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Cng ngh sn xut ru vang

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MC LC
LI M U.....................................................................................................3
I.TNG QUAN V NGUYN LIU.............................................................4
1. Ngh trng nho v sn xut ru vang trn th gii...............................4
2. Phn loi nho..........................................................................................4
3. Trng nho v sn xut nho Vit Nam...................................................8
4. Phn loi ru vang.................................................................................9
II. QUY TRNH SN XUT VANG ......................................................15
1. K thut x l sau thu hoch.................................................................15
1.1. Thu hoch v tin x l nho................................................................15
1.2 Thi gian v phng php thu hoch...................................................16
1.3. Lm sch v la chn nho...................................................................17
1.4. K thut v thit b x l..................................................................17
1.5. B sung SO2........................................................................................18
2. Ln men alcohol....................................................................................20
2.1 Bm o v sc kh..............................................................................20
2.2 Yu cu k thut ca must sau khi ln men cn....................................21
3. Ngm must v xc nho...........................................................................22
4. Rt must v p xc nho..........................................................................23
4.1 La chn thi im rt must................................................................23
4.2 Rt must...............................................................................................23
4.3 p xc nho...........................................................................................24
4.4.Thnh phn v cht lng ca must p t xc nho..............................25
5. Ln men malolactic................................................................................25
5.1. S chuyn i trong vang bi qu trnh ln men malolactic...............26
5.2 Kim sot qu trnh ln men malolactic...............................................26
6. K thut lm trong vang........................................................................27
6.1 Qu trnh t lm trong, t n nh......................................................27
6.2. K thut lm trong..............................................................................27
7. K thut iu chnh ru.......................................................................28
7.1 Phi trn..............................................................................................28
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7.2. Hiu chnh lng acid.........................................................................28


7.3 Tng hm lng cn............................................................................28
7.4. Hiu chnh ngt..............................................................................29
7.5. Chnh l mu v v..............................................................................29
8. n nh ru..........................................................................................29
8.1 X l nhit nng..................................................................................29
8.2. X l nhit lnh..................................................................................29
8.3 Trao i ion..........................................................................................29
8.4 X l ha hc.......................................................................................29
9. Tng tr ru.........................................................................................30
10. Chit chai v ng chai........................................................................30
III. CC YU T NH HNG N CHT LNG VANG NHO....31
1. iu kin sinh thi cu vng trng nho..................................................31
1.1.iu kin kh hu.................................................................................31
1.2. V tr a l..........................................................................................32
1.3. Tnh cht ca t trng.......................................................................32
1.4. H ng thc vt xung quanh.............................................................32
2. Tnh cht ca ging nho.........................................................................33
3. K thut trng nho.................................................................................33
4. chn v trng thi qu nho khi thu hoch..........................................34
5. Phng php thu hoch v vn chuyn..................................................34
TI LIU THAM KHO.............................................................................34

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LI M U
Trong nhng nm gn y khi kinh t v hi nhp ca Vit Nam ngy mt ha
vo i sng ca th gii th ru vang cng theo cnh ca m y vo Vit Nam ngy
mt nhiu v a dng hn.
Ru vang xut hin mi ni t cc ca hng chuyn bn cc loi vang ni
ting ca th gii ti siu th ln v ngi ta cng thy vang ni a sn xut ti Lt
xut hin ti nhiu thnh ph k c nng thn.
Ban u khi cha bit hng v ca vang, v cht ca n lm ngi ta nhn vang
vi nh mt nghi ngi nhng lu dn, t ngi ny lan sang ngi khc ngi ta ung
ru vang hu nh trong mi trng hp c cuc vui hay hp bn, mc d vang khng
phi l th c cht cn duy nht c th lm tng hng phn cho nhng cuc vui nh
th.
Vy ru vang l g, mu sc mi v ca chng ra sao, nguyn liu lm ra
ru l g. phn no hiu r hn v loi thc ung th v ny, hiu hn v cch lm
ra chng bn hy cng chng ti tm hiu v qui trnh sn xut ru vang sau y.

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I.TNG QUAN V NGUYN LIU


Ru vang (t ting Php vin) l mt loi thc ung c cn c ln men t
nc nho hoc cc hoa qu khc. S cn bng ha hc t nhin nho cho php nho ln
men khng cn thm cc loi ng, axit, enzym, nc hoc cht dinh dng
khc. Men tiu th ng trong nho v chuyn i chng thnh ru v carbon dioxit.
Ging nho khc nhau v chng nm men khc nhau to thnh cc dng khc nhau ca
ru vang. Cc dng ru vang ni ting l kt qu ca s tng tc rt phc tp gia
pht trin sinh ha ca hoa qu, cc phn ng lin quan n qu trnh ln men, cng
vi s can thip ca con ngi trong qu trnh tng th.Trong , hai loi nm men
thng s dng l: Sac.cerevisiae, Sac.ellipsoideus.
1. Ngh trng nho v sn xut ru vang trn th gii
Gi tr dinh dng ca qu nho nh sau: 100g phn n c cha 0.5g protein,
9 mg canxi, 0,6 mg st, 50 n v quc t vitamin A, 0,1 mg vitamin B1, 4 mg vitamin
C. Qu nho cha mt hm lng ln polyphenol, y l cht lm hn ch qu trnh
ng vn ca tiu cu, gim bnh nhi mu c tim, chng oxy ha, tng cng min
dch, cha cao huyt p, chng lo ha
2. Phn loi nho
Vitis vinifera, loi nho chnh dng sn xut ru vang chu u. C ngun
gc t nhin t a Trung Hi v Trung . Qu c th c mu xanh, hoc hng.
Thng xut hin nhng khu rng m t, hoc dc b sng. Loi hoang di l Vitis
vinifera sups.sylvestris. Sau y l mt s chng loi nho trn th gii ca ging nho
ny:
- Alicaten bouschet: nho , ngun gc t Php
- Cabernet Franc: nho , ngun gc t vng Bordeuxn, Php
- Cabernet Souvignon: nho , ngun gc t vng Bordeuxn, Php
- Carignan: nho , ngun gc t min bc Ty Ban Nha
- Chardonnay: nho trng, ngun gc t vng Burgundy, Php
- Gewurztraminer: nho trng, t vng Baden, c
- Grenache: nho , ngun gc t Ty Ban Nha
- Merlot: nho , ngun gc t vng Bordeuxn, Php
- Monastrell: nho , ngun gc t vng Penedes, Ty Ban Nha
- Muscat Blanc: nho trng, mi thm mnh v tinh t, v ngt, Php v
- Muller- Thurgau: nho trng, ngun gc t vng Rheinhessen v Rheinpfalz,
c
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Nebbiolo: nho , ngun gc t vng Piedmont,


Pinotage: nho , ngun gc t Nam Phi
Pinot noir: nho , ngun gc t vng Burgundy, Php
Riesling: nho trng, ngun gc t c
Sangiovese: nho , ngun gc t vng Tuscany,
Sauvignon Blanc: nho trng, ngun gc t vng Bordeuxn, Loire-Php
Semillon: nho trng, ngun gc t vng Bordeuxn, Php
Syrah: nho , ngun gc t vng Rhone, Php
Tempranillo: nho , ngun gc t vng Rioja, Ty Ban Nha
Viognier: nho trng, ngun gc t vng Rhone, Php
Viura: nho trng, ngung gc t vng Penedes, Ty Ban Nha
Zinfandel: nho , ngung gc t Balkan penninsula

Cabernet franc

Cabernet Souvignon

Grenache

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Merlot

Pinot noir

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Syrah

Hnh 1. 1. Mt vi ging nho Vitis vinifera c trng.

Chardonnay

Gewurztraminer

Muscat Blanc

Sauvignon Blanc

Semillon

Riesling

Hnh 1. 2.Mt vi ging nho trng Vitis vinifera c trng


Vitis labrusca, loi nho dng n ti v dng sn xut nc nho ti Bc
M, i khi cng c dng sn xut ru vang; c ngun gc min ng nc
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M v Canada; c b ngoi rt ging Canadian Moonseed ( Menispermum canadense)


mt loi cy c c t, c th gy cht ngi nu n mt lng nht nh. V vy, nu
s dng nho di, bt buc phi kim tra k.
Vitis riparia, loi nho hoang di Bc M, i khi dng sn xut ru vang
hay lm mt; c ngun gc min ng nc M, c kh nng chu lnh cao (-57oC)
v c kh nng chng li bnh tt c bit l chng li phylloxera. Loi nho ny
thng dng lai to cc ging nho thng mi khc.

Vitis vinifera

Vitis labrusca

Vitis rotundifolia

Vitis califonica

Vitis vulpina

Vitis aestivalis

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Vitis rotundifolia, nho musca (muscadine) hay nho x, c s dng n ti


