The Assassination of
Ravana and
Insulted Sita

Devaneyap pavanar Maraimalai Adigal Paridhi MaRkalaignar

Narayana Iyengar Vallal Pon.Pandithurai Thevar


The Solar Dynasty
Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kingdom of Rama. Ayodhya was its capital. Aja was
the 38th king in the solar dynasty. He was ruling the kingdom of Kosala on the southern banks of
the Sarayu River in the northern part of India. Ayodhya was his capital. Northern Kosala, on the
northern bank of the Sarayu, was ruled by another king, who also hailed from another branch of
the Solar Dynasty. Aja was a king who spent most of his time earthly pleasures. His wife was
Indumati. Due to her death, unable to bear the separation from his beloved wife, he ran into the
palace and committed suicide.
Dasaratha’s Early Days:-
Aja’s son was only eight months old when aja died. Sumantra was the most intelligent
minister in the kingdom and Vasistha was the rajguru (guru of the king). Vasishtha requested
Sumantra to rule the kingdom on behalf of aja’s son. He then left the child in the care of a great
guru, marudanva, who was an adept in all sastras, including archery. The child was Dasaratha and
became the ruler of southern Kosala when he attained the age of 18.
The kind of northern Kosala agreed to rule under Dasaratha’s patronage. He had a
beautiful daughter, Kausalya, whom Dasaratha wanted to marry. The king agreed. But he and
Dasaratha were closely related, coming from the same clan (gotra).
After hearing this marriage engagement, as Ravan who intended to expand his kingdom
by marrying kousalya, he became furious and decided to kill Kausalya even before her marriage.
But his wife Mandodari, pleaded with him not to commit stree hati (the sin of killing a woman).
She suggested that Ravana could prevent that marriage by separating Kausalya from Dasaratha.
Ravana agreed to this proposal and sent a few men to kidnap Kausalya, put her in a box and float
it in the currents of the Sarayu River so that she would not have a chance to survive. Thus, the sin
of killing a woman would not fall on him and he could prevent the marriage of Dasaratha and
Kausalya, he reasoned.
At midnight one day, Dasaratha was crossing the Sarayu after the conquest. He saw a box
being thrown into the river by some persons from a hillock. Dasaratha jumped out from his boat
and fought with those persons. Dasaratha could not defeat them. Meanwhile, the box was floating
away fast. Dasaratha surmised that there must be somebody inside and jumped into the water to
save that person.The box continued the far journey and when the Sarayu mingled with the Ganga,
it began floating in the Ganga. Dasaratha, who was swimming fast, became tired. Jatayu, the king
of eagle flag, saw and rescued him. They located it in the midst of waterweeds in an island near
the estuary of Ganga. They all opened the box and found Kausalya in an unconscious state. She
regained consciousness.

The marriage was performed the marriage. Thereafter, Jatayu, Dasaratha and Kausalya
went to Ayodhya, where the marriage ceremonies were again performed elaborately with fanfare
and the blessings of Vasishtha and Sumantra.
Rama’s Elder Sister:-
Kausalya soon attained motherhood. She gave birth to a female child, which unfortunately
had a handicap in its leg. The child was named Santai @ Shanta. The palace doctors tried their
best to remove the handicap but failed. Vashishtha consoled Dasaratha and Kausalya. He said that
the handicap was due to the marriage between close cousins (Dasaratha and Kausalya belonged
to the same gotra) and advised them to give her in adoption.
Accordingly, Dasaratha and Kausalya gave the child in adoption to ROmapada, the king of
Angadesa. With due care and treatment, Shantai’s disability vanished. Romapada performed her
marriage with Rishyasringa Maharishi.
It was after Shanta was given in adoption that Dasaratha got married to Sumitra and
Kaikeyi with the hope of getting healthy children. As he had no issue even after that, he arranged
for the Putrakameshti Yaga on the advice of the sages. Dasaratha’s son-in-Law Rishyasringa has
performed that Yaga.
Sumitra had two sons Lakshmana and Satrughna. Just as Lakshmana was forever attached
to Rama, Satrughna was always attached to Bharata. Chandraketu, Son of Lakshmana, was valiant
(7.102.2). He became the king of Malla territory (7.102.9). Chandrakanta Name of a city, which
was situated in the territory of Malla (7.102.6) .Satrughna, was sent with Bharata to Kekeya, when
Dasaratha planned Rama’s coronation. When Rama went to his Vanavasam (forest-residence:
exile), Satrughna stayed back with Bharata while Lakshmana went with Rama.
Satrughna’s wife was Srutakirti father’s name was Kusadhwaja. Kusadhwaja was the
younger brother of Janaka, the foster father of Sita Devi. Srutakirti’s sister Mandavi was Bharata’s
wife. Kusadhwaja was the king of Sankasya.
The daughter of the mighty Ashwapati, a long-term ally of Kosala, Kaikeyi married
Dasaratha after the latter had promised her father that the son born of her womb would succeed
him as King of Kosala. Dasaratha was able to make this promise, as his first wife, Kausalya, was
childless and not likely to produce a son of her own. Kaikeyi also remained barren for many years
of marriage, because of which Dasaratha married Sumitra, the princess of Magadha, another
kingdom with strong political ties to Kosala. By these marriages, Kekaya, Magadha, and Northern
Kosala were come under the control of Southern Kosala ruled by Dasaratha.

As a young girl and the only sister to seven brothers, Kaikeyi grew up without a maternal
influence in her childhood home. Her father had banished her mother from Kekaya after realizing
that his wife's nature was not conducive to a happy family life. He had her banished to her
parents' home.Kaikeyi never saw her mother again. She was raised by her wet nurse, Manthara,
who accompanied Kaikeyi to Ayodhya as a trusted maid upon her marriage to Dasaratha. She had
saved King Dasaratha in battle and demonstrated her warrior courage. Touched by her courage
and timely service, Daśaratha offered her two boons. However, Kaikeyī chose to ask those boons
later. In addition, she became his favorite wife and finally gained ascendancy over Kausalya.
Years passed and all three Queens produced sons. Rama, the son of Kausalya, was
Dasaratha's favorite son. Rama revered Kaikeyi over his own mother, leading to the former's deep
love and affection for him. When he turned 16 and was to be crowned King, Kaikeyi was delighted
and as happy as she would have been had it been her own son, Bharata's, coronation. Bharata was
Dasaratha and Kaikeyi. He was also the husband to Mandavi daughter of King Janaka's brother
Kushadhvaja, and hence became a cousin of Sita. They had two sons, Taksha and Pushkala.

Kingdom of Lanka

Chronology of Tamil Kings of
Eelam till Vibheeshana as per
Akathiya Lankai

The "Akaththiya Lanka" by Akaththiya Maha Munivar, (Akaththiya the great Monk)
translated and published by V Nathar, Notary Public, Puttur and Jaffna in about 1910, gives a
genealogy of the Kings of Lanka before the Ramayana.
Sayamban is listed as the first king of Lanka. Sayamban claims his descent from Manu. He had his
capital at Tirukonamalai (Trincomalee). He ruled the country for 33 years.

Yalimugan the son-in-law of Sayamban, succeeded him to the throne. He ruled from
Tirukonamalai, for ten years.

