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10 Synchronization

© Alcatel University - 3FL 40034 AGAA WBZZA Ed.01

10.1

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.1

10 Synchronization Session presentation  Objective: to be able to configure synchronization parameters  Program: z 10.1 Introduction z 10.2 Operation

10.2

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.2

10 Synchronization

10.1 Introduction

© Alcatel University - 3FL 40034 AGAA WBZZA Ed.01

10.3

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.3

10.1 Introduction Synchronization hierarchical structure
PRC Level The clock signal is distributed throughout the entire network. A hierarchical structure is used for this.The signal is passed on by the subordinate Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU) and Synchronous Equipment Clock(SECs)

PRC

SSU SSU SSU Level SSU SSU

SEC SEC Level SEC SEC

SEC

SEC

SEC

SEC SEC

10.4
 To prevent Transmission errors in SDH network the internal clock of the network element must be synchronized to a central clock, which is generated by an high-precision Primary Reference Clock (PRC) unit conforming to the ITU-T Recommendation G.811.This is the highest level of synchronization in a network.Normally there are two different PRC in a network, one the main and one the spare.The PRC specify an accuracy of: z 10E-13 if it utilizes Cesium radioactive sample z 10E-11 if it utilizes Rubidium radioactive sample The second level of the hierarchical structure is represented by the SSU(Synchronization Supply Unit), which is normally a stand-alone piece of equipment in the network. In case of loss of the PRC reference, the SSU provides the network with a high quality synchronization signal. The SSU filters the jitter out of the incoming reference, which results from phase noise on the synchronization links between the PRC and the SSU. z SSUs with a Transit Node quality have a sufficient quality to be placed at each point of the synchronization chain; thus each can be used as a reference for further SSUs. z Local Node clocks, in contrast to Transit Node clocks, can only be placed as the last SSU in the synchronization chain. The third and last level of synchronization is represented by the SEC (SDH Equipment Clock) which is normally built into the SDH network elements. The SEC filters out jitter from the selected incoming timing reference and provides the SDH network element with a holdover capability for at least 24 hours. The normal operating mode of the SEC is to be slaved to an SSU.





© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.4

10.1 Introduction Synchronization diagram

PRC
K = max 10

SSU
SEC SEC

SEC
N = max 20

SEC
Synchronization link

SSU SSU
SEC

SSU SSU
SEC SEC
10.5

Synchronization network reference chain

SEC
  

The quality of timing will deteriorate as the number of synchronization links increases. Therefore, the number of network elements in tandem should be minimized for reliability reasons. The values for the worst case synchronization reference chain* (ITU recommendation G.803) are: z K (maximum number of SSUs in a chain) = 10 z N (maximum number of SECs between 2 SSUs) = 20, with the total number of SDH network element clocks limited to 60

*

Synchronization chain = an interconnection of synchronization nodes and links

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.5

10.1 Introduction Quality’s Levels

Primary

G.811 10E-11 Long Term Frequency departure

PRC LEVEL

PRC

Reference Clock

SSUT SSU LEVEL

Synchronization Supply Unit Transit Node Synchronization Supply

5*10E-9 Accuracy G.812T 5* 10E-10 Offset 10E-9/Day Drift 5*10E-7 Accuracy G.812L 10E-8 Offset 2*10E-8/Day Drift 4.6*10E-6 Accuracy G.813 5*10E-8 Offset

SSUL

Unit Local Node

SEC LEVEL

SEC

Synchronous Equipment clock

5*10E-7/Day Drift

10.6
 G.811 (ITU-T Recommendation) : “Timing requirements at the outputs of primary reference clocks suitable for plesiochronous operation of international digital links”.  G.812 (ITU-T Recommendation) :“Timing requirements at the outputs of slave clocks suitable for plesiochronous operation of international digital links”.  G.813 (ITU-T Recommendation) :“Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC)”.  DNU: Do Not Use. This signal should not be used for synchronization.  The Unknown quality level was defined to characterize the quality of existing SDH networks. This quality level is no longer supported by the hardware. Today, in SDH it indicates an invalid timing quality. The quality ‘unknown’ is a commonly used quality in SONET networks. It is the highest quality in those networks except for PRC quality which is higher. SDH networks should never(!) use quality unknown.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.6