lm mt v ru vang. C ngun gc min ng nam nc M. C kh nng thch
nghi vi thi tit m v nhiu ma. V qu mu vng ng n tm sm. C th s
dng n ti, lm ru, nc tri cy, jelly.
Vitis aestivalis, ging Norton c dng sn xut ru vang.
Vitis lincecumii, c dng lai ghp nhm to ra cc loi nho chng chu
bnh.
Vitis arizonica, mt loi nho vng sa mc min ty nam nc M, chu
c s chnh lch nhit ln. C th dng sn xut ru vang.
Vitis califonica, mt loi nho quan trng ca nghnh cng nghip sn xut ru
vang ca California v cc thn ghp ca chng c kh nng chu dch bnh v thi tit
lnh.
Vitis vulpina, loi nho chu sng mui. C ngun gc vng Trung Ty nc
M.
Vitis amurensis, ging nho c ngun gc t cc nc chu . C kh nng chu
c sng mui cao, nhng khng c kh nng chu hn. Lai to vi V. vinifera s to
ra vi loi c kh nng chu nhit thp.
Hin nay, ngi ta to ra nhiu ging nho trng, ch yu l cc ging ca
V. vinifera.
Cc loi nho lai ghp cng tn ti, ch yu l lai ghp gia V. vinifera v mt
trong cc bin chng ca V. labrusca, V. riparia hay V. aestivalis. Cc ging lai ghp c
xu hng t nhy cm vi sng mui v dch bnh, nhng ru vang sn xut t
chng c th c mi v chua trng ca labrusca.
3. Trng nho v sn xut nho Vit Nam
Vit Nam c kh hu nit i c trng vi m cao v c ma nhiu vo ma
h. a hnh ca Vit Nam c nhiu dc, c kh nng gim bt kh hu nhit i v to
ra nhiu vng kh hu c trng ring, trong c nhng ni c th thch hp cho ngh
trng nho. Vn nho c trng u tin l vo cui th k 19, do ngi Php a
ging nho Vitis vinifera vo trng ti vng ni Ba V. Vo cui th k 20 cc ging nho
Vitis vinifera c thay i dn vi cc dng mi hn gn vi cc ging, nh:
Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay,Vi kh hu nng quanh nm, min nam Vit Nam
c th thu hoch ba v trong nm, trong tp trung ch yu ti Ninh Thun.
Cc thit k vn nho ti Vit Nam c lm theo gin, nhm to s thng gi,
gim m v gim tc ng ca cc bo t nm mc ln cy nho.
3.1. Mt s ging nho c trng tai Vit Nam
Hin nay c nhiu ging nho c phn ging thnh cng v cho nng xut cao
c trng Vit Nam nh ging nho n ti NH01-93, NH01-48, NH-01-96,
ging Cardinal (nho ) v ging nho lm nguyn liu cho ch bin ru NH02-90.
Ging Cardinal (nho ) l ging quan trng ca Vit Nam v cc nc quanh
vng nh Philippines, Thi Lan, c nhiu u im: m p d vn chuyn, sinh
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trng nhanh, cht lng kh. Ging nho (Cardinal) c nhp vo Vit Namc mu , qu trn, Brix vo khong 14- 15 Brix, c u im hn cc ging khc
l t ct cnh n chn ch khong 90 ngy, mt nm c th thu ba v. Tuy nhin ging
Cardinal c kh nng chng bnh km.
Ging nho n ti NH01-93 c thi gian sinh trng t 110-125 ngy k t khi
ct cnh, di hn ging Cardinal c v thi gian sinh trng v thi gian chn. Ging
c kh nng sinh trng tng t ging Cardinal, kh nng khng mt s su bnh hi
chnh tng ng hoc cao hn so vi Cardinal v cao hn NH01-48. Ging c khi
lng qu to hn hai ging Cardinal v NH01-48, c Brix tng ng vi
Cardinal, c mi hng c trng, qu c mu tm en, hnh ovan rt ph hp th hiu
ngi tiu dng.
Ging nho n ti NH01-96 c thi gian sinh trng 115-120 ngy k t khi
ct cnh,dai hn so vi ging i chng Cardinal. Ging c kh nng sinh trng tt
hn so vi ging Cardinal, kh nng khng mt s su bnh hi chnh tng ng
vi Cardinal. Khi lng qu bin ng t 5,5-7,2 g cao hn nhiu so vi ging
Cardinal v NH01-48, nng sut bnh qun 12 tn/ha/v, vt i chng t 1-2 tn, c
Brix kh cao (16-17%), cao hon so vi Cardinal, c mi hng c trng, qu c
mu xanh vng.
Ging nho lm nguyn liu ch bin ru NH02-90 c kh nng sinh trng
mnh, chng chu tt i vi su bnh hi, nng sut t trn 10 tn/ha/v. Brix
trn 17% v cc ch tiu ph hp cho sn xut ru vang theo tiu chun cht lng
ca c s sn xut vang nho. Tuy nhin mi ch t mc cht lng tp chp nhn.
Ging nho n ti NH01-48, khi chn qu c mu xanh, ht t ( t 1 n 2 ht/
qu ), ng cao (17-19 Brix), cho bng, nng xut cao v n nh. Cht
lng ca ging ny tng ng vi sn phm cng loi.
Ging nho Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah v Canadoc, sp ti s c thm ging nho
Grenache v Cinsaut) c trng ti T Nung. Cabernet v Merlot c dng to
nn cu trc c bn ca vang, Syrah mang n mi v mnh m, Canadoc gp phn to
mu sc v cht. Vang T Nung c pha trn t 4 ging nho ny theo t l thch
hp to nn bn sc ring.
3.2. Din tch trng nho ti Vit Nam
Nc ta cy nho c xc nh l cy ch lc nn tp trung pht trin nhng
khu vc khng b gp ng, c iu kin kh hu v thi tit t ai kh ph hp cho
cy nho pht trin nh cc x Phc Hu, Phc Sn, Phc Nam, Phc Thun,
Phc Dn v mt phn khu ti Tn Giang, Bu Zn, La Ranh( huyn Ninh Phc ),
Thnh Hi v Vinh( th x Phan Rang- Thp Chm ).
Nho trng nhiu vng Phan Rang Ninh Thun v y c nhng iu kin
thun tin nht. Phan Rang c lng ma thp nht nc, vo khong 750-850
mm/nm v khng kh tng i kh. t ph sa ven sng Dinh( Phan Rang ), su,
giu cht dinh dng, lun thot nc v l t trng nho tt.

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Ti Ninh Thun din tch trng nho khong 1650ha, chim 3-3,5% tng din
tch. Tp trung ch yu huyn Ninh Phc, Ninh Hi v th x Phan Rang Thp
Chm, sn lng hng nm chim 15-20% tng gi tr sn xut nng nghip ca tnh
Ninh Thun. Trong ging Cardinal chim 80% din tch, 20% l ging nho NH0148 cn li l Black Queen v mt s ging nho khc (Ninh Thun- Trang thng tin in
t- 2007).
cy nho Vit Nam c th cnh tranh c vi cc loi nho nhp khu cng
loi v hng ti sn xut nho an ton th cn phi c nhng bin php quy hoch vng
sn xut nho cht lng cao, tp trung u t nng cao trnh cho cn b k thut
v cho ngi sn xut.
4. Phn loi ru vang
Mt s ni phn loi ru da vo tnh cht chung ca ru: Still wine ru
vang khng c s si bt; sparkling wine vang n, sm banh, c s si bt mnh;
fortified wine ru c b sung alcohol. Hai loi sau thng b cc nc nh gi
cao hn. Ngoi ra ru cn c phn loi theo mu sc v ngun gc. S phn loi
ny da trn phng php sn xut, thi quen tiu dng, danh tingca ru. Theo
quy c chung ru vang s c phn loi nh sau:
- Ru vang thng dng- table wine: c cn t 9-14%
- sparkling wine- vang n v champagne
- Ru c b sung alcohol fortified wine: cn t 17-22%
4.1. Ru vang thng dng still table wine
Hu ht cc loi vang u thuc chng loi vang ny.
Bng 1. 1.Mt s loi ru vang thng dng (Ronald S Jackson, 2002)
Vang trng
Nn s dng khi vang cn tr ( t khi
trng thnh trong thng g si )
Hng khng
Hng c trng
c trng
Trebbiano
Muller- Thurgau
Muscadet

Kerner

Folle blanche
Chasselas
Aligote

Pinot grigio
Chenin blanc
Seyval blanc

Cn lm chn k trc khi s dng


( trng thnh trong thng g si )
Hng khng c
Hng c trng
trng
Sauternes
Riesling
Vernaccia di san
Chardonnay
Gimgnano
Vin Santo
Sauvignon blanc
Parellada
Semillon

Vang
Nn s dng khi vang cn tr
Hng khng
Hng c trng
c trng

Cn lm chn k trc khi s dng


Trng thnh
Trng thnh
trong thng g
trong thng g
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truyn thng
Gamay

Dolcetto

Tempranillo

Grenache
Carignan
Barbera

Grignolino
Baco noir
Lambrusco

Sangiovese
Nebbiolo
Garrafeira

Cabernet
Sauvignon
Pinot noir
Syrah
Zinfandel

Vang Rose
Kh

Ngt

Tavel
Mateus
Vang rose Cabernet
Pink chablis
Vang trng Zinfandel
Rosato
Mt vi loi vang Blush
Mt vi loi vang Blush
Ch in nghing l tn ging nho c s dng trong sn xut ru vang
Trong sn xut ru vang, thi gian vi nm u ca qu trnh lm chn vang
thng tc ng n hng v c trng khc nhau ca vang. V vy, c nhng loi
vang vn c yu thch v c gi cao, d cho cn tr. Rt nhiu vng ca chu u
khng ch trng n ngun gc khc nhau ca ging nho, trn nhn hiu, v ngay c
ngi tiu dng hin nay cng khng qu n ging nho. Bi thc t sn xut cho
thy, phn ln cc loi vang trn th trng c sn xut t hn hp ca mt vi ging
nho, nh tnh cht ca vang c ci thin. Do vy, ngay c ging nho cng mang
tn vng min m n xut x.
4.1.1. Vang trng
Vang trng l loi vang rt ph bin v a dng. Chim ch yu l loi vang kh
hng v ti mt, phng pht mi tri cy, c chua cn i. Qu trnh nn men
mt tao nn v duy tr cc ester tri cy. Vic lu tr vang trong trng thi lnh s
lm chm qu trnh thy phn, gip cho vic duy tr mi thm ca cc ester. Cc ester
tri cy hnh thnh bi cc nm men, trong qu trnh nn men, cc ging nho ch nh
hng mt phn nh n qu trnh hnh thnh cc ester ny. V vy, vic la chn
ging nm men l rt quan trng.
a s vang trng l loi vang kh, tng ng vi vic s dng chng nh mt
thc ung thng dng. Vi hng v ti mt, chua nh - vang trng lm tng
hng v ca ba n v lm gim mi tanh trong cc mn thy hi sn.
Vang trng ngt hoc na ngt (semi- sweet) thng c lm lnh trc khi s
dng v c thng thc tng ngm nh - trng ming.
4.1.2. Vang
Dng vang hin i cng gn nh vang kh. S thiu ngt cng c xem
nh l tnh cht c trng ca loi vang ny. Thm , qu trnh lm chn k em li
hng v v mu sc c trng cho vang. Lng tanin c lm du li, ng thi
hng v c hon thin.
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Phn ln cc vang c lm chn k v trng thnh trong cc thng g si.