Aethi @ Heti, son of Yalimugan ruled Lanka from Murugapuram (Kathirgamam). He ruled the
country for 28 years.

Vinthukesan @ Vidyutkesha, son of Aethi and Bhaya, succeeded his father, had his capital city at
Sivanolipadamalai (Adam's Peak). He ruled for 29 years and 3 months. He married Salakatankata
and produced a son, named Sukesha from her. His son became popular with the name of Sukesan
@ Sukesa.

Sukesan @ Sukesa succeeded his father Vinthukesan, was the king of Lanka and ruled from
Kathiravan Malai. He ruled for 41 years and 7 days. Devavati was the daughter of a Gandaharva
named Gramani was married to Sukesa; she gave birth to three sons named Malyavan, Sumali and
Mali. Hara was son of Maali; later he became the minister of Vibhishana after Ravana’s
Maliyavan succeeded his father Sukesan, built Ilankapuri, a beautiful city and proclaimed it as his
capital. He ruled for 21 years, 7 months and 9 days. Vajramushti was the son of Malyavan.
Virupaksha was the son of Malyavan. Durmukha was the son of Malyavan and Sundari. Analaa was
the daughter of Malyavan and Sundari who was the daughter of one Narmada. Malyavan was the
Chief Royal Adviser to the Ravana.

Sumali succeeded the throne of Lanka after the death of his brother Maliyavan. He had
dual capital cities Ilankapuri and Manthai. He ruled for 5 years and 6 months before being
deposed by a popular revolt. Sumali's daughter Kaikesi was too young to succeed her father. He
had ten sons named Prahastra, Akampana, Vikata, Kalikamuka, Dumraksha, Dandha, Suparshva,
Sanhadi and Barkarna. Later Mali was killed. His daughter, Kaikasi was married to sage Vishravas
and their son Ravana reconqured Lanka. His wife is Ketumati. One day Sumali took Kaikasi and left
her in the house of Vaisravas. After a while, pleased with her services he took her as his wife.
Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana were her sons. Kumbheenasi was another daughter of
Sumali and consort of Madhu .She was the daughter of Sumali and Ketumati. Madhu abducted
her. When Ravana attacked Madhu, her husband, she requested Ravana to forgive him.
Prahasta was the father of Janmbumali and chief minister of Ravana. He defeated
Manibhadra on Kailasha Mountain. He was appointed to the guard the east gate of Lanka.
Ultimately, Nila killed him. Kalikamukha was commander of the army of Khara, who had gone to
fight against Rama in the forest of Kalikamukha. Prahasta leds Ravana's army in the wars against
Yama, Kubera through which Ravana establishes his sovereignty. He also leads the initial Lankan
response to the invasion led by Rama, Lakshmana, Sugriva and the Vanara Army.

Trinabindu was the name of a sage who was residing near Mount Meru. His daughter,
while searching for her other female friends in Pulastya’s ashram, she became pregnant by
Pulastiya. Trinabindu asked Pulastya to accept his daughter as his wife. She had 2 sons namely
Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava and Agastya. Devavarnini was the daughter of
Bharadhwaja, who was married to Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava and gave birth to
Kubera @ Kuvera @ Kuperan. Kuperan became the king of Lanka.
Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava he made his son Kuperan as the king of Lanka.
Chitraratha, Kubera's orchard, which was situated in the territory of North Kuru. Kubera married
kauveri. On being defeated by Ravana, he had gone to Kailasa. He had two sons namely Manigriva
@ Varnakavi , Nalakuvara @ Mayuraja and had one daughter namely Meenakshi.
Kubera is physically envisioned as a dwarf with an ugly and deformed body. His skin is
white and he has three legs. He has a set of only eight teeth. Since Kubera was so deformed, he
had difficulty in moving around.
Rambha is the wife of Nalakubera, the son of Kubera. Rambha is unrivalled in her
accomplishments in the arts of dancing, music and love-making. She often asked by the king of the
Indra to break the penance of sages. When she tries to disturb the penance of Vishwamitra, he
scolded her. Rambha was scolded and disrespected by Ravana for her service to Indra. Tumburu
who was a called as Viradha expelled from Kubera’s assembly for his excessive attraction towards
Nalakuvara’s wife Rambha, his daughter-in-law. In the meantime, Sumali gave Kaikesi, in marriage
to Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava.

Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava and Kaikesi had three sons, Ravanan, Veedanan
@ Vibheeshana, and Kumbhakaranam, and a daughter named Soorpanakha. To wrest the
kingdom that rightly belonged his mother Kaikesi, Ravanan challenged his half-brother Kuperan.
Their father Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava intervened and settled the dispute in favour
of Ravanan, who became the king of Lanka. Vachiravaagu @ vaichiravagu @ Visrava and Raaka
had three children namely Khara. Dhushana, Trishira. Makaraksha was the name of the chief of
the s whose house was set on fire by Hanuman. He was the son of Khara. He fought with Rama
and broken his chariot, Rama killed him. Kaikesi also produced a daughter, Meenakshi ("girl with
fish like eyes"), although later she was dubbed the infamous Shoorpanakha ("the one with copper-
colored fingernails"). Sanyodhakantaka was the name of a Yaksha, who was defeated by Maricha.
Kumbhakarna played an important role in Rama-Ravana war. Kumbha and Nikumbha
were sons of Kumbhakarna. Both of them were very powerful. Kumbha defeated the army of
vanaras Rama-Ravana war on various occasions.His house was set on fire by Hanuman.
Vidyujjivha was the son of Kalka, whom Ravana had given his sister, Soorpanakha in

Ravanan - ruled Lanka from his capital city at Ilankapuri. Takshaka was the name of a
Naga.(serpent) Ravana had forcibly taken his wife.
King Maya was married to an elf Hema. A beautiful daughter was born to them. But the elf
neither had any affection for Maya nor for the newborn baby. She deserted the baby and went to
heaven. In the absence of his wife, Maya showered all his love and affection on the baby. He
named her Mandodari and always kept her with him. Hema, a nymph, was the consort of Maya.
Indra killed Maya and gave away Rikshabila to Hema. She appointed her friend Swayamprabha to
protect that palace. Dundubhi was the son of Maya and brother of Mayavi. He was like a buffalo in
appearance and huge like Mount Kailash He had the strength of thousand elephants, proud and
haughty over his prowess. Vali killed him (brother of Mandodari, wife of Ravana. Sugriva
mentioned about this to Rama.
Once, Maya was wandering on the earth along with his daughter. By that time, Mandodari
had attained the age of 15 years and was having lot of radiance and beauty. They were in the
dense forests when Ravana, the king of Lanka happened to meet Maya. Introducing his great
lineage, Ravana begged Maya for his daughter. Maya gladly accepted the proposal. On an
auspicious moment married Mandodari to Ravana and gave him many divine and deadly weapons
as gifts. Though Ravana had married many women, Mandodari always remained his favorite
among them and the most beloved to Ravana. Mandodari always wished well for Ravana and tried
to maintain him on the pious path.
There are just over 168 years in the genealogy above.

