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Imes 1

Chris Imes
Ms. DeBock
English IV
March 9th, 2015
Research Question: Why should high schools have a later starting time?
Working Thesis Statement: A later start time in schools would benefit students academically.
Refined Thesis Statement: High schools should have a later start time in the morning because
later start times improve students academically, healthily, and reduce the number of teen car
accidents.
Annotated Bibliography
Bratsis, Michael E., The Scientific Case For Starting High School Later." Science Teacher81.9
(2014): 12-13. Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
This article focuses on the scientific and health side of why schools should start later. The
article begins by going into how melatonin levels in teens are a lot higher than in children and
adults, especially in the evening and at night; causing teens to wake up at later times. The article
then moves into how teens do not feel sleepy until later at night and how teens need to have 8-9.5
hours of sleep per night. Finally, the article moves into statistics of starting times for schools,
how not gaining enough sleep can cause mental and physical problems, and where schools stand
on this subject. This article is relevant to the research because it shows that sleep is an important
part of teen health.
"Later Teen School Day, Fewer Car Accidents." UPI NewsTrack 2008: Biography in Context.
Web. 12 Mar. 2015.

Imes 2

This article focuses on how later school times reduced the amount of teen car accidents.
The article begins by stating that teens got 12-30 extra minutes of sleep when school started an
hour later than usual. The article then proceeds to explain that the percentage of teens who got 89 hours of sleep increased and the percentage of daytime sleep on the weekend decreased due to
the later start in school. Finally, the article states the amount of teen driving accidents decreased
in the county with the later start time while it increased in all other counties in the state with
early start times. This article is relevant to the research because it shows that later school times
would reduce the amount of teen accidents.
"Study: Later School Starts Improve Student Grades." AP Regional State Report Colorado(2014): Points of View Reference Center. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
This article focuses on a study that shows improvement in student grades when schools
start later. The article begins by stating that later start times showed increased attendance,
improved standardized test scores, improved academic performance, and less consummation of
caffeine. The article then moves on to how the later start time reduced the amount of teen
accidents by 70 percent. Finally, the article then goes into how the later school start time
increased the percentage of students that got 8 or more hours of sleep. This article is relevant to
the research because it shows that a later start time in school would increase the academic
performance of students, would reduce the amount of teen accidents, and would improve the
amount of sleep teens get.