Qu trnh sn xut vang ph thuc vo xu hng tiu dng. Vang cha trng
thnh s c cht gt, mu sng, mi thm nh.
4.1.3. Vang rose
Vang rose cn c gi l vang nh hng hay vang ng blush wine. Vang
rose thng khng c nhng ngi snh iu coi trng. Mt phn v vng c v ng
nhng li khng phi hng v c trng ca vang , mt phn n li khng mang
tnh ti mt hay hng v tri cy nh vang trng. t c mu sc nh mong
mun, phi thi gian ngm v nho, iu dn n v ng ca vang bi phenol. V
vy, phn ln vang rose c v na ngt che i v ng.
Phn ln cc loi nho u c th s dng sn xut vang rose. Mc du
vy, nho Grenache l mt trong nhng ging nho c s dng nhiu nht.
4.2. Vang n - Champagne
Vang n l vang c mt mc CO2 nht nh trong vang lm cho vang
si bt. CO2 c th c t qu trnh ln men ln hai trong chai theo phng php sn
xut champagne truyn thng, hoc ln men ln hai trong thng ln c thit k
chng li sc nn ca CO2.
Vang n c phn loi theo lng CO2 c th nh sau:
- Sparkling: c lng CO2 t 3 bar tr ln ( o 20oC ), c hnh thnh t
qu trnh ln men th hai. Qu trnh ln men ny c th din ra trong chai
hoc trong thng. Vang phi c lm chn ti thiu l mt k trc khi ln
men ln hai.
- Semi sparkling: c lng CO2 t 1 -2,5 bar ( o 20oC ), c hnh thnh
t qu trnh ln men th 2 trong chai hoc trong thng v cng c th b
sung vo bng phng php nhn to. Lng cn c trong semi sparkling
thp hn so vi parkling.
c trng ca loi vang ny l c cha nhiu bt kh CO2. Vang n c th l
vang kh hoc na kh. Vang mang c trng ca ging nho trng v ph thuc vo
thi gian thy phn cc hp cht di tc ng ca nm men trong qu trnh sn xut.
Bng 1. 2. Mt s loi vang n thng dng (Ronald S Jackson, 2002;
K.MacNeil, 2001)
B sung hng
Hng tri cy
B sung CO2
Cc loi vang n
thng dng

Hng m
Ngt, lm t
nho x
Asti ( )

Khng b sung hng


Hng tinh t
Phng php truyn
B sung CO2
thng(kh n ngt )
Frizzant ( )
Champagne ( Php )
Perlwein ( c )
Cremant ( Php, EU)
Petillant ( php )
Cava (Ty Ban Nha )
Lambrusco
Cap classique( Nam
Vinho Verd( B o Nha ) Phi)
Vino de Aguja(Ty Ban
Spumante( )
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Sekt( c, o, Czech)
Sovetskoye
Shampanskoye (Nga
v Belarus)
Andre, Cooks, Totts
(USA)
White cliffs of Dover
(UK)

4.3. Ru vang c b sung cn (fortified wine)


4.3.1. Sherry
Sherry l loi ru c b sung cn. Qu trnh sn xut sherry c nt c trng
bi s hnh thnh lp nm men trn b mt vang (floc), t c nhng nh hng
khc nhau n hng v v mu sc ca vang. C cc loi sherry:
- Fino: loi sherry kh c mu sng
- Manzanilla: mt bin th ca Fino sherry
- Amontillado: u tin c lm chn di lp floc ca nm men, sau cho
oxy ha. Dn n ru c mu sng hn oloroso v ti hn fino.
- Oloroso: trong qu trnh lm chn b oxy ha mt thi gian di hn l fino v
Amotillado, ru c mu ti v mang nhiu hng v.
- Palo cortado: u tin c lm chn di lp floc ca nm men nh
amotillado, sau c s l nh oloroso. Ru giu hng v hn oloroso
nhng li ti mt hn amotillado.
- Sherry ngt (Jerez Dulce): hnh thnh khi phi trn Sherry vi cc ru ngt
nh Moscatel.
4.3.2. Port
Port c lm t vang v i khi l vang trng ca vng Duoro thuc B
o Nha. Qu trnh ln men b lm ngng li khi b sung thm mt lng brandy, nh
vy gi li lng ng nho t nhin. C cc loi Port:
- Ruby port: c mu hng ngc, c thnh trng t 2-3 nm trc khi ng
chai. C gi r nht v c tiu th nhiu nht trong cc loi Port.
- White port: lm t nho trng, c nhiu loi; kh, na ngt, ngt. Mu sc
gn ging amaroso sherry. Thng dng lm ru nn cho cc loi cocktail.
- Tawny port: lm t nho , trng thnh trong thng g, c mu vng nu.
Thi gian thnh trng c th t 10 40 nm.
4.3.3. Madeira
Cc chng loi thng thng:
- Malvasia: lm t nhm nho Malvasia c ngun gc Hy Lp.
- Bual: lm t t nht 4 loi nho trng thuc nhm nho Bual.

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Verdelho: chng loi nho c tnh cht nm gia Bual v Serical, ru t loi
nho ny c hng v nhiu hn Bual nhng li khng kh bng Sercial.
- Sercial: tn ca mt vi ging nho trng trng ti Mandeira. c dng
sn xut loi Mandeira kh nht v c v chua c trng.
- Mt s loi khc nh: Terrantez, Bastardo
4.3.4. Vermouth
Cc loi vermouth hin i thng bt ngun t v Php. Cc vermouth c
cn t 16-18%, lng ng t 4-16%. Vermouth ca Php cha khong 18%
cn v 4% ng. ngt ca ru lm che bt i v ng ca ru. Ru nn c
lm t vang trng trung tnh.
Sau khi trch ly hng, ru c lm chn t 4-6 thng. Trong sut qu trnh
ny cc thnh phn trong ru ha quyn vi nhau. Trc khi ng chai ru c th
c lc tit trng hoc thanh trng.
C nhiu loi Vermouth kh nhau ph thuc vo cng thc v cch thc pha
ch, nh: Cinzano, Martini, Canpari, Gancia, Noilly Prat,
4.3.5. Marsala
Vang Marsala c b sung thm ethyl alcoho nhm c th vn chuyn di trn
bin m khng s h hng.
Marsala c mu h phch m, v cn mnh (16 -20% nng cn ). C cc
loi ch yu:
- Fine: thi gian lm chn ngn, nhng t nht l mt nm.
- Superiore: thi gian lm chn t nht 2 nm.
- Superiore Riserva: thi gian lm chn t nht 4 nm.
- Vergine elo Solera: thi gian lm chn t nht 5 nm
- Vergine elo Soleras Stravecchio e Vergine elo Riserva: thi gian lm chn t
nht 10 nm.

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II. QUY TRNH SN XUT VANG


Thu hoch v vn chuyn nho
nh nt v loi cng
B sung CO2
B sung nm men
( nu cn )

Ln Men cn v ngm nho


p nho

B sung vi khun
( nu cn )

Hon thin qu trnh ln men cn

Ln men Malolactic
( nu cn )

iu chnh v hon thin


Thnh trng trong tank
Lm trong
Phi trn ( nu cn )
Hon thin v n nh
ng chai/ Tng tr

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1. K thut x l sau thu hoch


1.1. Thu hoch v tin x l nho
Qu trnh thu hoch nho c tc ng ln n cht lng must trc khi ln men.
Nho trong sn xut ru vang c thu hoch tt nht l khi chn. Tuy nhin,
khng phi lc no nho thu hoch cng l loi chn ng b, nht l trong iu kin
thi tit nng. C nhiu phng php nng hm lng ng v acid trong nho
trc khi thu hoch.
Sau khi thu hoch, qu nho vn gi cc enzyme trong thnh phn ca n. Cc
enzyme ny s tc ng n mt s qu trnh sinh ha. i vi cc nho b gip nt, th
hot tnh ca enzyme cn mnh hn. Chnh v vy phi rt ch trng n qu trnh thu
hoch v chuyn ch.
1.2 Thi gian v phng php thu hoch
Cn lu v thi gian thu hoch nho:
- Thu hoch nho c chn theo yu cu
- Sau khi tri ma hm lng cc cht trong nho s b pha long. m cao
l mi trng tt cho vi sinh vt pht trin. Cc chm nho s b tc ng xu
trong qu trnh thu hoch v vn chuyn. Tng t nh vy vi thi tit c
nhiu sng.
Tt nht l thu hoch khi b mt nho kh. Tuy nhin phi lu v thi gian
x l sao cho tht nhanh, do qu trnh chuyn ha s bt u ngay sau khi hi nho, v
nu xy ra qu di trong thi tit nng, s nh hng khng tt n cht lng vang
sau ny.
Vit Nam ch yu thu hoch bng tay. Qu trnh thu hch bng tay s lm gim
bt s gip nt ca nho, v gim hm lng cc tp cht ln vo gia cc chm nho
tuy nhin, qu trnh ny yu cu thi gian v nhn cng. Thu hoch bng my nhanh
hn (4- 10 tn/h), tuy nhin yu cu quy hoch vn nho theo lung, nho thu c ln
nhiu tp cht ( l, cnh, su b) v b gip nhiu hn so vi thu hoch bng tay.
trnh vic cc qu nho b p v b di chuyn nhiu, khng nn s dng cc
thng qu ln ng nho sau khi hi. Cc thng ny ln va c th di chuyn
m khng cn di di bt lng nho bn trong.
Mt s loi xe chuyn dng c thng ng nho c nh cng s dng c. Nho
s c trc tip vo trong thng xe, sau c vn chuyn v a thng vo ni
tip nhn. Loi xe ny lm gim bt nhn cng s dng trong vic di chuyn cc thng
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nho. Tuy nhin phi ch trng n vic v sinh, hn ch tc nhn gy h hng nho n
t xe v qu trnh chuyn ch.
Sau khi thu hoch, nho cn vn chuyn ngay n ni s l, trnh lu s c
nh hng khng tt cho qu trnh sn xut sau ny.