Veedanan @ Vibheeshna was crowned king of South Lanka by Ilakumanan on the orders
of Rama and ruled the country from Kalyani (Kelaniya). According to the Yalpana Vaipava Malai,
"Tradition adds that Vibhisana (Veedanan), who received the kingdom from Dasarata Rama, the
conqueror of Ravanan, continued to reign." C S Navaratnam, in his book "A Short History of
Hinduism in Ceylon", adds, "Vibhisna, the brother of Ravanan, is still worshipped in Kelaniya." Kala
was the eldest daughter of Vibheeshana who informed Sita that Ravana had turned down the
proposal of Vibheeshana to return Sita back to Rama. Sarama and Trijataa were daughters of
Vibhisana who was kind-hearted towards Sita. He informed/identified Rama with the fact that he
has recognised Shuka and Sarana while inspecting the army of Rama in the guise of Vanaras. He
being a great traitor explained to Rama the defence management of Lanka done by Ravana. Rama
pledged to consecrate him on the throne.. He too stood near Rama duly equipped with weapons.
He gave introduction of Prahasta to Rama. He introduced Kumbhakarna to Rama. Rama ordered
Lakshmana to go for killing of Indrajit at his request. In the intrest of Lakshmana he advised to
attack him before the completion of the sacrifice (which is actually different from the yajnas of
aswamedha and naramedha done by rishis in Dandakaranya), accordingly Lakshmana showered
arrows on him. He had a heated conversation with Indrajit. He advised Lakshmana to hurry up in
killing Indrajit. He also welcomed Lakshmana on killing Indrajit. Lakshmana taking support from
him came to Rama for giving information of the killing of Indrajit. Lakshmana praised his bravery
to Rama. Sushena treated him due to that he became healthy . He befelled the horses of Ravana
with his club. Getting his kingdom he consoled the subject and then came to Rama. Rama,
disregarding Sita, asked her to stay willingly with Vibeeshana also. He returned to Lanka after
attending the coronation ceremony of Rama.

Battle for and against

Sacrifice in Ancient South India/Tamil Nadu.

Although many Hindus are vegetarian, there are Hindu temples in India as well as Nepal where
goats and chickens are sacrificed. There are many village temples in Tamilnadu where this kind of
sacrifice takes place. It is attested in the Tamil Grammar, namely Tolkaappiyam.
Mdß00OO0|O0 koṟṟavai-nilai, n. Theme of offering sacrifice to koṟṟavai and worshipping
Her; Mdß00OOd@L L0|ülL0L LûOu L0góO0. (Mgß0. MLß. 59.)
In India, some semi-tribal Hindus, as well as some worshipper-communities of Shaktism (the
Mother Goddess) offer sacrifice of goats and buffaloes to the deity. Among the Hindus of Nepal,
animal sacrifices are common even today, not only for the mother goddess, but also for almost all
deities of the Hindu pantheon.
In these non brahminical sacrifices, no yajna is performed or required. These offerings to their
Family deity may either be vegitarian or non vegitarian foods.
LOL¹-gg0 paḍai- , 11 v. tr. [K. paḍē.] 1. To serve or distribute, as food to guests;
Lûuß0g0. 2. To offer, as boiled rice, to gods or manes; 0|GOg|gg0. dLOL@
=Oó LOLddGOM0u.
LOLd0 paḍai-kal, n. < LOL- +. A large stone slab on which boiled rice is mixed with
various ingredients; =OóLßO0
LOLLL paḍaippu , n. < LOL-. 1. Offering of food, as to a god; 0|GOgGu. Colloq. 2.
Serving of food; 2MO Lûuß0Od.
LOLü0 paḍaiyal, n. < LOL-. (W.) Offering; 0|GOgGOMO. LOLü0
In Dravidian/Tamil Country, the previous mentioned offering is done by the Velala caste by simple
modes as worshipful praise for an abundant harvest. It is thanks giving ceremony.

There are different kinds of such offerings to small deities by them.
1.=LüO0 aṭi-y-uṟai , n. 1. Offering to a great personage, as laid at his feet; Lßg
dßMldOd. ÞLLü L0MLßmud MuuLlûßOd dLüO0MüG0 (g|O.
MLûüßþ. 4, 3, 9). 2. Living in reverence, as for a person worthy of respect;
Oþ|LL0O0Od. (d0|g. 140, 11.)
2. 2ülûLL0| uyir-p-pali, n. . 1. Sacrifice of life; 8OL0|. 2. Warrior beheading himself as an
offering to the goddess of war, an ancient custom; O ûG gG0O0Oüd Mdß00
OOd@d Mdß0d@u L0|. (Mgß0. MLß. 59, 2Oû.) 3. Saving a person's life;
2ülûLLl8O8. ¶mülûL L0| 0 Oþ0@MdG0ßu (LlûGußg. 2, 16). This is
self sacrification as against Vedic Nara Medha/Nrimedha concepts.
3.dßüuOL kāy-maṭa, n. Offering of fruits, commonly to a ferocious deity; 8|0
MgüOgg|0@L LOLd@u dG|Oûdd0|GOgGu. (J.)
4.@mg|LL0| kuruti-p-pali, n.Oblation in which a warrior makes an offering of his own blood to
Durgā; O ûG gG Mûggg Ogd Mdß00OOd@d Mdß0d@u L0|. (Mgß0.
MLß. 59, 2Oû.) MûggL0| iratta-pali, n. . 1. Libation of blood, blood sacrifice; 2g|û
O0GOgg| üu.
5.8L0| cīpali , n. bali. 1. Rice offering in a temple; Gdßül0|0 M0u =GGL0|.

