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Section

Date

9.1

Describing Acceleration

Summary

Are you accelerating if you are slowing down? Explain your answer on the lines below.

Create a Quiz

section, create a fivequestion quiz based on what

you have learned. Repeat

the quiz until you get all the

answers correct.

changes, or its direction of motion changes, or both. Changes

in velocity can be either positive or negative. To find a

change in velocity, subtract the initial velocity (vi) from the

final velocity (vf).

v = vf vi

North, east, up, and right are considered positive (+) and

south, west, down, and left are negative (). If you slow down

from 9 m/s forward (positive) to 2 m/s forward (positive),

your change in velocity is as follows:

v = vf vi

= +2 m/s (+9 m/s)

= 7 m/s

Your change in velocity is 7 m/s opposite the forward

motion. Your initial forward direction is positive, so your

change in velocity is negative when you slow down.

What is acceleration?

Reading Check

1. Define acceleration.

164

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in164 164

object changes. A change in velocity can be a change in

either speed or direction. Thus, acceleration occurs when

the speed of an object changes, or its direction of motion

changes, or both. Acceleration is a rate of change. This

means it also takes into account how quickly the velocity

changes.

Describing Acceleration

PDF 2nd

7/21/08 5:29:45 PM

Section

Name

9.1

Date

Summary

continued

Recall that forward motion is defined as positive and

backward motion is defined as negative. Different factors

can help you decide if an objects acceleration is positive or

negative, as shown in the table below:

Factor

increase in speed while

travelling forward,

e.g., accelerating after you

have stopped at a stop sign

decrease in speed while

travelling forward, e.g., applying the brakes on a bicycle

increase in speed while

travelling backward, e.g., a ball

falling to earth

no change in speed,

e.g., running at a constant

speed

Velocity

Acceleration

+ (positive)

+ (positive)

+ (positive)

(negative)

(negative)

(negative)

constant

Reading Check

of an object travelling at a

constant velocity?

velocity; therefore, it is accelerating. Acceleration in a

direction that is opposite the direction of motion is sometimes

called deceleration.

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in165 165

Section 9.1

PDF 3rd

165

7/21/08 5:29:47 PM

Name

Cloze

Activity

Section 9.1

Date

Vocabulary

constant velocity

deceleration

negative

negative acceleration

opposite direction

positive

positive acceleration

same direction

speed

vector

velocity

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. You may use each term

only once.

1. Since velocity is a

, it is dependent on the

of the object and the direction in which the object is moving.

2. A change in velocity is

3. A change in velocity is

4. An object has

6. An object has a

increasing.

7. An object has a

decreasing.

velocity, the objects speed increases.

as its

velocity, the objects speed decreases.

as its

.

166

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in166 166

Describing Acceleration

PDF 2nd

7/21/08 5:29:48 PM

Name

Applying

Knowledge

Section 9.1

Date

1. Complete the following table by calculating the missing quantities. Positive (+)

represents the forward motion. Use the formula v = vf vi. In the last column,

describe the change in velocity (e.g. object is slowing down, object is speeding up,

or object is in uniform motion).

vi

vf

+ 14 m/s

+ 5 m/s

+ 8 m/s

Description of v

object is slowing down

0 m/s

+ 25 m/s

+ 20 m/s

+ 12 m/s

30 m/s

38 m/s

10 m/s

16 m/s

3 m/s

0 m/s

+ 22 m /s

2. Use the following data table to calculate the change in velocity for each time interval.

Suppose motion toward north is positive (+).

a)

Time (s)

Velocity (m/s)

10

15

20

28

30

28

40

22

50

12

0 s 10 s

b) 10 s 20 s

c) 20 s 30 s

d) 30 s 40 s

e) 40 s 50 s

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in167 167

Section 9.1

PDF 2nd

167

7/21/08 5:29:48 PM

Name

Interpreting

Illustrations

Section 9.1

Date

1. In each situation described below, identify whether the object or person has positive

acceleration, negative acceleration, or zero acceleration.

a) an airplane taking off

b) a person standing still at a bus stop

c) a bus braking as it approaches a red light

d) a person sliding down a water slide with constant velocity

2. In each illustrated example shown below, identify whether the object or person has

positive acceleration, negative acceleration or zero acceleration.

b)

a)

acceleration

acceleration

velocity

velocity

c)

d)

vi 20 m/s

vf 4 m/s

vf 6 m/s

e)

168

vi 1 m/s

f)

t=0s

t=1s

t=2s

t=3s

t=4s

t=5s

0 cm

20 cm

40 cm

60 cm

80 cm

100 cm

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in168 168

Describing Acceleration

PDF 2nd

7/21/08 5:29:49 PM

Name

Assessment

Section 9.1

Date

Describing acceleration

Descriptor on the right.Each Descriptor may be

used only once.

Term

1.

2.

3.

4.

Descriptor

acceleration

A. rate at which an object

deceleration

changes its velocity

constant velocity B. an object travelling

change in

with uniform motion in

velocity

a straight line

C. acceleration in a

direction that is opposite to the direction of

motion

D. change that occurs

when the speed of an

object changes, or its

direction of motion

changes, or both

5. The tortoise moved slowly and steadily.

The hare ran quickly, then fell asleep

near the finish line. Identify the following

quantities as scalar or vector, respectively:

the average velocity of the tortoise during

the entire race, the acceleration of the hare

during the first 2 minutes of the race and

the time it takes for the tortoise and the

hare to finish the race.

its velocity from 15 m/s to 6 m/s.What is

the change in velocity?

A. 21 m/s

B. 9 m/s

C. 9 m/s

D. 21 m/s

8. Which of the following have an

acceleration in the same direction as the

objects motion?

I.

II.

III.

A. I and II only

B. I and III only

C. II and III only

D. I, II, and III

9. Which of the following are true about

acceleration?

I.

object has zero acceleration.

II.

object has a positive acceleration.

III.

object has a negative acceleration.

B. scalar, scalar, vector

A. I and II only

opposite direction as the velocity, which

of the following happens?

B. the object slows down

2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited

164_176_BCSci10_U1CH09_098461.in169 169

Section 9.1

PDF 2nd

169

7/21/08 5:29:51 PM

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