Hnh 2. 1 .Thu hoch nho bng my


1.3. Lm sch v la chn nho
Nu thu hoch bng my th khu lm sch v phn loi rt quan trng. Do qu
trnh thu hoch bng my lm ln rt nhiu l, cng nho v cc tp cht khc. Trong
thc t , nhiu ni vn phi s dng bin php th cng la chn nho.
Vic thu hoch th cng c li th khng th bc b c trong khu ny. Qu
trnh l sch c th c thc hin ngay trong lc thu hoch nho. Ngi hi nho cn
c tp s trc thc hin quy trnh hi cho hiu qu.
1.4. K thut v thit b x l
1.4.1. Tip nhn v vn chuyn nho
C nhiu dng thit b tip nhn nho khc nhau. Cc thit b ny phi m bo
vic di chuyn nho t xe n thit b s l c nhanh v trnh lm gip nt nho.
Nhng ni sn xut th cng, vic thu hoch nho c thc hin bng tay, nho c
ng trong cc thng nh. C ni ch cn c bng ti la chn nho cho d dng. C
ni thc hin vic la nho khi thu hoch th s a thng vo thng cha ca thit b
nh nt nho.
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Hnh 2. 2. Mt vi h thng tip nhn v vn chuyn nho( Jacquet P., 1990,


1995): a/ h thng ngang, c trc vt; b/ h thng thang my, c trc vt; c/ H thng
; d/ H thng , s dng phu c trc nng; e/ H thng thang my, c bng ti la
chn nho 1. Toa mc c trc vt; 2. Toa mc c h thng thang my; 3. Toa nng; 4.
Thit b lm dp nho loi cng nho; 5. Bm nho; 6. Phu tip nhn; 7. Phu tip nhn
c h thng nng dng thang my, c th iu chnh lng nho cn lm dp; 8. Bng
ti la nho.

Hnh 2. 3. H thng tip nhn v vn chuyn nho n thit b lm dp nho


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Vi nhng c s ln hn, nho c thu hoch bng my v vn chuyn n


phn xng bng kho chuyn dng. Sau c a n h thng tip nhn v phn
loi.
C nhiu ni trn th gii, gim tc ng ca nhit v nh sng mt tri
n qu trnh thu hoch v vn chuyn, ngi ta thu hoch nho vo ban m.
1.4.2. Qu trnh nh nt
Mc ch ca qu trnh lm nt l x rch v nho, gii phng tht qu v nc
nho, tuy nhin li khng c nghin nt v, ht v cng nho cng cc tp cht khc.
Qu trnh ny thu c dch nho d dng hn, tng hiu sut ln men, gim
lng ng tn ng trong dch t thit b p, tng hiu qu ca qu trnh ngm nho.
Theo truyn thng, thng dng chn lm nt nho. Hin nay vn p dng
mt vi ni. Tuy nhin, a s cc ni s dng my thc thi cng on ny.
Kt qu thu c sau khi lm nt nho:
- Nc nho c sc kh v c trn u vi nm men c trong nho. Qu
trnh ln men din ra nhanh hn. Nhit cao hn.
- Vic sc kh c th em li mt s bt li nh gia tng qu trnh lm thi
nho, kch thch hot tnh ca cc oxidase.
- C th dng bm bm nho lm nt.
- Qu trnh sulfite ha s din ra tt hn, do d ng nht hn.
- Ton b nc nho c th ln men vo mt thi im. Do hu ht ng s i
theo nc nho, trong xc nho ch cn li rt t. Do dch thu c t thit
b p nho s khng nhiu.
- To iu kin thun li cho qu trnh ngm v chit xut anthocyanin cng
nh ha tan tannin.

Hnh 2. 4 .Cc dng trc trong thit b lm nt nho: 1/ Trc c dng xon c; 2/
Trc c rnh vi cc mt ct ni lin nhau. (Pascal R.Q et al., 2006)
1.4.3. Qu trnh tch cng
Kt qu thu c sau khi lm tch cng:
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Lm gim lng cha trong tank cha n 30%. Hiu sut nn ca my nn


xc nho c tch cng s cao hn.
Qu trnh ln men khi c cng nho lun hon thin hn khi khng c cng
nho. u im ca cng nho l m bo mt lng kh nht nh cho qu
trnh ln men, hn ch s tng nhit ( do hp thu mt phn nng lng ).
Cng nho lm thay i thnh phn ca vang. Nc vi rt t ng trong
cng s lm gim cn. Tuy nhin nha ca cng nho li cha nhiu kali
v t acid. Loi b cng nho s lm tng acid ca must v lm tng cn
hnh thnh sau ny.
Vi nho Botrytis, cng nh bo v mu ca vang khi oxidase.
Tc ng r rt nht ca cng nho l tc ng n lng tannin. Theo nhiu
kho st, th 54% tng lng tannin ca chm nho l t v nho, 25% t ht,
21% t cng.

Hnh 2. 5.Thit b tch cng: a/ thit b truc nm; b/ Thit b trc ng; - 1. Phu
np liu; 2. Trc vi cc cnh tay quay; 3. Thng c c l; 4. Ca ra ca cng; 5. Ca
ra ca nho loi cng
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Hnh 2. 6.Pha trong ca thit b nh nt loi cng

Hnh 2. 7.Nho sau khi nh nt, loi cng


1.5. B sung SO2
Mc ch ca vic s dng SO2 nhm dit khun v chng oxy ha.
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Nn b sung SO2 vo trc qu trnh ln men. Vic sunfite ha cho tng phn
on th tc ng s hiu qu hn, vid d: t cng on nh nt n cng on p
nho, mi cng on nn dng mt phn SO2.
SO2 thng dng di dng KHSO3 hoc K2S2O5, tuy nhin khng dng dng
nguyn cht m thng pha vi nc thnh dung dch ri mi pha vo tank phi trn,
i vi KHSO3 thng c pha vi nng 18 20 %. Vi K2S2O5 pha vi nng
10%
Trong sn xut vang lng SO2 cho vo khi s l nho v must l 75
100mg/L trong qu trnh ln men malolatic bt u th lng thm vo l 0 -50
mg/L v i khi khng cn p dng.
1.5.1. Mt s im lu khi cho must v xc nho vo bn cha
Hn hp ny chuyn vo bn cha. Thng c chuyn vo bng phng
php th cng. C ni x dng bm, lc ny phi lu n tc ng ca bm ti xc
nho cng nh khong cch t thit b x l n bn cha.
Hn hp c chuyn vo bn sao cho cn cha li 20% th tch trng. C mt
vi ni x dng cht chng to bt, lc ny th tch cn cha li s t hn.
Sulfite s c cho vo hn hp trong sut thi gian np liu sao cho ng nht.
Cn kim sot lng nm men s dng. C th dng nm men t nhn ging
(khong 106 t bo/mL) hoc nm men kh (nm men thng mi, 10-25g/hL) b
sung vo bn cha.
Cn iu chnh lng acid trong khi np liu hoc khi kt thc qu trnh np
liu (tuy nhin cn khuy u). Lng ng iu chnh cng cn lm ngay khi must
cn m hoc qu trnh ln men ch mi bt u.
B sung thm ngun Nito cho nm men bng ammonium sulphate (10-30g/hL)
ngay khi va kt thc qu trnh np liu hay qu trnh ln men ch mi bt u.
Vic b sung tanin c th lm trong sut qu trnh ln men nu thy cn thit.
Nu s dng khong 20-50g/hL th mc tanin c th tng ln khong 10%. Tuy nhin
theo mt s nh nghin cu, tanin kh trn u trong must, v vy tt hn l s s dng
v sau, khi cn.
tng lng hp cht phenol c th s dng enzyme pectolytic (2-4g/hL).
Ngoi ra cn c th dng glycosidase nhm mc ch trch ly cc terpen d dng hn.
Qu trnh rt must ch c bt u thc hin khi hon tt vic np liu vo bn
cha v dch bt u tch ra khi b.
1.5.2. Cc hin tng chnh din ra trong bn cha
C nhiu kiu bn len men khc nhau. Tuy nhin chng u c h thng sc kh
nhm cung cp khng kh cho nm men v iu khin qu trnh tip xc vi v nho
c th trch c lng hp cht phenol nh mong mun.
Trong qu trnh ln men, mt lng kh hnh thnh. Cc bt kh s ni ln trn
cng vi lp xc nho, to thnh mt lp che ph dch ln men. Xc nho ng mt vai
tr quan trng trong qu trnh ngm, cc thnh phn c trong xc nho (anthocyanin v
tanin) rt cn thit cho vic to nn cc tnh cht ring ca vang sau ny. Qu trnh
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tng trng ca nm men cng c bit mnh lit trong lp xc nho: 10-50.106 t
bo/mL trong dch y ca tank ln men, v 150-200.106 t bo/mL trong dch rt t
xc nho.
Trong nhng phn xng nh, ngi ta vn thng hay m np ca bn cha
nhm tng lng khng kh tip xc vi dch ln men. K thut ny khng c
khuyn co p dng, d cho c gim bt nng lng cho vic st kh, ng thi y
nhanh qu trnh ln men. Nhng li lm tng nguy c xm nhp ca cc vi sinh vt c
hi.
Khi qu trnh ln men mnh chm dt th lp xc nho ni bn trn s khng th
bo v dch ln men khi cc tc nhn gy hi hiu kh c na. Cc vi sinh vt hiu
kh s pht trin mnh trong lp xc nho ny khi lng CO2 thot ra v gim dn. Vo
lc qu trnh ln men chm li, lp xc nho s dn dn chm xung, mang theo c cc
vi sinh vt hiu kh. Trong cc phn xng nh, vic c cc l kh trn lp xc nho
kh thot ra v khng cho chm xung y c nh thc hin bng tay. Khi cn thit
ngi ta cng thit k h thng t ng lm vic ny. C mt s ni, ngi ta thit
k khung gi cho lp xc nho khng chm xung v lun pha trn ca dch ln
men. Must s c o kh bi cc lng kh thot ra t qu trnh ln men. Cc vi
khun acetic cng kh xm nhp v pht trin trong must. Tuy nhin, nhc im l
cc phn t trong lp xc nho s kh ha tan trong must.
Tuy nhin cn lu rng, trong cc bn cha theo phng php th cng, qu
trnh ngm sau khi qu trnh ln men ngng to CO2 thng khng c ko di.
Thng thng, trong cc h thng th cng, must s c rt ngay khi dch ln men
khi qu trnh ln men alcohol kt thc. Vic ngm thm mt thi gian ngn ch nhm
trch cc cht c trong v nho ra c nhiu hn, v nu ko di qu trnh ny trong
mt mi trng khng m bo v trng th s to ra nhiu acid bay hi c trong
must c p t xc nho sau ny.
Trong cc tank ln men hin i c thit k kn, CO2 s c cho thot ra mt
phn khi t n mt mc nht nh. S khc bit vi khng kh s m bo cho qu
trnh ngm ko di n mc yu cu. Khng kh sc vo trong qu trnh ln men l
khng kh sch, m bo cho vic ngm v ln men khng b cc tc nhn gy nhim
xm nhp vo.
Vi cc tank ln men c thit k kn, lng cn tht thot cng gim i rt
nhiu. Cht lng ca must ln men p t xc nho cng tng ln. Loi tank ln men
ny cng rt thch hp cho qu trnh ln men malolatic.