6. g|d@LL0| tikku-p-pali, n.Offering to the tutelary deities of the quarters, as in a temple;
g|d@gGgOOgdL@ M0u L0|.
7. g|mLGLßGdu tiru-p-pōṉakam. Offering of boiled rice to a deity; dLOL@
0|GOg|gg =þ@. ¶m g|mLGLßGdu (S. I. I. iii, 82).
8.g|muóûu tiru-maturam. A kind of sweet offering in temples; Lþu, M0ü, 8ûddOû
Og0|üO0O08 G8ûgó8 M8üüLL0u O0GOgg|üL MLßmu. Nāñ.
9.MgGL0ggßûGOuOl teṉpulattār- vēḷvi, n. < MgGL0ggßû +. Daily offering of
libations to the manes, one of ai-vakai-vēḷvi,
10.Gg0dßMü0|-g0 tēṅkāy-eṟi-, v. intr. . To dash coconuts and break, as offering to an idol;
8|g0Gg0dßüOLgg0. Nāñ.
11.G0û¹-g0 nēr- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be fit or appropriate; MLßm0óg0. G0ûg GgßG0
Mumgg|G 8ßûOü (Mgß0. Omg. 134). .--tr. 1. To grant, bestow; Mdß0gg0.
dßOßOu G0û0gß G|LuGLßQu (GgOß. 111, 8). 6. [M. nēruka, K. nēr.] To agree,
consent; 2LGL0g0. =muLl0 GOKOûLL 0|O0üm0gßOG GO0gO
G0û0ó (8|0L. 25, 178).2. To resolve, vow, take vow; 0|88ülgg0. 000ßûd0GO
MuG G0û0óu (L. MO. 12, MLMLß0. 7). 4. To entreat, pray; GOM0 g0.
(=d. 0|.) 5. To say; to speak; M8ß0Q g0. 8û88LGdßLG G0ûg0ßülûgó
(g|O. g|m Oßü. 1, 8, 11). 6. To appropriate, as an offering to God; to consecrate, dedicate;
Llûßûg gOGüßd OOgg0.
G0ûgg|ddLG nērtti-k-kaṭaṉ, n. ) 1. Vow made to a deity; G0û0óMdßu Ku
LlûßûggOG. 2. Offering in fulfilment of a vow; LlûßûggOGddßd OOgg
12.LLOL88ßgu paṭṭai-c-cātam, n.Offering of rice boiled and set in a cup-like form;
dLOKd@ 0|GOg|ddLL0u =GGd dLL.
13.LûLLû8| parapparici, n.. Offering of rice, etc., to a deity
14. LßGd|O8 pāṉaka-pūcai, n. The ceremony of offering pāṉakam
15.LlLðL0LLOLgg0 piṭi-cuṭṭu-p-paṭaittal, n. The ceremony of offering cakes to the
household deity; O L0g MgüOgg|0@L LlLLLMlüßûkðL0 0|GOg|d@k
8L0@. (W.)
16.LlMLdd|ûOü piṇṭa-k-kiriyai, n. Ceremony of offering balls of cooked rice to the manes;
LlMLuOOgóL Llg|ûûd@8 M8ü ük 8L0@.
17.LlMGLßgdu piṇṭōtakam, n.Ceremony of offering to the manes balls of cooked rice with
water and sesame; Llg|ûûd@L LlMLL0|üLG OuKdd00g 0 ûOl00
18.L0uOL puṟa-maṭai : Offering of flesh and spirits, made to ferocious deities, outside a
temple, opp. to uṇmaṭai; Gdßül0 L0góuu 8|0 MgüO0dL@ M0u
19.|8Mu² pūsaṇam, n. Coin tied in a piece of cloth and set apart as a votive offering;
G0ûgg|ddLGßd OL0óOOd@u dßð Og0|üG. ¶m LMMu0góL
|8MOL0ó OO. Nāñ.
20.|uOL pū-maṭai, n. Offering of flowers; |LL0|. (W.)
21.MLmuMLß0d0 peru-m-poṅkal, n. 1. A festival. See OgLMLß0d0. (W.) 2.
Offering of poṅkal food
MLß0d0OO-gg0 poṅkal-vai-, v. . intr. To boil rice for offering to a deity;
MgüOgód@L MLß0d0GGk 8Ougg0
Ogó8M8ßûg0 muttu-c-corital, n. M8ßû-. Offering of boiled rice to a deity;
=GGu 0|GOg|dOd.
22.MLmuOL peru-maṭai, n. Food offering to a deity; MgüO0dKdd|0u
G8ß00L L0|. Ouu|@ 8|0LLl0 M0üOL MLmuOL Mdß0gó
(MLûüL. dMML. 19).
23.OLddßMldOd muṭi-k-kāṇikkai, n.Offering of the hair of a person's head which has
been allowed to grow for a certain time, in fulfilment of a vow; MgüOL
LlûßûggOGülG MLßmL0 Ouûgg uülû OLOü uþ|gód
dßMldOdüßd M0Od. Colloq.
24.OlO0LL0| vilai-p-pali, n. Sacrificial offering given to deities, with a view to gaining their
favour; LüGdmg|g MgüO0dL d|0u L0|. OlO0LL0| üM0u
u0ûL0| L LOd (8|0L. 12, 43).
25.MOuu|O0üOó veḷḷilai-y-amutu, n. . Offering of betel, as to a diety; gßu|0
26.=O0Oó aval-amutu, n. offering of fried rice to the deity;
27.LûßOlOO-gg0 parāvi-vai-, v. tr. To make an offering to a deity in fulfilment of a vow;
G0ûgg|ddLGßdd Mdß0g g0. (S. I. I. viii, 379.)
28.|ußO0MdßM0M8ßûg0 pūmālai- koṇṭu-corital, n. < |ußO0 +. A kind of
votive flower offering to a temple; G0ûgg|ddLGOOd. Nāñ.
29.=uOlOGGOuOl āḷ-viṉai-vēḷvi, n. . Hospitality to guests held to be as meritorious as a
sacrifice; Olm0ó L00gmOd. (Lg|00L. 21, 13, 2Oû.)
30.dß0L0|0L0-g0 kāṭu-pali-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr.To sacrifice cock, etc., to the forest deities
before hunting, to ensure a good game; dßLL0Oßmu GgOûdKd@L
L0|ül0g0. dßLLQO0 MgüO0du
31.dßO³ kāvu , n. 1. Sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities; 8|0MgüO0dKd@ M0u
L0|. dßu|d@d dßOMdß0ggßûdu
32.@mg|0L0-g0 kuruti-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr. . Lit., to feed with blood. To offer animal sacrifice;
33.uOGLL0| maṉai-p-pali, n.Sacrifice to household gods; uOGüO0 MgüO0dL
d|0u L0|. uOGLL0|0LLGOu dM0Md OM (=8ßûd. 40).
34. M0g|û8|0LL intira-ciṟappu, n. . A religious ceremony performed before the midday meal,
consisting in the offering of small portions of cooked food to Indra for giving sufficient rain;
M0g|û 8|0LL8 M8üGOßG OGGû (uMl. 11, 88).

worshipful praise of Fire (Agni/Sun) for an abundant harvest:
In the earlier Dravidian/Tamil country, the farmers worshipped Fire/Agni as symbol of Sun in the
form of light/Lamp.
Olud@d@8G8ß0L0-g0 viḷakkuk- ku-ch-chōṟūṭṭu-, v. intr. To make an offering of
boiled rice before a burning lamp in thanks-giving to the God of Fire, on gathering the first
sheaves; 0ßLdg|û MdßML óu =dd|G|ülG MLßmL0 Olud@
OGLßdL Lg|ü G8ß0 LOLgg0. (W.)
Gdßgg|û&sup4; kōttiri, n.Burning wick or small torch placed on an offering of cooked rice to a
deity; MgüO0dKd@L LOLL LlL0 =gGGLû0 0ßL0u g|û =00ó
8|0L0gu. Nāñ.
This simple Dravidian/Tamil worship and sacrifices are connected together in the form of Vedic.
Thereby self offering or self sacrifices were became other humen being or animal killing
(Aswamedha, Naramedha, Sarpa Medha etc) or offering the foods directly into the fire. This led to
the development of complicated Yajna System for the survival of Barbaric Brahmins to get
Dhakshina/gifts in the forms of wealth/wife.
The Vedic sacrifice:
The ancient Vedic religion of the Aryans involved animal sacrifice on some special occasions and
may have disappeared with the influence of Buddhism, Jainism and later reforms in Hinduism. In
fact, yajna typically refers to any fire-offering or such equivalent ritual of the Vedic Indo-Aryans.
The offerings were usually of vegetable origin, including saw-dust for the fire, grains like barley,
etc. Milk and ghee (clarified butter) was also offered in large quantities. A mysterious, unidentified
plan's juice, called Soma, was offered at special Soma sacrifices. As said earlier, animal flesh seems
to have been offered at larger sacrifices. Brahmins @ Paarppaan are claiming that they are the
supporters of Non violance theory/Ahimsa Tattva and they are pretending as vegitarian. To the
contrary, their Aryan Vedas/books supports animal/human being sacrifies among the other things.
These offering and sacrifice are mostly done on behalf of the king by the Brahmins for
Dhakshinas/Gifts. It is not a ceremony of thanks giving of Tamil Country, wherein the offerer
himself offers his belongings or his life directly to God. In Brahminical Sacrifice, Brahmina becomes
Agent to the King for his victory. These brahmins did the same for Dakshina/Gift on behalf of
Merchants too. In rarest cases, they did it for so called Sudras too.
Hd ¤|H4 ¤|H4 ¤|H4 ¤|H4 śūdrḥ yājakḥ. one who conducts a sacrifice for a Śūdra.
1. The Ashvamedha; "horse sacrifice" was one of the most important royal rituals of so called
Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7.1-5, VSM 22–25[1] and the pertaining
commentary in the Shatapatha Brahmana ŚBM 13.1–5). The Rigveda does have descriptions of
horse sacrifice, notably in hymns RV 1.162-163 (which are themselves known as aśvamedha), but
does not allude to the full ritual according to the Yajurveda.
The Ashvamedha could only be conducted by a king (rājā). Its object was the acquisition of power
and glory, the sovereignty over neighbouring provinces, and general prosperity of the kingdom.
The horse to be sacrificed must be a stallion, more than 24, but less than 100 years old. The horse
is sprinkled with water, and the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer whisper mantras into its ear. Anyone
who should stop the horse is ritually cursed, and a dog is killed symbolic of the punishment for the
sinners. The horse is then set loose towards the North-East, to roam around wherever it chooses,
for the period of one year (or half a year, according to some commentators). The horse is
associated with the Sun, and its yearly course. If the horse wanders into neighbouring provinces
hostile to the sacrificer, they must be subjugated.

