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Digestive System

Period 3 Table 3

Function:

Mouth

The mouth is the beginning of the


digestive system.
Chewing breaks carbohydrates
into small pieces to digest them
more easily.
Saliva mixed with food begins the
process of breaking food down so
the body can absorb and use.

Pharynx
Function:

The pharynx, or throat, is the


passageway leading from the
mouth and nose to the
esophagus and larynx.
The pharynx allows us to
swallow solids and liquids into
the esophagus, or gullet, and
lets air in to and from the
windpipe, during respiration.

Epiglottis
Function:
Separates the pathway for
food entry and oxygen
entry
The epiglottis is involved in
the process of swallowing
food. The muscle folds
over the glottis to prevent
food from going in the
wrong direction.

Esophagus
Functions:

Carries food,, liquids, and saliva from


the mouth to the stomach.
The esophagus transport food to the
stomach by coordinated contractions
of its muscular linings. (Automatic
process)
The esophaguss muscle layers are
pinched together at both upper and
lower ends by muscles called
sphincters.
The sphincters allow food or drink to
pass from the mouth to the stomach
when a person swallows.

Esophagus (cont.)

Afterwards, the muscle quickly closes


to prevent the swallowed food or
drink from leaking out of the stomach
back into the mouth.
The sphincters make it possible to
swallow food or drink while laying
down and upside down.

When people burped to release


swallowed air or gas from carbonated
beverages, the sphincters relax and
small amount of food comes back up
briefly, also known as reflux.
Then the esophagus quickly squeezes
the material back to the stomach,
and this reaction considered to be
normal.

Stomach
Function:

Secretes acid and enzymes that


digest food.
Muscle tissues in the stomach
are called rugae line.
The pyloric sphincter is a valve
that helps food passes through
the stomach to the small
intestine.

Liver
Function:
Where nutrients is absorbed
from the small intestine.
Produces bile that helps to
emulsify the lipids in food.
It weighs around 3 pounds,
and the liver is the bodys
second largest organ.

Gallbladder
Structure:
The gallbladder is a pearshaped, hollow structure.

Function:
The gallbladder stores and
concentrates bile, and then
releases it into the
duodenum to help absorb
and digest fats.

Duodenum
Structure:
The duodenum is a 2538 cm,
is a C-shaped structure, and its
the first and shortest segment
of the small intestine.

Function:
Receives partially-digested food
from the stomach, and then
complete the process of

Small Intestine
Where Chemical
digestion and absorption
occurs
Absorbs 90% of
nutrients from food
Consists of three main
parts:
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

Continued Small Intestine


lipase breaks down
triglyceride in order
for villi can absorb
nutrients

Pancreas
Function:

The pancreas is about 6 inches


long and sits across the back
of the abdomen, behind the
stomach.
The pancreas allows enzymes
to digest proteins, fats, and
carbs in the intestines and
produces the hormones insulin
and glucagon.

Appendix
Function:

The Appendix acts as a


storehouse for good bacteria,
rebooting the digestive
system.
Its a thin tube about four
inches long
The appendix sits in the lower
right abdomen.

Large intestine
Structure:

The large intestine (colon) is 6-foot


long muscle that connects the small
intestine to the rectum
The large intestine wraps around the
right side of the body, across the top
of the abdomen, and finally down the
left side

Function:

The final section of the


gastrointestinal tract
Absorbs water and vitamins while
converting digested food into feces

Rectum
Structure:

The rectum is about 12 cm


Lower part of the
gastrointestinal tract
Connects to the anus

Function:

Temporary storage site for


feces
Stretch receptors located in
the rectal walls stimulate the
desire to defecate

Anus
Structure:

2-inch long canal consisting of the


pelvic floor muscles and two anal
sphincters (internal and external)

Function:

The lining of the upper anus lets


you know if the contents are
liquid, gas or solid
The anus is surrounded by
sphincter muscles that are
important in allowing control of
stool

Citations
http://www.innerbody.com/image_digeov/dige10-new3.html
http://my.clevelandclinic.
org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_The_Structure_and_Function_o
f_the_Digestive_System
http://www.emedicinehealth.
com/anatomy_of_the_digestive_system/page5_em.htm
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/ns_overview/hic-the-structureand-function-of-the-digestive-system
http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/digestive/large-intestine
http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the-SmallIntestine-Do.aspx

Continued Citations
http://umm.edu/programs/gihepatology/services/barretts/normal-function
https://www.boundless.
com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-andphysiology-textbook/the-digestive-system-23/the-smallintestine-and-associated-structures-222/small-intestinedigestive-processes-1096-5210/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectum
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/ns_overview/hic-thestructure-and-function-of-the-digestive-system