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Hnh 2. 8.Tank t ng tho xc nho: a,b. theo trng lc; c. Theo bng ti dng
trc vt; d. Tank t xoay, ph v lp xc v y ra ngoi; e. Tank trt theo h thng
thy lc

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Hnh 2. 9.Thng ln men vang : a. Loi h; b.c. Loi quay


2. Ln men alcohol
2.1 Bm o v sc kh

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Hnh 2. 10.S vn hnh h thng bm o, dng chy ca must c thit k


trn v di lp xc nho (P: bm )
Cc thng ln men h d cho c y li vn c nhng nhc im nh: bay hi
alcohol hnh thnh, cc vi sinh vt gy hi xm nhp, V vy xu hng s dng cc
thng ln men dng kn ngy cng nhiu.
Vi cc thng ln men dng kn, m bo cho qu trnh ln men v qu trnh
trch ly cc cht t xc nho c hon ho, th h thng bm o v sc kh cn c
thit k cho ph hp. Qu trnh bm o s cung cp oxy cho nm men pht trin, y
nhanh qu trnh ln men. Ngoi ra qu trnh ny cn gip vic lm ng nht nhit ,
lng ng, lng nm men c trong ton b dch ln men.
Lng oxy ha tan trong must vo khong 6 8mg/L ph thuc vo nhit
vn hnh. m bo cho qu trnh ln men c tt th oxy c bm b sung 2 ln,
nng ln khong 10 20mg/L. Ph thuc vo cht lng nho c th a ra lng
oxy b sung cho ph hp. Vi nho sch bnh, c th b sung nhiu oxy. Vi nho b dp
v mc, cn cn thn vi lng enzyme oxidase trong nho lm h hng hng v v
mi ca vang sau ny. Vi lng oxy c b sung ph hp, qu trnh ln men din ra
nhanh hn, t hiu qu cao hn.
Bng 2. 1.nh hng ca qu trnh sc kh n tc ln men (Ribrau Gayon
et el.,1951)
Thi
gian ln men
1 ngy

Tank s dng bm o
kh
Nhit
T
(
trng
22
1,088

Tanks khng s dng


bm o kh
Nhit
T trng

(
23

1,088

2 ngy

26

1,084

26

1,084

4 ngy

32

1,047

29

1,073

6 ngy

20

0,996

27

1,045

10 ngy

27

1,020

20 ngy

20

1,002

Theo nguyn tc, khong 1/3 lp xc nho l lng bn trn dch lng, cn li 2/3
th chm trong dch lng. V vy, i khi, cng cn phi ti must ln trn lp xc nho
m bo qu trnh trch ly c tt hn, tuy nhin khng c lm chm lp xc
nho.
C mt s ni li o trn c lp xc nho,nhm mc ch trch ly ra c nhiu
cht nht t xc nho. Vi tank kn th iu ny c th thc hin c, m khng lm
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tng lng acid bay hi cng nh cc cht to nhim trong dch ln men. Cc bc c
bn ca k thut bm o v sc kh:
- Sau khi np liu, h thng bm o hot ng nhm ng nht hn hp, trn
u SO2, trn u nm men v cc cht h tr k thut khc.
- Bm sc khng kh sch khi hn hp bt u qu trnh ln men (thng bt u
sau khi np liu mt ngy).
- Trong sut qu trnh ln men (khong 2 6 ngy), qu trnh bm o s tc
ng n qu trnh trch ly cc hp cht phenol, tn sut bm ph thuc vo loi
nho v loi vang sn xut.
- Sau khi ln men, trong tank kn, qu trnh bm o phi ngng li. vi cc tank
h, th qu trnh bm o vn c tip tc di lp xc nho. Vi loi must cn
ngm lu hn th tip tc bm o tng phn khong 2 ln/ngy cho n khi lp
xc nho bt u chm xung.
2.2 Yu cu k thut ca must sau khi ln men cn
Qu trnh ln men ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t: nhit , lng ng, mc
sc kh, lng nm men, phm cht nm men,
Cui qu trnh ln men cn cn kim sot lng acid malic v s chuyn ha
ca acid ny. Vic din ra ln men malolatic sm thng l do s dng khng lng
sulfite v qu trnh ln men cn b mt vi tr ngi. trong t nhin, hai qu trnh ln
men ny c th din ra song song, d cho c hin tng i khng gia nm men v vi
khun. mc d vy, ln men malolatic sm s nh hng n qu trnh ln men cn.
Lng acid hay hi thng c hnh thnh bi cc vi khun tp nhim.
Thng bt u hnh thnh khi khi ng qu trnh ln men malolatic, v c ch qu
trnh ln men cn trc khi ln men ht lng ng cn thit. V vy, vic kim sot
v sinh thit b l rt cn thit trnh hin tng tp nhim, gy nh hng n qu
trnh ln men cn.
Ngay c nm men cng c th to ra acid bay hi, tt nhin l vi lng rt
thp, khong 0.4-0.6g/L tnh theo acid H2SO4 hay 0.5-0.7g/L tnh theo acid acetic.
Trong sn xut vang , khi nhit cao hn 28oC th lng acid bay hi bt u tng.
T trng ca dch ln men cng cn c kim sot. Khi qu trnh ln men kt
thc, t trng ca must ln men s vo khong 0.991-0.996, ph thuc vo lng cn
hnh thnh. Must ln men mt cch t do lun c t trng thp hn so vi must p t
xc nho, do loi must p ny c cha nhiu cht trch ly hn.
Lng ng cn li sau ln men thng t hn 2g/L, ph thuc vo qu trnh
ln men alcohol v yu cu ca vang.
3. Ngm must v xc nho
Mc ch ca quy trnh ny l to nn mu, mi, v c trng cho vang . Cc
hp cht phenol c trch ly gp phn to nn cc tnh cht ring . Trong xc
nho cha ch yu l v nho, ht nho v cng nho. Cc cht t cng nho to nn v tho
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mc, t ht nho to nn s cng v hi rp, trong khi cc cht t v nho hnh thnh
nn s mm mi ca vang. Kt hp hi ha gia cc cht s to nn hng v c trng
cn bng ca vang . Loi v hm lng cc hp cht phenol gia cc c quan v cc
loi nho rt khc nhau, phu thuc c vo chn ca nho v cc yu t khc. Ngoi
nhng hp cht c li cho hng v ca vang, cn c nhng cht gy kh chu cho
vang c trong xc nho. Tuy nhin, nhng cht c li c tch ra trc nhng cht
khng c li trong qu trnh trch ly. Chnh v vy, qu trnh ngm c iu chnh v
phn on, sao cho nhng cht hu ch cho vang phi c ha tan, ch khng phi tt
c cc cht.
Cc cht trch ly t v v cng nho vi hm lng va phi s to ra hng v
nh v c trng. Tuy nhin, khi hm lng tng dn th v tr nn gt v kh chu. T
l cc cht tannin c gi tr ca v v cng ph thuc vo chn v loi nho. Trong
ht nho, v t v rm t ht s gim dn theo chn ca nho. V vy, vi nhng loi
nho c cht lng v chn theo yu cu, th qu trnh ngm s ko di hn. Cn i
vi cc loi nho c cht lng km th thi gian ngm ngn dng sn xut cc loi
vang thng dng, c cht lng bnh thng.
Trong qu trnh ngm must v nho c th s dng thm cc ch phm enzyme
nh: pectinase, cellulase, hemicellulose, protease. Cc enzyme c th thc y qu
trnh trch ly c nhanh hn. Vang sn xut t phng php ny c hng v y n
hn vang sn xut theo phng php thng thng.
4. Rt must v p xc nho
4.1 La chn thi im rt must
Thi im rt must ra khi hn hp ngm ph thuc vo loi vang yu cu
(hng thm, lng tannin, mu), tnh cht t nhin ca nho s dng v iu kin
thc hin cng ngh sn xut vang.
VD: vi cc tank ln men kn thi gian ngm c th ko di, vi cc tank ln
men h, do tc ng xm nhp cu vi sinh vt c hi v s tht thot cn, thi gian
ngm s ngn hn.
Vi cc loi vang lm t nho c cht lng cao, thi gian ngm c th ko di
t 2 n 3 tun, nu m bo iu kin ln men v lun kim sot k qu trnh ln men
m bo mu v tannin.
Trong sn xut thng dng, thi gian ngm thng l 2 4 ngy, nht l nhng
vung c kh hu nng. Vic la chn thi im rt must khng c quy nh bt buc,
qu trnh ny ph thuc vo nh sn xut.
Cc gi cho vic la chn thi im rt must:
- Rt must trc khi kt thc qu trnh ln men. Lc ny trong must ln men vn
cn gi mt lng ng. T trng ca must khong 1.020 1.010. Qu trnh
ngm vo khong 2 4 ngy, ph thuc vo loi nho v iu kin kh hu. Vang
sn xut t must loi ny s c v mm mi, thm mi tri cy, ngt nh; tuy
nhin li thiu v chat c trng.
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GVHD: Trn

Rt must ngay sau khi ln men. Trong must ln men khng cn ng. Thng
vo khong ngy th 8 sau khi ngm. Lc ny, mu s t cng cao nht,
lng tanin va phi. t c s cn bng trong v gic. K thut ny thng
s dng sn xut vang c cht lng, loi s a ra th trng sm. Kt qu
thu c vang khng th rp v c th ung c khi va chn.
Rt must sau khi kt thc qu trnh ln men alcohol vi ngy. Thi gian ngm
khong 2 3 tun. Thng c p dng sn xut vang c cht lng cao.
Loi vang ny cn phi c thi gian thnh trng ko di lm du i hng v
ca tanin. Sau vi nm, mu ca vang s do phc hp anthocyanin v tanin to
thnh. Hng v vang s tr nn mm mi v quyn r.