10.1 Introduction S1 byte
(Bit5…..Bit8): Synchronisation status of synch. Path
9 bytes * A1 B1 D1 * A1 * A1 * A2 E1 D2 * A2 * A2 * J0 F1 D3 * *

(Bit1….. Bit4): spare

Δ Δ

Δ Δ

Δ Δ

RSOH

0
AU-n unit pointers B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 MSOH

7

9 rows

10.7
 In the MSOH of the STM-N frame,there is a byte called S1 in which, in the last four bits, we can insert the quality of a signal.This quality can be of different type and for every type there is a different codification .

QUALITY LEVEL QL-PRC QL-SSU TRANSIT QL-SSU LO CAL QL-SEC QL-DNU ( DON’T USE )

CODE 0010 0100 1000 1011 1111

ORDER HIGHEST ... ... ... LOWEST

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.7

10.1 Introduction SSM algorithm

YES

Is the SSM managed ?

NO

Does only one source have the highest quality criterion? YES Selection of the source with the best criterion

NO Selection of the clocks with the highest quality criterion

Analysis of the priorities table

Selection of the clock with the highest priority

Locking of the sync board
10.8
 The SSM is an algorithm that allows the NE to choose the best possibility for the synchronisation of a NE. In particular : z If in a NE there are two different ports with two different signals the system choose the port with the best quality of signal. z If in a NE there are two different ports with the same quality of signal the system choose the port that has the highest priority.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.8

10.1 Introduction SETS Functions

Selector A

Squelch A

Selector C

SETG

T4/T5 (External Clk)
To SERVICE /SERGI

T1/T2 T3/T6

6 1/2 Selector B SETG

Squelch B T0 (Internal Clk)

From SERVICE/SERGI

osc SETS

10.9
  The SETS function (Synchronous equipment timing source) is a subsystem of an SDH Network Element and it’s implemented within the MATRIX unit in the 1660SM and the SYNTH in the 1650SM-C The SDH Equipment accepts up to 6 synchronization inputs from the following types of sources: z T1 is the clock derived from STM-N line signal z T2 is a clock derived from the 2Mbit/s signal z T3 is a 2MHz signal z T6 is a 2Mbit/s signal without data information but with SSM information (not available on 1640FOX) z internal oscillator (VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator) z T3 and T6 share the same connector on the front panel of SERVICE(for 1660SM and /SERG I(for 1650SM-C) card; the selection between the two signals is made via software. Automatic selection of one of these input sources is achieved by a selector using quality criteria(SSM algorithm) or priority criteria. Also manual selection is possible.

z z

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.9

10.1 Introduction SETG Functions
 The SETG (Synchronous equipment timing generation) generates the following synchronization signals z for internal use: Î a system clock T0(at 622.08MHz)locked to the selected reference(T1,T2,T3 or T6)and distributed to the equipment; Î CK38MHz: it is derived from the system clock(T0)and is distributed to all the ports. Its frequency is 38.88MHz. Î MFSY: it is the multiframe synchronism at 500Hz, obtained from the ck38MHz. It is distributed to all the ports. Î SY1S: it is a one second synchronism used on the MATRIX for the 1660SM and on the SYNTH for the 1650SM-C for performance monitoring calculation for external use: Î T4 is a 2MHz signal Î T5 is a 2Mbit/s signal Î T4 and T5 share the same connector on the front panel of SERVICE card for the 1660SM, of SERGI card for the 1650SM-C; the selection between the two signals is made via software.