The wandering horse is attended by a hundred young men, sons of princes or high court officials,
charged with guarding the horse from all dangers and inconvenience. During the absence of the
horse, an uninterrupted series of ceremonies is performed in the sacrificer's home. After the
return of the horse, more ceremonies are performed. The horse is yoked to a gilded chariot,
together with three other horses, and RV 1.6.1,2 (YV VSM 23.5,6) is recited. The horse is then
driven into water and bathed. After this, it is anointed with ghee by the chief queen and two other
royal consorts. The chief queen anoints the fore-quarters, and the others the barrel and the hind-
quarters. They also embellish the horse's head, neck, and tail with golden ornaments. The
sacrificer offers the horse the remains of the night's oblation of grain.

After this, the horse, a hornless he-goat, a wild ox (go-mrga, Bos gavaeus) are bound to sacrificial
stakes near the fire, and seventeen other animals are attached to the horse. A great number of
animals, both tame and wild, are tied to other stakes, according to a commentator 609 in total (YV
VSM 24 consists of an exact enumeration).
Then the horse is slaughtered (YV VSM 23.15, tr. Griffith)
Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifice and accept thyself.
Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee.
The chief queen ritually calls on the king's fellow wives for pity. The queens walk around the dead
horse reciting mantras. The chief queen then has to mimic copulation with the dead horse, while
the other queens ritually utter obscenities.On the next morning, the priests raise the queen from
the place where she has spent the night with the horse. With the Dadhikra verse (RV 4.39.6, YV
VSM 23.32), a verse used as a purifier after obscene language. The three queens with a hundred
golden, silver and copper needles indicate the lines on the horse's body along which it will be
dissected. The horse is dissected, and its flesh roasted. Various parts are offered to a host of
deities and personified concepts with cries of svaha "all-hail". The Ashvastuti or Eulogy of the
Horse follows (RV 1.162, YV VSM 24.24–45), concluding with:
May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in good kine, good horses, manly offspring
Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us: the Steed with our oblations gain us lordship!

In the Mahabharata, the sacrifice is performed by Yudhishtira (Book 14), his brothers guarding the
horse as it roamed into neighbouring kingdoms. Arjuna defeats all challengers. The Mahabharata
says that the Ashvamedha as performed by Yudhishtira adhered to the letter of the Vedic
prescriptions. After the horse was cut into parts, Draupadi had to sit beside the parts of the horse.

In the Ramayana, Rama's father Dasharatha performs the Ashvamedha, which is described in the
bala kanda (book 1) of the poem. The Ramayana provides far more detail than the Mahabharata.
The ritual take place for three days preceded by sage Rishyasringa and Vasista(1.14.41,42). Again
it is stated that the ritual was performed in strict compliance with Vedic prescriptions (1.14.10).
Dasaratha's chief wife Kausalya circumambulates the horse and ritually pierces its flesh (1.14.33).
Then "Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that
horse that flew away like a bird." [1-14-34]. The fat of the sacrificed horse is then burnt in ritual
fire and after that the remaining parts of the body with spoons made out of Plaksha tree
branches(1.14.36,38-39). At the conclusion of the ritual Dasharatha symbolically offers his other
wives to the presiding priests, who return them in exchange for expensive gifts (1.14.35). The four
sides of the Yagna alter is also donated to priests who had done the ritual and it is exchanged by
them for gold, silver, cows and other gifts(1.15.43-44).

Vedanta and Puranas
The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (a mystical appendix to the Shatapatha Brahmana and likely the
oldest of the Upanishads) has a creation myth where Mṛtyu "Death" takes the shape of a horse,
and includes an identification of the Ashvamedha with the Sun:
Then he became a horse (ashva), because it swelled (ashvat), and was fit for sacrifice (medhya);
and this is why the horse-sacrifice is called Ashva-medha. Therefore the sacrificers offered up the
purified horse belonging to Prajapati, (as dedicated) to all the deities. Verily the shining sun [ye
tapati] is the Asvamedha, and his body is the year; Agni is the sacrificial fire (arka), and these
worlds are his bodies. These two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, and they are
again one deity, viz. Death. (BrUp 1.2.7. trans. Müller)
The Upanishads describe ascetic austerities as an "inner Ashvamedha", as opposed to the "outer"
royal ritual performed in the physical world, in keeping with the general tendency of Vedanta to
move away from priestly ritual towards spiritual introspection; verse 6 of the Avadhuta Upanishad
"Through extreme devotion [sam-grahaneṣṭi] he [the ascetic] performs ashvamedha within [anta].
That is the greatest sacrifice [mahā-makha] and the greatest meditation [mahā-yoga]." According
to the Brahma Vaivarta Purana (185.180),[9] the Ashvamedha is one of five rites forbidden in the
Kali Yuga.
2. Purushamedha; "human sacrifice" is a Vedic yajna (ritual) described in the Yajurveda (VS 30–
31). The verse describes people from all classes and of all descriptions tied to the stake and
offered to Prajapati. The Purusha Sukta describes the process of creation of matter from the
cosmic Purusha (universal spirit) which is shown as a human-like entity. The Purusha Medha is an
enactment of the sacrifice of Purusha that leads to creation.