4.2 Rt must
Trong mt vi trng hp qu trnh rt must b tin hnh trc thi im m
nh sn xut mong mun. Thng thng l do qu trnh ln men khng cn khng tip
din na bi s pht trin mnh m ca cc vi khun trn. Sulfite cng c th s dng
trong thi im ny vi hm lng khong 3g/hL phi tnh ton qu trnh ln men
alcohol c th khi ng li sau khi lm mt hot tnh ca vi sinh vt gy hi. iu
ny cng ng ngha vi vic qu trnh ln men malolactic chm li.
Vi cc nho b dp, qu trnh ngm cng khng th ko di, ng thi phi b
sung SO2, trong thi gian rt must hn ch tc ng ca enzyme laccase n cht
lng ca vang.
Qu trnh rt must c thc thi mt cch n gin vi vic dn dch must
ln men ra khi tank theo nguyn tc trng lc sau chuyn sang tank ln men khc.
Trong k thut truyn thng, must thng c cho thng vo thng g tip
tc ln men. Cc thng cha must phi m bo y v hon ton khng tip xa vi
khng kh. Tuy nhin, vi cc loi vang sn xut theo phng php cng nghip th
phng thc ny b hn ch bi s lng nhn cng v kh nng phi trn vi must p
t xc nho.
Theo k thut mi, must c a vo thng cha tm. Loi thng ny c loi
th l: giuoop cho must c th phi trn d dng; c t bo nm men v vi khun c th
phn b u hn, qu trnh ln men nh vy m hon ho hn; s thay i nhit
din ra ng u; qu trnh kim sot cht lng ng nht v khch quan hn.
Cc thit b cha must cn c lm vi sinh k v c x l lu hunh nu
cn.
4.3 p xc nho
Sau khi rt ht must, cn li trong tank ln men cn s l xc nho. Xc nho s
c em di p ly must. Must p t xc nho thng to ra vang hi c, c v chat gt
v i khi mu khng t. Qu trnh p must cn c thc thi nhanh bi cc tc nhn
gy oxy ha c rt nhiu xung quanh v xc nho th rt nhy cm vi qu trnh oxy

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GVHD: Trn

ha. Mc ch ca qu trnh p must l thu c dch must sau khi p c cht lng c
th s dng c.
Xc nho c th c chuyn vo thit b p theo phng thc th cng hoc
bng h thng trc vt hoc h thng bng ti, tuy nhin cng c ni s dng bm hn
hp. Thng thng ngi lm vic s trong tank ln men (cn ch ui CO2 trc
khi lm vic), sau s chuyn xc nho vo trong h thng vn chuyn. S tt hn,
nu cc tank ln men c thit k c th m ca di cho xc nho t ng ri
xung h thng vn chuyn.

Hnh 2. 11Cc dng thit b p nho. (a) p thy lc ng: 1. Tay cm, 2. Motor
iu khin, 3. Tm p di ng, 4. Thng cha, 5. Phu c nh; (b) thit b p c hai
u chuyn ng: 1. Tm p (i). s chuyn ng v pha trc ca tm p, 2. Trc
chuyn ng, 3. Thng cha c c l; (ii) s chuyn ng ngc ca cc tm p, 4.
Cc vnh ca thit b p, c kh nng p v bnh xc nho khi thng cha bt u
quay; (c) p bng kh nn. (i) Qu trnh bm kh nn, 1. Kh nn, 2. Ti kh, 3. Thng
cha c c l; (ii) Sau khi nn, kh c x ra, thng quay ph v lp xc nho; (d) p
trc vt lin tc: 1. Phu np liu, 2. ng hnh tr c c l, 3. Trc vt, 4. Ca ngn
xc nho, 5. Bung nn hi, 6. Ca gii hn, 7. Motor; (i),(ii),(iii) phn loi must c
p
Trong sn xut vang , ch cn thit b p c hiu sut thp. Khi p xc nho
must s thot ra. Vi mi ln p cn tch ring must thu c. Must p ln 1 c cht
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GVHD: Trn

lng khc vi cc ln tip theo. Sau cn kim tra cht lng quyt nh nn s
dng must p ln no.
Thit b p thy lc ng l mt trong nhng thit b lu i nht. Must thu
c t thit b ny c cht lng tt. Tuy nhin, qu trnh vn hnh cng nh lm v
sinh kh phc tp, nht l cng on d bnh xc nho sau khi p. Mt ci tin ca thit
b l ca np liu v thit b tho xc nho. Thit b ny c cng sut kh thp, ph hp
vi h gia nh v c s sn xut nh.
Thit b p xc nho c hai tm p hai u c th chuyn ng c. C nhiu
u im ng k. y l dng thit b t ng ha, c mt s loi c lp trnh.

Hnh 2. 12.S nguyn l hot ng ca thit b p bng kh nn c ti cha


c l
C hai dng thit b p bng kh nn: loi ti cha c c l v loi tank kn .
Thit b p bng kh nn l loi thit b nm ngang vi h thng mng to thnh cc ti
c th thi phng. Lc ca kh lm cng ti kh v p xc nho. Qu trnh p c th tip
tc, nhng lng must ln p th 2 bt u c cht lng khng t yu cu, v vy
khng khuyn co ln p th 2 cho cng mt lng xc nho.

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GVHD: Trn

Hnh 2. 13.S nguyn l hot ng ca thit b p bng kh nn c tank kn


Trong vi nm gn y, cc thit b p trc vt lin tc bt u tr nn ph bin.
Cc thit b ny s dng kh d dng v hiu sut cao. Cht lng must thu c lun
thp hn so vi must p t cc thit b khc. Tuy nhin, dc theo chiu di ca trc vt
c h thng phn chia loi must thu c. V vy, ty theo cht lng m c s s
dng khc nhau.

Hnh 2. 14.Cu to thit b p trc vt lin tc, 1. Phu np liu, 2. ng hnh tr


c c l, 3. Trc vt, 4. Ca ngn xc nho, 5. Bung nn hi, 6. Ca gii hn, 7.
Motor, 8. p k, 9. Phu cha must p ln 1, 10. Phu cha must p ln 1.
4.4.Thnh phn v cht lng ca must p t xc nho
Must ln men t xc nho c th tch ph thuc vo nh sn xut, vo s ng
nht ca hn hp sau khi ln men, iu ny c ngha l ph thuc vo k thut nh
nt v bm o.
Thnh phn ca must p t xc nho khng ging nh must c rt t do. Must
c p t xc nho to ra vang c cht lng khng thua km nhiu so vi must c
rt t do. Loi must ny c hm lng polyphenol cao hn dn n mu v lng
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GVHD: Trn

tanin cao hn. Lng acid bay hi s cao hn so vi must t do mt cht, do tc ng


ca vi sinh vt c trong xc nho.
Bng 2. 2.Thnh phn ca must t do v must p sau ln men cn (Ribereau
Gayon et al, 1976)
Thnh phn
cn % v/v
ng kh (g/l)
Acid tng (g/l
H2SO4)
Acid bay hi(g/l
H2SO4)
Nito tng (g/l)
Tng hp cht
phenol (permanganate)
Anthocyanin (g/l)
Tanin (g/l)

Must rt t do
12,0
1,9
3,23

Must p t xc nho
11,0
3,6
1,07

0,35

0,46

0,28
35

0,37
66

0,33
1,75

0,46
3,2

Vic phi trn lng must khc nhau l vn cn lu . Vic ny ph thuc


ch yu vo loi vang d kin sn xut. Nu sn xut loi vang cht lng cao th
khng nn phi trn. Cn nu nh sn xut loi vang thng dng th vic phi trn
cng khng gy nh hng nhiu n cht lng d kin.
Vi must p khng phi trn th cho ln men tip sn xut vang c hng v
th rp v cht gt ph thuc vo cht lng ca must. Nu loi vang ny c cht
lng qu km , th s chng ct thu cn, nhm s dng cho vic phi ch cc loi
vang pha cn hoc dng cho mc ch khc.
5. Ln men malolactic
y l qu trnh chuyn i acid malic thnh acid lactic di tc ng ca vi
khun lactic, ng vai tr quan trng trong sn xut vang
5.1. S chuyn i trong vang bi qu trnh ln men malolactic
S thay i chnh trong ln men malolactic chnh l qu trnh chuyn i ca
acid malic thnh acid lactic di tc dng ca vi sinh vt.
Phn ng nh sau:

Bng 2. 3. So snh lng acid ca vang trc v sau khi ln men malolatic
( Ribereau Gayon et al., 1976 )
Loi acid

Nng (g/l)

chnh
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Trc khi
ln men malolactic
Acid tng
4,9
Acid bay hi
0,21
Acid c nh
4,7
Acid malic
3,2
Acid lactic
0,12

Sau khi ln
men malolactic
3,8
0,28
3,6
0,5
1,8

GVHD: Trn

lch (g/l)
-1,1
+ 0,7
-1,1
-2,7
+1,68

S chuyn i acid malic thnh acid lactic lm gim lng acid malic trong
vang.
Trong qu trnh ln men malolactic, mt phn acid citric c trong vang s
chuyn i thnh acid acetic, do acid citric c rt t trong vang. ng thi mt s vi
khun acetic xm nhp vo vang trong qu trnh sn xut cng s ng ha mt phn
ca lng ng cn li trong vang thnh acid acetic.
Trong qu trnh ln men malolatic, cc vi khun cng c th to nn mt s cht
khc:
- etyl lactale gip cho hng v ru tr nn y n hn.
- Mt lng nh diacetyl ( vi mg/l). Vi lng nh hn 4mg/l, diacetyl s khin
cho hng v ru a dng v d chu. Tuy nhin, khi > 4mg/l n s to nn mi
b.
- Chuyn i histidine thnh histamin. Tuy nhin t xy ra
Trong qu trnh ln men, mu ca vang cng thay i. Cng mu s gim
i, nhng trng thi mu s ti v rc r. S thay i ny ph thuc vo tnh cht
ca anthocyanin khi pH tng, v s hnh thnh hp cht anthocyanin tanin.
Hng v v ca vang cng thay i. Sau khi ln men malolactic, vang c mi
thm hn v y n hn, v ca vang cng mm mi v trn y.
5.2 Kim sot qu trnh ln men malolactic
Qu trnh ln men malolactic c kim sot qua lng acid malic ca tng
tank ln men. Lng ny c xc nh bng phng php sc k giy.
Qu trnh ny c kim sot ngay sau khi kt thc qu trnh ln men cn. Lc
ny must c rt ra v c p bng xc rt ra v c p bng xc rt ra v c
p bng xc nho.
Vic ln men chng lp gia hai qu trnh ln men s tc ng xu n qu trnh
ln men cn v to thnh nhiu acid bay hi t ng c trong must.
Vic kim sot ny rt quan trng. Nu lng vi khun gy hi bt u tng
mnh th cn phi thc hin b sung qu trnh sulfite ha.
Vi lng ng trung bnh, trong qu trnh ln men malolactic, vi khun lactic
ch chuyn ha mi acid malic thnh acid lactic cho n khi ton b acid malic
chuyn ha th mi bt u s dng lng ng c trong dch ln men.
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GVHD: Trn

Sau khi p must v rt must t xc nho , cc tank ln men phi c y.