z

10.10

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.10

10.1 Introduction Synchronization function block diagram

MATRIX a HCMATRIX a COMPACT ADM main

MATRIX b HCMATRIX b COMPACT ADM spare

From SERVICE/SERGI

Notes:The 1640FOX has only the SYNTH main and there aren’t the T3/T6 signals.
10.11
 The working modes: z locked z holdover z free running are compliant to the ITU-T G.810, G.812 and G.813 Recommendations.  The holdover mode requires at least 30 minutes of locked condition before loosing the reference.  There is a PLL that maintains locked the System clock to the one selected as input in case the equipment works in "locked" mode.  As the MATRIX /HCMATRIX and SYNTH are redundant, the synchronization function is redundant as well.  The synchronization sub-system guarantees the Hitless switch because the two MATRIX/HCMATRIX and SYNTH boards work in a Master-Slave mode. In order to maintain locked and in phase conditions the two GAs some signals are exchanged on the SYNC BUS.This function isn’t implemented in the 1640FOX because it hasn’t the Master-Slave mode.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.11

10.1 Introduction Timing Loop
 A reuse of signal for synchronization purpose must be deeply investigated since timing loops might be generated through a lot of PDH and SDH pieces of equipment. Next figure gives an example of timing loop.

Risk of timing loop SSU B SEC SSU SSU

No risk of timing loop

DNU SEC squelched SEC SEC B SEC

SSU

direction of timing This port must not be a sync port

10.12

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.12

10.1 Introduction Test

9

1. What is the PRC? And what does the acronym PRC mean? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____ 2. Which is the byte in the STM-N frame in which the quality of a signal is inserted? M1 S1 D12 3. Flag the signals that can be used as synchronisation source. 2Mbit/s 140Mbit/s STM-N 2MHz 34Mbit/s 4. How many external sources could a NE have at maximum? 3 2 6 5. When does a NE go in holdover state? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____

9

9 9 9

Time allowed : 15 minutes

10.13

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.13

10.14

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.14

10 Synchronization

10.2 Operation

© Alcatel University - 3FL 40034 AGAA WBZZA Ed.01

10.15

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.15

10.2 Operation Configuration start up

The selector for T4 output is displayed only if Service (in the 1660SM and 1670SM) or Sergi (in the 1650SMC)card is configured! Not available in the 1640FOX.

This option is shown only when there is inserted and selected a 2 MHz source
10.16

 To start the synchronization management z Select views in the bar menu of EML main window. z Select synchronization option in the views pull down menu, opened by clicking on views. z The synchronization view window opens and synchronization menu will appear in the bar-menu  Synchronization view window shows the functional scheme of SETS (Synchronous equipment Timing Source) according to ITU-T Rec. G.783.  The input clock can be selected from 6 different inputs, separately for T0 (internal reference ) and for T4 (external output).  The free running indication is changed into holdover, when the NE looses the external clock reference (it is necessary to maintain the reference for at least 30 minutes, to get holdover when removing the reference)

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.16

10.2 Operation Timing Source Configuration
2nd- Select Synchronization in the bar

1st - Click on an input block

menu

3rd - Select the Timing Source Configuration option in the barmenu 4th - The Timing Source Configuration window will open

5th - Click on Choose to open TP Search window

10.17
 To configure the timing inputs: Î Select Synchronization menu in the barmenu Î Select Timing Source Configuration option in the pulldown menu  Timing Source Configuration window opens, with the following parameters to be configured: Î Input Source: must be a physical port (select Choose to open TP Search) Î Input quality Configuration: possible values are displayed i the pulldown menu open by the arrow ( on the right of the entry box. G.811, G812/T, G.812/L, G813, Don’t use, Extracted Î Priority: from 1 to 6. z Criteria for automatic selection is, in the order: Î Signal present Î Quality (determined by SSM, if enabled) Î Priority (determined by the Operator) ª N.B. Quality is not taken into account if SSM is disabled.

)

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.17

10.2 Operation Timing Source Configuration
1- This window is opened by Choose button in Timing Source Configuration window 4- Select the termination ( in this case only one) and click on OK or double click on it.

2- Click in sequence on to retrieve the equipment details and select an SDH or PDH port.

3- Select the Class OpS (for optical SDH port), EIS (for electrical SDH port), PPI (for the 2Mbit/s port) and Ignore (for the 2MHz signals) and click on Search.