The ritual in many aspects resembles that of the Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice), with, according to
Griffith (1899) man, the noblest victim, being actually or symbolically sacrificed instead of the
Horse, and men and women of various tribes, figures, complexions, characters, and professions
being attached to the sacrificial stakes in place of the tame and wild animals enumerated in Book
XXIV [VS 24]. These nominal victims were afterwards released uninjured, and, so far as the text of
the White Yajurveda goes, the whole ceremony was merely emblematical.
The ceremony evokes the primordial mythical sacrifice of Purusha, the "Cosmic Man", and the
officiating Brahman recites the Purusha sukta (RV 10.90 = AVS 5.19.6 = VS 31.1–16). However, in a
late Vedic Brahmana text, the Vadhula Anvakhyana 4.108 (ed. Caland, Acta Orientalia 6, p.229)
actual human sacrifice and even ritual anthropophagy is attested: "one formerly indeed offered a
man as victim for Prajāpati", for example Karṇājāya. "Dhārtakratava Jātūkarṇi did not wish to eat
of the ida portion of the offered person; the gods therefore exchanged man as a sacrificial animal
with a horse." References to anthropophagy are also found in Taittiriya 7.2.10 and Katha Samhita
0ûL0| nara-pali, n. Human sacrifice; uG|gL0|. M8O8ül GûL0| ülLL
gO0Oü (=û8. L. OlOßd. 121).
Criticism and controversy
1. Cārvāka View:-
The earliest recorded criticism of the ritual comes from the Cārvāka, an atheistic school of Indian
philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. A
quotation of the Cārvāka from Madhavacharya's Sarva-Darsana-Sangraha states:
“The three authors of the Vedas were buffoons, knaves, and demons. All the well-known formulae
of the pandits, jarphari, turphari, etc. and all the obscene rites for the queen commanded in
Aswamedha, these were invented by buffoons, and so all the various kinds of presents to the
priests, while the eating of flesh was similarly commanded by night-prowling demons.
”The mock bestiality and necrophilia involved in the ritual caused considerable consternation
among the scholars first editing the Yajurveda. Griffith (1899) omits verses VSM 23.20–31 (the
ritual obscenities), protesting that they are "not reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a
learned European language" (alluding to other instances where he renders explicit scenes in Latin
rather than English). A. B. Keith's 1914 translation also omits verses.

2. Kanch Sankarachari's View:
According to Kanchi Sankarachari, A yaga or sacrifice takes shape with the chanting of the
mantras, the invoking of the deity and the offering of havis (oblation). The mantras are chanted
(orally) and the deity is meditated upon (mentally). The most important material required for
homa is the havis offered in the sacrificial fire-- in this "work" the body is involved. Ghee (clarified
butter) is an important ingredient of the oblation. While ghee by itself is offered as an oblation, it
is also used to purify other sacrificial materials - in fact this is obligatory. In a number of sacrifices
the vapa(fat or marrow) of animals is offered.
Madvacharya was against the killing of any pasu for a sacrifice. In his compassion he said that a
substitute for the vapa must be made with flour and offered in the fire.
In the concluding passage of the Chandogya Upanishad whwre ahimsa or non-violence is
extolled you find these words, "Anyatra tirthebhyah". It means ahimsa must be practised except
with regard to Vedic rites.
According to Kanchi Sankarachari, there are a number of yajnas in which only ghee (ajya) is
offered in the fire. In some, havisyanna (rice mixed with ghee) is offered and in some the cooked
grains called "caru" or "purodasa", a kind of baked cake. In agnihotri milk is poured into the fire; in
aupasana unbroken rice grains (aksata) are used; and in samidadhana the sticks of the palasa
(flame of the forest). In sacrifices in which the vapa of animals is offered, only a tiny bit of the
remains of the burnt offering is partaken of - and of course in the form of prasada. These
offerings by the Brahmins for Kings etc into fire are totally in controduction to the offerings by
the Velala Farmer to God direectly in Tamil Country. Justification offered by the Brahmin is that
the slaughtering the animal may be less painfull than the others, as it involves an immediate
severing of the whole neck of the animal by one quick stroke of a sword or an axe (otherwise great
calamities are believed to befall the sacrificer), rather than slitting of the throat.
According to Kanchi Sankarachari, one is enjoined to perform twenty-one sacrifices. These are of
three types:pakayajna, haviryajna and somayajna. In each category there are seven subdivisions.
In all the seven pakayajnas as well as in the first five haviryajnas there is no animal sacrifice. It is
only from the sixth haviryajna onwards (it is called "nirudhapasubandha") that animals are
Brahmins sacrificed herds and herds of animals and gorged themselves on their meat. The Buddha
saved such herds when they were being taken to the sacrificial altar was made. j animal sacrifices,
meat in sraddha ceremonies and begetting a son by the husband's brother..

3. True Meaning of Medha:
Brahminical view of sacrificing horse or human being is due to confusion or wrong spelling/reading
i.e.ü|ò d|¤ d|¤ d|¤ d|¤ a false reading
There are 3 so called dhatu patas.
1. P ¤ mēth To hurt, injure, kill.
2. P d mēdḥ Fat.
3. P º mēdhḥ1 A sacrifice.
In the Asvamedha, killing the horse in the sacrifice and swallowing of the fat by Brahmins are
involved by combining the meaning of P ¤ mēth, P d mēdḥ and P ºmēdhḥ.
In Purushamedha, Killing of human being in the sacrifice involved.

(Altar for human sacrifice at Monte Alban which is similar to Brahminical fire pit)
Banabhatta, in a description of the dedication of a temple of Chandika, describes a series of
human sacrifices; similarly, in the ninth century, Haribhadra describes the sacrifices to Chandika in
Orissa. It was "more common" in the Southern parts of India, where it took on a scapegoating
rather than purifying role.
The Khonds, an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the tributary states of Orissa and Andhra
Pradesh (of Dhandakaranya region), became notorious, on the British occupation of their district
about 1835, from the prevalence and cruelty of the human sacrifices they practised.

Purushamedha ("human sacrifice") is a ritual described in the Yajurveda (VS 30–31). The verse
describes people from all classes and of all descriptions tied to the stake and offered to Prajapati.
in a late Vedic Brahmana text, the Vadhula Anvakhyana 4.108 (ed. Caland, Acta Orientalia 6,
p.229) actual human sacrifice and even ritual anthropophagy is attested: "one formerly indeed
offered a man as victim for Prajāpati", for example Karṇājāya. "Dhārtakratava Jātūkarṇi did not
wish to eat of the ida portion of the offered person; the gods therefore exchanged man as a
sacrificial animal with a horse." References to anthropophagy are also found in Taittiriya 7.2.10
and Katha Samhita 34.
Etymology of Yajna:
According to Sanskrit Dictionaries Yajna is derived from the so called Dhatu ¤H yaj. To sacrifice,
worship with sacrifices (often with instr. of words meaning 'a sacrifice'). However the meaning
assinged to the said Dhatu is wrong if we applies the meaning to the following yajnas.
1. Ashvamedha Yajna= Horse killing worship/Sacrifice
2. Purushamedha Yajna= Human killing worship/Sacrifice
3. Sarpa Yajna= Serpant Worship/Sacrifice
The meaning of the word Yajna should be a different one. Lets see.
ü³ 1 A son; sÍP sÍP sÍP sÍP, -sÍP4| sÍP4| sÍP4| sÍP4| f. a sacrifice performed to obtain male issue.Generally Sanskrit
Nighantu says that sÍP iṣṭiḥ and ¤7 yajñḥ are derived from the same source. If we apply the
meaning of Worship or sacrifice to Putra iṣṭiḥ is, then the meaning of Putra iṣṭiḥ would be
worshiping or sacrificing of son.
Therefore, the meaning of worship or sacrifice is not appropriate.
True meaning of Yajna.
We have to find out the true meaning of yajna with the help of Tamil and Sanskrit words.
GOu vēḷ , n. < GOu-. 1. Marriage; d0| üßMu. GOuOßü dOLOL M00|
(LþMuß. 360). 2. Desire; OlmLLu OlmLLu OlmLLu OlmLLu. ( . ( . ( . (W.)