Must p t xc nho c b sung thm 3-8g/hl sulfite nhm lm n nh qu trnh ln
men tip theo.
Qu trnh ln men malolactic c kim sot hng ngy. Qu trnh ny din ra
t vi ngy n vi tun ty loi nho v phng php sn xut. Nu qu trnh ln men
malolactic xy ra chm hn so vi d kin th cn b sung thm lng vi khun cn
thit.
Sau khi kt thc qu trnh ln men malolactic, vi vang n nh v c b
sung sulfite, lng acid malic d s < 100mg/l. Ti thiu cng phi cho vi khun
lactic phn gii acid matic n mc < 200mg/l mi to ra s n nh nht nh
trong vang. Sau lm ngng qu trnh ny bng phng php sulfite ha.
6. K thut lm trong vang
6.1 Qu trnh t lm trong, t n nh
Sau khi ln men must ta thu c vang non. Vang non t lm trong v n nh
theo thi gian. Qu trnh t lm trong din ra di lc vn vt hp dn, v vy bt k
tc ng c hc no cng c th lm ngng qu trnh ny, v vy i hi rt nhiu yu
t lin quan:
- Sn xut t nho khe mnh, thu hoch khi nho chn.
- Trong qu trnh sn xut cn tch ring must p ln 2 t xc nho.
- Cn lm trong must ng k thut.
- Nn s dng cht h tr k thut nh pectinase x l must.
- Ln men mt cch c nh hng vi s b sung nm men ph hp.
- Lng ng trong must cn c ln men ht, acid tartaric cao, t trng
nh.
Trong thc t t lm trong t n nh vn din ra song song vi cc phng php
x l khc.
6.2. K thut lm trong
Khi a vang ra th trng tiu th, vang cn c trong sut v n nh cao.
Nu thc thi qu trnh t lm trong, t n nh th s khng ph hp vi loi vang
sn xut theo s lng ln, thi gian tng tr ngn. v vy cn p dng k thut h
tr:
- Lng, gn trong trng trng lc: trong vang non c lng trong mt
thi gian, sau c chuyn sang thit b cha khc, sao cho cn c tch ra.
Qu trnh ny c th lp li nhiu ln ty tng nh sn xut.

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GVHD: Trn

Hnh 2. 15.Cc phng php gn vang. A. H m, B. H na kn, C. H kn


-

Ly tm ( lng trong trng lc ly tm )

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GVHD: Trn

Hnh 2. 16.My ly tm ng. 1. Huyn ph vo, 2. Nc trong ra, 3. Cn ra


Thng c s dng trong cc cng on sau:
Lm trong must trc khi ln men cn.
Lm trong vang non sau khi ln men cn.
Lm trong vang non sau khi lc.
Trong qu trnh s dng phng php ly tm, nn dng N2 gim tc ng ca
oxy n vang.
- S dng cht h tr k thut
Trong qu trnh lm trong vang c th s dng cc cht h tr k thut tch
cc cht l lng c trong vang. Cc cht l lng s kt hp cc cht h tr k thut
to thnh keo t ni ln trn mt vang hoc chm xung y tank ln men. C th s
dng cht ho nc hay cht k nc
Cc loi cht h tr k thut s dng trong vang : Gelatin liu lng 3 -10
g/hL; Bloodmeal liu lng 10 -20 g/hL; lng trng trng liu lng 3 -8 lng trng
trng ti/ thng 225ml; Bentonite 20 -50 g/hL; Tannin 3 10g/hL
- Lc: thng thng phng php ny c tin hnh sau khi s dng cht h tr
k thut hoc cng c th tch ring.
Lc l qu trnh c thc hin phn ring hn hp nh vch ngn xp gi
l vch ngn lc. Cc cht cn c gi li sau qu trnh lc m khng lm nh hng
n cu trc ha hc ca vang. Qu trnh lc cn s dng cht tr lc, mng lc v
thit b lc.
7. K thut iu chnh ru
Mt trong nhng cng vic quan trng nht ca sn xut ru vang l to nn
cn bng trong vang v hng v.
7.1 Phi trn
Phi trn hai hay nhiu loi vang( hoc must ) s lm thay i hng v vang.
Thng thng theo lut nh EU, c phi trn:
- Cc thng vang khc nhau ca cng mt loi vang phi trn vi nhau
- Cc loi vang khc nhau cng nm sn xut hoc khc nm sn xut.
- Vang mm v vang cng, vang c cn cao v vang c cn thp, vang c
hng v yu vi vang c hng v y n, vang c mu nht vi vang c
mu sm.
7.2. Hiu chnh lng acid
Khi vang c acid qu thp th phi b sung bng acid tartaric hoc acid citric
hoc dng phng php trao i ion.
Khi lng acid cao cn lm gim lng acid bng cch b sung vo CaCO3.
Ngoi ra, cng dng canxi bicarbonate hoc kali carbonat hoc dng phng php trao
i ion.
7.3 Tng hm lng cn
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GVHD: Trn

Khi vang khng lng cn khi nn b sung thm cn c trng ct t cc


loi vang km cht lng
7.4. Hiu chnh ngt
Nu khng ngt th b sung thm cht to ngt, thng l must c c
7.5. Chnh l mu v v
Khi cn lm sng mu vang c th s dng than hot tnh c kch thc 1 - 5m
vi hm lng khong 50 300g/hL. Sau s l 4 5 ngy cn lc vang. C th s
dng tm lc than hot tnh p ng yu cu s l mi hoc dng qu trnh lc
mng v d dng PVPP.
8. n nh ru
n nh ru l qu trnh gip cho ru t b thay i bt li trong qu trnh
tng tr v bo qun.
8.1 X l nhit nng
Qu trnh gia nhit thng c tin hnh trong khong nhit t 35 110oC
trong mt khoang thi gian nht nh, sau c lm lnh li. Mc ch ca qu
trnh nhm: n nh protein, n nh sinh hc, loi b s oxy ha do enzyme. Bao gm:
- Gia nhit chm: vang c gia nhit t 68 72oC, gi khong 3 5 pht.
- Gia nhit nhanh: vang c gia nhit nhanh n 68 72oC, gi trong vng 30
60 giy.
- Gia nhit tht nhanh: p sut 3 4 bar, nhit 100 110 oC trong 3 5 giy
sau lm ngui nhanh.
- Gia nhit tht chm: vang c gia nhit n 35 40oC , gi trong vng 10 -30
ngy, ch s dng cho vang thng mi.
Sau gia nhit d p dng bt k phng php no cng cn phi lm lnh vang
ngay.
8.2. X l nhit lnh
Qu trnh h nhit thng c tin hnh n nhit ng lnh trong 6 -10
ngy, sau c lm m li. Nhm mc ch: kt tinh tartrate, n nh cht keo. Cc
phng php tin hnh:
- H nhit chm, khng hnh thnh kt tinh tartrate
- H nhit nhanh, kt tinh cc tinh th tartrate
- Hai nhit tht nhanh

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GVHD: Trn

Hnh 2. 17.S quy trnh s l nhit lnh. A. Vang cha x l ( + 14oC); B.


Vang x l (+ 5oC); Vang ang x l (- 5oC); 1. Bm vang cha x l; 2. X l vang
ti (- 5oC) ( h thng lnh v trao i lnh dng a ); 3. Lc khi kt thc x l lnh,
chun b cho lc; 5. Lm m vang
Qu trnh x l nhit c th din ra t 1- 2 ngy cho n 10 15 ngy, i khi
n 30 ngy ty thuc vo tng loi vang
8.3 Trao i ion
Mc ch:
- Trao i cation: tng bn ca tartrate bng cch loi b K+, Ca+, gim Fe3+.
- Trao i anion: gim acid bng vic b sung OH-, hoc gim acid
thc hin s dng resin loi Ampelite IR 120, IRC 50, Dowex 50, Doulite
C3.
8.4 X l ha hc
Nhm mc ch:
- Acid metartatric: dng gim hin tng kt tinh tartrate, do hnh thnh ester.
S dng max. 10g/hL, c tc ng sau 3 -6 thng.
- Acid scorbic, kali sorbate: n nh sinh hc, lng dng 200 mg acid
sorbic/L hoc 268g kali sorbate/L
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GVHD: Trn

- Acid L ascorbic: s dng ngay khi dng SO2, bo v nho khng b oxy ha,
hn chhees s hnh thnh cn.
9. Tng tr ru
Sau khi ln men c tng tr ti nhit 13 15oC. Theo phng php truyn
thng, vang c tr trong thng g, ri t trong cc hm ru nm su trong lng
t hoc trong cc qu ni. Ngy nay, vic ln men c thc hin trong cc tank bng
beton hoc bng hp kim khng r, tuy khng c nhng c im ring nh vang sn
xut theo vang truyn thng , nhng cht lng c th chp nhn trong i a s gii
tiu dng.