5- Insert Quality and Priority and click on OK in order to activate the clock source.
10.18

 Within TP Search window the operator has to select the port which is considered as clock input.  Warning! The selected TP must be a physical port, e.g.: z a physical port at 2Mbit/s (not available in the 1670SM); z a physical port at STM-N in an SDH module z one of the two external synchronization sources, T3#A,T3#B, T6#A orT6#B physically available on connectors on Service card of the 1660SM and 1670SM or Sergi of the 1650SM-C. Not available on the 1640FOX.  Input Quality Configuration box is used to assign a quality level to the reference source: choose “Extracted” if the signal carries quality information (SSM), otherwise select a specific value according to the synchronization network organization

 Constraints for 1670SM: if an interface managed by P16OS1 or P16S1N must be set as synchronization source, the interface must belong to Group 1 and must be configured as A, B or C.
A4S1 A4S1 A4S1 A4S1

A B C D E F

Group 2

Group 2

P16OS1

P16S1N

P16S1N

Group 2 Group 1

REMEP16

A12OS1

A16ES1

Group 1

Group 1

Group 1

Group 2

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.18

10.2 Operation Result of Timing Source Configuration
Result of Source configuration The SETS is working in locked mode that means that the NE has an external source.

STM-N port configured as clock source and selected as reference clock

The sources of T4 are showed only if there is configured the Service card in the 1660SM and the Sergi card in the 1650SM-C

DRIFT alarm

LOS at 2Mbit/s external clock

10.19
 In this example: z Synchronization view window was modified, by clicking on OK within Timing Source Configuration window, after selecting a 2Mbit/s port : Î The selected port is automatically inserted into the input block. Î The 2Mbit/s port is not selected due to LOS. Î The selected reference is the STM-N port.

 DRIFT : is an alarm appearing when the Clock frequency offset is larger then 15 ppm; it is cleared when the offset is less than 7 ppm (roughly).

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.19

10.2 Operation Change 2MHz/2Mbit
The first feature allows to change T4(2MHz)in T5(2Mbit/s). The second feature allows to change the T3 (2MHz source) in T6 (2Mbit/s source.) This option is displayed only if there is a 2MHz source.

10.20

 This menu is enabled only if the operator selects a protection unit which has as source a 2 MHz  When you change the source the TP changes from z 2MhT3#A to 2MbpsT6#A z 2MhT3#B to 2MbpsT6#B

 In case of T6 setting (2Mbps), the SSM algorithm is supported: z choose “Extracted” in Input Quality Configuration z choose a specific “SaBit”, which will be used to transport the SSM information  In case of T5 setting, the SSM information is transmitted and one bit in the “SaSSMBit” field has to be used to transport the SSM information.It is possible to set this field going into the T4 configuration.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.20

10.2 Operation T0 Configuration

10.21
 The SSM algorithm implements the choice among the sources of synchronization, according to the best quality indicated in SSM byte. The use of SSM algorithm allows also the automatic restoration of the synchronization in a network in case of failure.  When SSM algorithm is enabled: z z SSM is extracted by the incoming signal and used as criteria to select the clock reference NE inserts SSM=Don’t use in the opposite direction from where the clock is received (in case of SDH reference clock) z Internal clock is assumed SSM=G.813; you have the same quality in the Holdover condition

z If “Inserted” is selected in “Transmitted SSM Quality Configuration” window, the system internal T0 clock quality is transmitted towards the external interface

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.21

10.2 Operation T4 Configuration
It is used to enable the SSM algorithm in the T4 output clock. When T0 is selected to generate T4

When an input reference is selected to generate T4

10.22
 Different squelch criteria may be applied: z when T0 is selected to generate T4: Î T0 may be squelched if all the allowable timing references of Selector B have Quality Level lower than the programmable threshold. z When an input reference is selected to generate T4: Î the output of selector A may be squelched if the Quality Level of selected source is lower than the programmable threshold or if it becomes unavailable.  You can use the Squelching Criteria to define the lowest quality in the T4/T5 output clock  Force Squelch enables both the squelches for T4  The SSM algorithm implements the choice among the synchronization’s sources, according to the best quality indicated in SSM byte. The use of SSM algorithm allows also the automatic restoration of the synchronization in a network in case of failure