GOu-g0 [GOLL0| vēḷ- , 9 v. tr. [K. bēḷ.] To offer sacrifices; üßdk M8üg0.
Gg0 GOLL0 (Lg|00L. 24, 6).
GOuO vēḷvu , n. < GOu-. 1. Sacrifice; üßdu. OlþOu GOuOu
Ol0ggM0ßG0|GOuüß0 (8Od. 138).
c0D [ vēlimi ] [Telugu.] n. A burnt offering. ccc:. ¯c0Do:' ^:o·o.<o:,
D. ^.o(o:as¡.¯ Swa. ii. 57. c0D se c: firewood used in a burnt sacrifice. c0Dc`e: a mark
made on the forehead with the ashes from a burnt sacrifice, o¢. ¯-^0c0Dc`e: c-Dc
c¸n-·OOcsoc: ce:L,n· co.Lc:..¯ R. ii. 109.
cc:c: [ vēlucu ] , c c:. c c:. c c:. c c:. or cc:. cc:. cc:. cc:. vēluṭsu. [Telugu.] v. a. To offer up a burnt sacrifice.
ccc:±o:. infin. cc:. c 0.o c 0.o c 0.o c 0.oc: c: c: c: vēl-pinṭsu. v. a. To cause to offer a burnt offering.
occ:±ooc:. ¯occ:C c0.oD.¯ ND. ii. 553.
c0D vēlimi-> c 0¡ [ vrēlmi ] [Telugu] n. A burnt offering, an offering by fire. ccc:.
¯co¸cc:<: c 0¡^Dcc:<:.¯ T. i. 27. e ccc:<s: Dc:n:c:<:.
M88|Oü icciyai, n. 1. Gift; offering; MdßOL. 2. Sacrifice; üßdu. 3. Worship; |8OG.
MLL iṭṭi, n. 1. Epigrammatic verse; 80d|ûd8M8üüu. 2. Gift; MdßOL. 3. Worship;
|O8. 4. Desire; longing; M8O8.
MLL² iṭṭi, n. A religious sacrifice; üßdu. MLLdKu L0Olü00| (dßk8|LL.
dLOu. 19).
MLLu iṭṭam, n. 1. Purificatory ceremony; OuOdßûu. 2. Sacrifice; üßdu. 3. Yōga;
MLLu¹ iṭṭam, n. 1. Desire, wish, inclination of mind, will; OlmLLu. 0u LOG
0ßMLß0 u|LLggß 0|G|gßd 0|OGu|GGß (GgOß. 20, 8). 2. Love, attachment,
affection; =GL. MLLußG Olü0Ld GûßG|L0 d|LLGßG (d0gL.
ðdd|ûOL. 15). 3. Friendship; 8|G0du. Colloq.
MLLG iṭṭaṉ, n.1. Friend; 8|G0 d|gG. 2. Endeared person; OlmLLgg|0d|LGßG
OG. 0ßG|LLMGG0muLLLû (=OLL. g|mOû0 dd. dßLL, 4). 3.
Master; O8ußGG. MLLMG Gd dßMLûO GGO0Oû (O8O8.
ußMßd. 16).

sÍP iṣṭiḥ f. 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired
rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas;
-5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 A sacrifice.-8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c.-
Comp. -H¤¬P H¤¬P H¤¬P H¤¬P a sacrifice lasting for a long time.
sP iṣṭa 1 Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; -2 Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear;
˚ -3 Worshipped, reverenced. -4 Respected. -5 Approved, regarded as good. -6 Desirable; see
sP|ü3 . -6 Valid. -7 Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices. -8 Supposed (; oft. used in Līlavatī. -P P P P
A sacrifice. -PP PP PP PP 1 Wish, desire. -2 A holy ceremony -3 A sacrifice; Bṛi. Up.4.1.
s7¤ ijya To be worshipped. -7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 1 A sacrifice; H"cή4|H 3dH ¤ÎP7¤¤| R.3.48,1.68,15.2;
If we look at these Tamil and Sanskrit words, we can find out that the actual meaning of the word
yajna is desires. Lets apply of the said meaning.
Putra ishti= Desire to obtain sons.
Cf: Lgg|ûdßGuLL puttirakāmēṭṭi, (üßþ. =d.) n. / Skt. puttra-kāmēṣṭi. desire to obtain
sons; =MudLGL0OlmuLl OlmuLl OlmuLl OlmuLl8 M8üüu üßdu. (Mûßu0ß. Lß0dß. 7.)
However the actual meaning of Desire for the word Yajna is missing in Sanskrit. How that word
was created. Lets see the etymology of Yajna.
Etymology of Yajna:-
20 ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> =0 al ->O0 el -> (Od@ ekku)-> Oddu ēkkam, n.
[M. ēkkam.] 1. Despondency, depression of spirits; OlmuLlüó ML0ßOuüß0Om0
óddu. OßGO GûddOk 8|Ogü (d0gL. óOMOûOm. 30). 2. Fear, fright,
panic; =88u. Oddu . . . =uûßLg|d@kM8ü uóûßLû (uGßL.
LluOug. 77). 3. Craving, eager desire; =O8.
Oddu ēkkam-> Odd0O ēkkaṟavu, n. Desire, lust; M8O8. ¶mgg|
OO0dd|L0g GOdd0Oß0 (du Lûß. ußüß8G. 83).
Oddu ēkkam->Odd0-g0 ēkkaṟu-, v. 1. [T. ēkāru.] To suffer from weariness, to languish;
MOugó MOLg0. dOLdd GMdd0 (8Od. 1622). 2. To bow before superiors,
as one seeking some favour at their hands; =O8üß0 gßþg0. Odd000 d00ßû
(@0u, 395).--tr. To desire; OlmuLg0. ug|Güdd02 uß80 g|mO dgó
(8|0LßM. 157).
Oddu ēkkam->Odd|üu ekkiyam, n. Sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are offered;
üßdu. (g|mOßOGd. Gdß8M80. 70.)
Oddu ēkkam->O88u² eccam, n. Odd|üu. O88g g|OuGüßOû 0|ûOlL0
(GgOß. 571, 4).
O88G echchaṉ, n. 1. One who performs a sacrifice; üßdkM8üGOßG. gddOGü
OG|0Mg88G 0O0MdßMLßGdßM (GgOß. 596, 9). 2. The deity supposed to
be present at a sacrifice and to accept the offerings given; üßdGgOOg.
Mû0g|0d|G0Ggß Mû88MGGLOG (d0gL. üßd80. 38).
O88u² echcham->¤H yajḥ 1 A sacrifice. -2 Fire which is used for sacrifice.
O88u² echcham-> ¤HP yajas n. Ved. 1 Worship; -2 A sacrifice.
¤H¬P yajanam 1 The act of sacrificing. -2 A sacrifice; -3 A place of sacrifice;
¤HP|¬ yajamāna a. Sacrificing, worshipping. -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ 1 A person who performs a regular sacrifice
and pays its expenses; -2 A person who employs a priest or priests to sacrifice for him. -3 (Hence)
A host, patron, rich man. -4 The head of a family. -5 The head of a tribe. -Comp. -ÎHΆ¤ ÎHΆ¤ ÎHΆ¤ ÎHΆ¤ the pupil
of a sacrificing Brāhmaṇa (of one who himself per- forms a sacrifice); Ś.4. ¤HP|¬4 yajamānakḥ
¤HP|¬4 = ¤HP|¬.
¤H|4 yajākaa. Worshipping.
¤ÍH yajiḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 The act of sacrificing. -3 A sacrifice;
O88G echchaṉ-> ¤ÍH¬ a. 1 A worshipper, sacrificer. -2 Honouring, adoring.
O88|0 eccil , n. Leavings of sacrificial oblation made of pounded rice and offered in postsherds.
LGûßLß8u. Ogg L GLMlü uGMG88|0 (LûLß. 5, 42).
O88u² echcham-> Oð esu, n. Yajur-Vēda; üðûGO gu. MmdMdðd 8ßuGOg
0ßMu0ûMdßM0 (g|O. MLûüßþ. 5, 1, 6).
Oð esu-> ¤H P yajus 1 A sacrificial prayer or formula; -2 A text of the Yajurveda, or the body of
sacred mantras in prose muttered at sacrifices; -3 N. of the Yajurveda. -4 Ved. Worship, oblation.
O88u² echcham->Okku eññam, n. See Odd| üu. d|md MOkk Olg|ülOG
(u88L. =0dd|û. 26).
Okku eññam-> ¤7 yajñḥ 1 A sacrifice, sacrificial rite; any offering or oblation; -2 An act of
worship, any pious or devotional act.
¤Í74 yajñikḥ The Palāśa tree.