Hnh 2. 18.Hm ru vi s lng ln thng ru

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Hnh 2. 19.Cu trc thng g


10. Chit chai v ng chai
Bng 2. 4.Quy trnh v sinh dy truyn v ng chai
Thit b
H thng chit

Lm sch
Ra bng nc
nng

Bn cha dch
trit

Ra bng nc
nng

ng dn v
bng ti

TSP

Lm v sinh
1.Di cht ty ( kim, TPS)
trong 15 pht
2.Trng bng acid citric
trong 10 pht
3.Trng bng nc nng
trong 15 pht
1.Ra bng hypochlorite
trong 15 pht
2.Trng bng nc trong
15 pht
3.Trng bng acid citric
trong 15pht
4.Trng bng nc nng
trong 15 pht
1.Ra bng hypochlorite
trong 15 pht
2. Trng bng acid citric
trong 15pht
3. Trng bng nc nng
trong 15 pht
42

Tit trng
Nc nng
83oC trong 30
pht

Nc nng
83oC trong 40
pht

Nc nng
83oC trong 90
pht

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Thit b ng
nt bn

Ra bng nc
nng v cn 70%

Thit b ng
mng m

Chn khng cn
70%

GVHD: Trn

1.Ra bng hypochlorite


trong 15 pht
2. Trng bng acid citric
trong 15pht
3. Trng bng nc nng
trong 15 pht

Nc nng
83oC trong 00
pht

Cn 70% trong
vng 10 pht

11.1 Cc loi bao b


Trn th gii s dng cc loi bao b v nt lm t cc vt liu khc nhau.
Nhng loi chai truyn thng s dng nhiu nht vn l chai 750ml. Chai c th c
mu sc khc nhau, hnh dng khc nhau, c xun ca vai chai khc nhau. Cc loi
vang tui cn c bo v trc tc ng ca nh sng, thng c gi trong chai
mu xanh hoc mu nu sm. Cc loi vang tr, mang hng v tri cy thng c
cho vo chai c mu sng
11.2 Cng ngh chit v ng chai
Vang sau khi ng chai phi m bo n nh. Bao gm:
- Quy trnh chit ng chai v thanh trng lnh

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Hnh 2. 20.Quy trnh chit ng chai v thanh trng lnh. 1. Np chai; 2. Ra


chai; 3. Soi chai; 4. Thanh trng chai; 5. Trao i nhit ( tng nhit ca vang ); 6.
Lc EK; 7. Lc mng; 8. Chit chai; 9. ng np; 10. Ph mng np; 11. Dn nhn;
12. ng thng.
-

Quy trnh chit ng chai v thanh trng nng

Hnh 2. 21. Quy trnh chit ng chai v thanh trng nng. 1. Np chai; 2. Ra
chai; 3. Soi chai; 4. Lc khung bn; 5. Thanh trng vang; 6. Chit vang; 7. ng np;
8. Ph np mng; 9. Dn nhn; 10. ng thng
11.3 chit chai
Trong qu trnh chit chai cn m bo an ton vi sinh ca mi trng xung
quanh h thng chit chai v ng np chai. Cn s dng n cc tm dit vi sinh.
ng thi s dng kh N2, CO2 trong cc thit b chit loi b oxy.
Vang c th c chit vo chai bng phng php trng lc, ng p hoc chn
khng.

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Hnh 2. 22.Mt loi my ra chai

Hnh 2. 23.Cc dng kim chit. A. Kim chit ngn; B. Kim chit di; C. Khng
s dng kim chit

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Hnh 2. 24. Quy trnh chit ng p. 1. Rt chn khng; 2. Cn i p sut vi


p sut tank cha vang; 3. Chit vang; 4. Chit y chai; 5. Cn i p sut vi p sut
bn ngoi, chun b rt chai khi v tr chit
11.4 Hon thin sn phm
Sau khi ng nt, chai vang s c ph mng tren nt. C th dng giy nhm,
giy thic hoc plastic bao ph np chai.
Sau chai c dn nhn, gm cc loi: nhn c, nhn trc, nhn sau.
Sau khi dn nhn chai vang c cho vo thng, chai c th thng hay
ngc, vang c bo qun ni mt, c m thp cho n khi vn chuyn ra th
trng
11.5 Xp thng, lu tr v vn chuyn
Vang sau khi ng chai c lu tr trong hm ru, ty vo c trng mi loi
vang m thi gian lu tr khc nhau, vang kh: t 0 trn 10 nm.
III. CC YU T NH HNG N CHT LNG VANG NHO
1. iu kin sinh thi cu vng trng nho
1.1.iu kin kh hu
1.1.1. nh sng
Cy nho a kh hu kh v nhiu nng, m khng kh thng xuyn thp.
Mun trng nho, trc ht phi tm hiu k v iu kin thi tit kh hu. Nho cn c
mt ma kh di tch ly ng. Nn trng nho nhng ni hng nng, nhng
c che chn k, trnh nhng vng c gi bo.
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nh sng tc ng n qu trnh quang hp ca cy nho, em li dng cht


cho cy. ng thi tc ng n cht lng qu nho, gip cho s hnh thnh mu sc
qu nho c m hn, v dy hn; khi chn c ng cao hn, acid thp hn.
1.1.2. Nhit
Vng nhit m cy nho s dng trong sn xut ru vang ti cc nc n
i, pht trin tt nht l 10 -16oC. nhit khc, cy nho cng pht trin, tuy nhin
v v hng thm ca ru vang sn xut t nho loi ny s km hn. Nhit 25
28oC l thch hp nht cho s quang hp ca cy nho. nhit cao hn 30oC cy nho
s s dng mt lng ln ng v acid trong qu nho cho qu trnh h hp v quang
hp.
1.1.3. Lng ma
Lng ma tt nht cho cy nho l 500 600mm/nm. Vi kh hu kh hn,
lng ma t 400 -500mm/nm vn chp nhn c. Tuy nhin nhng vng c
lng ma t hn 400mm/nm cn ti b sung. Lng ma nhiu hn 800mm/nm s
gy hi cho cy nho v qu nho.
1.1.4. Vi kh hu
Vi kh hu l kh hu ring ca tng vng trng nho v tc ng n tnh cht
ring ca cy nho trng tng a im.
1.2. V tr a l
V tr a l nh hng trc tip n iu kin kh hu ca tng vng. Vng nho
c trng nht nm 30 50 bc v 20 40 nam.
cao so vi mc nc bin cng tc ng n lng nh sng, nhit ,
m ca ni trng nho. Ti nhng vng ni, nhng bn khc nhau ca dy ni, cng
s c kh hu khc nhau.
1.3. Tnh cht ca t trng
t trng nho khng c yu cu qu c bit. Cy nho c kh nng thch nghi
vi nhiu loi t trng khc nhau, nh: t chua, t phn, t cht, t tht
Mc d vy, cht lng ca t trng li nh hng n cht lng ca qu nho
hnh thnh. Mi loi t c tc ng ring n cht lng nho. V d:
- t bazan: t cha nhiu kali, v cc nguyn t khc c nh hng tt
n cht lng nho trong sn xut ru, vang sn xut t vng t ny c
hng thm c trng, cht lng cao.
- t ct: cha khong 70 85% ct; kh nng gi nc v cht dinh dng
yu. Vang sn xut t y c acid thp, nho c lng mu yu v
tannin thp.
- t vi: vang sn xut ra thng kh v chua howpn so vi vng khc.
1.4. H ng thc vt xung quanh
Tc ng gin tip n nho l cc loi virut, vi khun, nm, ng vt, v h thc
vt xung quanh ni trng.
C nhng loi nm mc c nhng li ch nht nh nh Botrytis cinere. Tuy
nhin nu kh hu khng ph hp th loi nm mc ny s gy hi cho vang. Trn th
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gii ch mt vi ni c kh hu ph hp loi nm mc ny to nn loi nho tuyt vi


cho sn xut ru.
Su c nhiu loi nhng khng c loi no tht s nguy him. Nu bit nhn
dng, dng ng thuc v ng lc th d dng ngn chn c.
C mt s bnh gy hi nhiu cho nho nh bnh mc sng, bnh phn trng,
bnh r st.
Cc loi cy trng xung quanh cng nh hng n cht lng nho. Cc cy n
qu c tn ln che ph cy nho s lm cho qu nho c t ng hn. Tuy nhin nhng
cy ny cng c tc dng nh che gi, gi t cho cy nho.
2. Tnh cht ca ging nho
Nho nhit i ch trng n ti v trng nu ru khng c mi thm,
ru khng ngon. Ngay nh Php, nho trng a Trung Hi c cht lng km hn
nho trng cc tnh pha bc nh Champague, Bourgogue. Chnh v vy la chn
ging nho cho sn xut ru vang l rt quan trng.
3. K thut trng nho
- Chun b cy ging
Cc cy ging c chiu cao 15 20 cm, ng knh 0,7 -1cm v khng c su
bnh. Ti Vit Nam mt a dng nht l 2,5m x 2m mt cy (2000 cy/ha ). Cy
ging c cho vo cc h o su, b nhiu phn hu c mc.
- Chun b gin cho nho
c im ca ngh trng nho l phi cho nho leo gin. cc nc khc thng
dng cc hnh ch T bng st hoc bng b tng.
Ninh Thun thng trng nho theo gin. Gin nho thng thng gm hai hay
nhiu hng cc. Trn u cc, cao 1,8m 2m, ging mt gin dy thp ngang dc
cho nho leo.

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Hnh 3. 1. Gin nho Phan Rang


- Phng thc ct ta
Thng trng nho vo cui ma ma, u ma kh, vo khong thng 12- thng
1. Mt nm sau tay v cnh qu ha g, mu nu ,mt ni r, i b phn l chn
th cn ct ht cnh l c cho ra tri. Ch li cnh qu hnh thnh tri v g
mi; li mm d tr chn cnh qu thay th cc cnh ny vo v sau. Nu gc
nho gi li mt s cnh gn thn. Nhng cnh to khe di hn 1m th ct v
tr mt th 6 -8, cc cnh nh, ngn ct v tr mt th 1 2. Sau ct cnh khong 20
ngy cy bt u ra hoa, 25 30 ngy u tri. Mi dy ch 2 3 chm, trn cc
chm cn ta b nhng tri b d tt, su bnh.
- Phng thc si t v ti cy
Di tn gin nho thng t c, mt t khng phi ra nng, t b mt nc,
ng vng. Tuy nhin ngi trng nho thng si t mi v 1 ln ph b mt phn
b r c, ti to b r mi kt hp bn phn, trn u vo t.
Ti nho ch cn thit vo v nng. t tht ti nhiu nc hn, khi l nhiu,
ra hoa qu mi ln ti ch cch nhau 3 5 ngy.
- Bn phn
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- Su bnh
4. chn v trng thi qu nho khi thu hoch
Qu nho c chn s hon thin cc qu trnh chuyn ha t nhin, lng
acid mm hn, mu m hn, lng ng v cc cht thm nhiu hn.
Vic xc nh chn ca nho rt cn thit cho vic thu hoch nho. Ph thuc
yu cu sn xut loi vang no m thu hoch nho cho ng chn yu cu.
5. Phng php thu hoch v vn chuyn
C th dng thit b hoc dng tay thu hoch nho. vn chuyn nho c th
dng cc xe ti dng nh, sau nho c la chn li bng tay.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Gio trnh Cng ngh ung, trng HCN TP HCM, nm 2008
2. Cng ngh sn xut ru vang, nh xut bn I HC QUC GIA TP
HCM, nm 2009

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