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.22

10.2 Operation Transmitted SSM Quality Configuration

10.23
 The “Transmitted SSM Quality Configuration” window permits to define the value of SSM byte in the signal outgoing from the selected port. z open the window by selecting Synchronization → Transmission SSM Quality z choose the quality level selecting among the different values: “Inserted” allows to transmit the system internal T0 clock quality towards the external interface Î N.B. to use the “Inserted” option, the SSU algorithm must be enabled  It is possible to configure the Transmitted SSM quality also from the Port View as in the picture below.

2- Select Port / Physical Media /Tx Quality Conf.

1- Select MST in the Port View of the STM-N Port

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.23

10.2 Operation Clock Protection Command

This indication describes the current synchronization status. It can be: • lockout • manual switch • force switch • automatic switch • no request • fail.
10.24
 The automatic selection algorithm overrules the manual selection  To perform or release a T0 or T4/T5 lockout or a force or manual selection: z Select the T0 or T4/T5 source z Select Synchronization/ Protection Commands z Select Invoke/release within Lockout or Force or Manual Î Click on Apply to confirm the command Î Remember: ª Force has the priority on alarms ª Manual has not the priority on alarms, and not priority on automatic SSM algorithm ª Lockout means to exclude the object.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.24

10.2 Operation SSU Configuration
 Selecting the SSU box, the SSU Configuration option, from Synchronization pull down menu, is available: z z Single NE: means that the NE receives the clock from ports or from external 2 MHz. NE with SSU: means that the ADM is connected to an external SSU and uses the 2MHz coming from the SSU, for internal synchronization (T0): in this case T4 is ≠ T0.

SSU T3 T4 2 MHz from NE

2 MHz from SSU Clock from STM-1, traced from PRC

NE

10.25

 In case of NE with SSU, the SSU quality is the value transmitted on all the interfaces when T3 clock reference source is selected  The SSU is used to filter the phase noise of the received clock.

1 PRC SSU

2 SSU

3 SSU

N SEC

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.25

10.2 Operation Set/Remove T0 Equal T4

10.26
 The connection between T0 and T4 will pass from a shaped to a continue line as in the picture.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.26

10.2 Operation Remove Timing Reference

10.27
 This command is used in order to remove one source.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.27

10.2 Operation Show Timing Source

10.28
 Select any reference source in the synchronization view hence Show Timing Source.  This selection opens the Port View of the selected reference source allowing to analyse the input source considering its payload structure and the related alarms.

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.28

10.2 Operation Frame Mode Configuration
 See session 7 “Configuration”

10.29

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.29

10.2 Operation Test
Using as support the attached Synchronisation view window, answer the following questions :

9

1. How many reference sources have been configured in the equipment? 2 3 4 2. Which priority has the selected timing reference? Priority 1 Priority 2 Priority 3 3. Is the SSM algorithm enabled or not? Yes No 4. Describe the criteria for that reference has been automatically selected by the equipment: __________________________________________ 5. Which signal is provided as Timing Output? 2Mbit/s None 2MHz
10.30

9 9 9
Time allowed : See next page

9

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.30

10.2 Operation Test

Time allowed : 15 minutes

10.31

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.31

10.2 Operation Exercise

9

Objective of this exercise is to synchronize the following three network elements ring avoiding the timing loop
INS EX
PORT PORT

Eq 3

EX EX
PORT

INS
PORT
PORT

MAIN

Q=G811

PORT

Eq 2

Eq 1
PORT

2MHz

PORT

EX LEGENDA: Eq=equipment INS=inserted EX=extracted Q=quality

Time allowed : 50 minutes

10.32

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.32

10 Synchronization Evaluation

 Objective: to be able to configure synchronization parameters

Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet

10.33

© Alcatel University – 3FL 40034 AGAA WB ZZA Ed.01

Page 10.33

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