional

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instruction, intervention, and assessments aren’t necessary on four out of the five students due to

the student comprehension and achievement. One particular student needs additional instruction,

intervention, and assessments to determine the main idea and details of a story and to achieve the

lesson objective.

Student C will have additional one on one daily intervention to comprehend

the main idea and details. Student C will receive additional learning on the reading strategy by

using various books on reading level until she comprehends and understands the skill. Daily

assessment will be given to ensure student growth and when student receives a 90% or better on

the assessment.

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E: Reflection and Self-Evaluation

Overall, I think the planning and the execution of the lesson on main idea and details was

successful and valuable. Students made significant progress from the pre-assessment to the post-

assessment. Four out of five students showed improvement indicating students comprehended

the lesson taught. The instructional strategies used in each lesson were dependent on student’s

pre-assessment results, strengths, and needs.

For each day, learning differences of students were addressed through students reading

levels. Students were significantly below reading level therefore; the books were chosen

appropriately for student’s level. Scaffolding was applied during the activities to address student

learning differences. I helped students during the activity the most on day 1 and each day assisted

students less and less. Each day after students read, a discussion what the main idea and details

of the story were so students were comfortable completing the activity. While students were

completing graphic organizer, I taught students to look back in the book for information needed

and correct spelling on words. Students in this group didn’t have IEP accommodations and

modifications so none needed to be implemented. Each book contained cultural differences for

all students to understand and relate to. The elements of Universal Design for Learning were

incorporated into each lesson to guarantee all students learn the skills and strategies they must to

be successful. Based on student’s data, instructional strategies were effective on the majority of

the students. As stated earlier, Student C needs additional instruction based on deficit on student

achievement. Pre-assessment data displays students had little knowledge of the main idea and

details. The summative assessment data displays the majority of the students shown academic

achievement in the area of main idea and details.

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Instruction influenced student learning in all three days according to the assessment

data. Cultural and linguistic differences didn’t play a big part in any of lessons. The groups

were homogenous groups with students having similar cultural backgrounds and four out of five

students English being their first language. One student’s first language is Spanish but he

receives ESOL services. His academics aren’t effect by having English as his second language. I

used similar instructional strategies and activities daily because of student learning differences

were the same every day. The books and activities were chosen due to student’s strengths, and

weaknesses. The formative questions throughout the lessons were designed to be challenging to

students to ensure students comprehended the book and skill taught. For each lesson, the

formative questions were similar but designed to comprehend the story. This helped students to

complete the activity when they needed to use evidence from the text.

Reflecting on past lessons helps future lessons become successful and effective. Based on

student achievement data students had a difficult time understanding the supporting details of a

main idea. For the future, one implication I would add to the lesson is having students color the

details in the book. The books were in black and white so, to help students understand the details

of the story, I would have students color the details on each page. Example, “It is Spring” have

students color in worm when the author discusses how the worm pops up from the ground in

Spring. Coloring the details would allow students to comprehend the details of the story easier.

This tactic would also assist students on completing the graphic organizer more effectively and

sufficiently. Another implication I would add to the lesson, is reading a paragraph to the students

and collaboratively identity the main idea and details. This approach would help students

comprehend how to identify and what a main idea and details are. Students had some difficulty

with the vocabulary during each day; I would include more modeling to ensure student

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comprehension. Provide students more time to tap and blend unknown words until they were

able to determine the word. I was worried about the pacing and timing of the lesson so I often

had them tap and blend and I assisted on the word. Overall the lessons went well, majority of the

students showed growth from the pre- assessment to the summative assessment. There are only a

few changes I would make to future instructional lessons such as having students color in the

details while we read the book. Provide an example of what the main idea and details are of a

paragraph versus just stating the definition.

Collaborating with other educators and professionals may support in developing more

successful future instructional activities. Co-teaching with another educator may provide other

instructional strategies and activities than the ones I used to help students comprehend the main

idea and details. I was given amazing advice from an intelligent educator about coloring the

details of a story after my lesson. Personally, it was great advice and will use it in the future

when using black and white books. Collaborating with other educators and professionals can

provide you with advice on what activities worked best when they taught main idea and details.

Other educators could give you advice on strategies work best with certain types of students.

Certain strategies would work better with students who read below grade level versus students

who read above grade level. Additionally, other teachers or professionals could recommend of

books that would be more effective and valuable when discussing certain literacy skills and

strategies. Collaborating with other school based professionals allows you to expand

instructional lessons and activities.

One professional learning goal based on the CEC standards that emerged for me

through my reflection and experience was standard 3-Indivudal Learning Differences. Individual

learning differences were expressed daily in each lesson and activity. Each lesson was planned

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and executed due to student’s strengths and needs. Throughout the lessons I have learned how to

determine the ways in which a student learns and then how to adjust my instruction to teach that

child. Another professional learning based on the CEC standard that emerged through my

reflection and experience was 4- Instructional strategies. A variety of evidence based strategies

have been scientifically proven to be effective when teaching students with learning disabilities. I

incorporated these techniques and strategies into my teaching by creating and teaching units and

lessons using the evidence based strategies in both a small group and a more individualized

setting. I have implemented various instructional strategies and techniques that facilitate student

learning during my three day lessons. During my lessons, I gave students the ability to use and

apply the new skill across various settings and environments. I developed and adapted material

to accommodate to the individual needs of learners using evidence based instructional strategies

such as: using direct and explicit instruction, following the model/lead/test sequence of

instruction, moving from concrete to abstract level of instruction, providing corrective feedback

to ensure students are not practicing skills incorrectly, teaching to mastery before moving on to

new topics, and providing students with various ways to access and practice their skills in guided

practice before trying the skills independently. Other strategies that were included that help

students compensate for poor memory and retrieval include: the use of graphic organizers,

physical or verbal prompts, clearly labeled checklist or steps to follow, songs or rhymes, clear

presentation and modeling of skills, and gradual release of visual prompts. Finally, strategies to

help students compensate for poor comprehension include: providing students with text on their

ability level to prevent frustration, oral reading of text, gradual release of pictures to help find

meaning, and explicit phonics instruction to ensure students can decode words to find their

meaning.

Overall, the instructional strategies used in the lessons were successful based on

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student’s data. Additional intervention strategies will be conducted on Student C to ensure

student comprehends the main idea and details of a text.

As a future educator, in these three lessons I learned what strategies and skills I need to

become an effective teacher. This assignment was a great learning tool to become a successful

educator. I am eager and excited to continue to learn how to become a remarkable teacher.