¤Í7¬ yajñin a. Full of sacrifices.

¤Í7¤ yajñiya a.1 Belonging to or fit for a sacrifice, sacrificial; -2 Sacred, holy, divine. -3
Adorable, worthy of worship. -4 Devout, pious. -¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 1 A god, deity. -2 The third or Dvāpara age. -3
The Udumbara tree. -¤P ¤P ¤P ¤P Implements or materials for sacrifice -Comp. -d H d H d H d H the land of sacrifices;
-H|H| H|H| H|H| H|H| 1 a sacrificial hall. -2 a temple.

¤7|¤ yajñīya. a. Sacrificial;

¤7¤ yajya a. Fit to be worshipped, adorable. -7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 7¤|, -7¤P 7¤P 7¤P 7¤P 1 Worshipping. -2 A sacrifice.

¤7¤ yajyu· a. 1 Pious, devout. -2 Worshipping, adoring, honouring. -3 Sacrificing. -7¤ 7¤ 7¤ 7¤ 1 A
priest familiar with the Yajurveda (Hºñ¤ ). -2 The institutor of a sacrifice (¤HP|¬). -3 An
adherent to the ¤H H|¼|.

¤7ñ¬ yajvan a. (-¤7ñ1| ¤7ñ1| ¤7ñ1| ¤7ñ1| f.) Sacrificing, worshipping, adoring &c. -m. 1 One who performs
sacrifices in accordance with Vedic precepts, a per- former of sacrifices;
¤|H¬P yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice;
¤|HP|¬P yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.
¤|HΤ3 yājayitṛm. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

¤|H yājḥ 1 A sacrificer. -2 Boiled rice. -3 Food in general.

¤|H4 yājakḥ A sacrificer, a sacrificing priest;

¤|H¬P yājanam The act of performing or conducting a sacrifice; Hº¤|ü¬Pº¤¤¬ ¤H¬ ¤|H¬
3¤| | d|¬ ήÎ3Tï ¬ñ ΰ|NÞ|¬|P4~ü¤3 | Ms.1.88;3.65.

¤|HP|¬P yājamānam That part of a sacrifice which is performed by the Yajamāna himself.

¤|HΤ3 yājayitṛ m. The officiating priest at a sacrifice.

¤|ÍH yājiḥ The institutor of a sacrifice. -f. A sacrifice.

¤|ÍH¬ yājin a. 1 (At the end of comp.) Sacrificing; -2 Worshipping, adoring.

¤|H 4 yājukḥ A sacrificer (as sÍP¤|H4); Bṛi. Up.1.5.2. .

¤|Í74 yājñika a. (-4| 4| 4| 4| f.) Belonging to a sacrifice; Bhāg.4.31.1. -4 4 4 4 1 A sacrificer or a sacrificing
priest. -2 A ritualist. -3 The Kuśa grass. -4 N. of several trees H+c¤, ¼Íd1, üH|H, &c. -Comp. -
H÷¤ H÷¤ H÷¤ H÷¤ N. of Viṣṇu.

¤|Í7¤ yājñiya a. 1 Sacrificial. -2 Fit for a sacrifice. -¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ One skilled in sacrificial rites.

¤|7¤ yājya a. 1 To be sacrificed. -2 Sacrificial. -3 One for whom a sacrifice is performed. -4 One
who is allowed by Śāstras to sacrifice. -7¤ 7¤ 7¤ 7¤ 1 A sacrificer, the institutor of a sacrifice; Mb.13.
93.27. -2 The performer of a sacrifice for another. -7¤P 7¤P 7¤P 7¤P The presents or fee received for
officiating at a sacrifice. -7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 7¤| a sacrificial text or verse, Ṛik (recited at the offering of an oblation);

¤|7ñ¬ yājvanḥ The son of a sacrificer.
Oddu ēkkam-> üßdu yākam, n.1. Sacrifice, 2. Worship; g|mOßûßgGu.
üßdu yāgam-> ¤|" yāgḥ 1 An offering, a sacrifice, an oblation; -2 Any cere- mony in which
oblations are presented, with a direct reference to a deity; -3 Presentation, grant. -Comp. -4Þò4 4Þò4 4Þò4 4Þò4
a bad sacrificer -41ÞP 41ÞP 41ÞP 41ÞP a sacrificial ceremony. -Pήd|¬P Pήd|¬P Pήd|¬P Pήd|¬P the recipient of a sacrifice. Kāśi. on
P.IV.2.24. -P³P P³P P³P P³P the sacrificial sacred thread.
20 ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> M0 il-> M88|²-gg0 ichchi-, 11 v. tr. To desire, wish,
crave for, covet; OlmuLg0. (Lßûg. g|MûuLg|. 75.)
M8O8 ichchai , n.1. Wish, desire, inclination; OlmLLu. (g|mOß8. 41, 9.) 2. Devoted
service; Lgg|Güß0 Lûü0 MgßM0. =LMdßMLßüd MdGG|G|
üßGM8ü u|8O8dGu (GgOß. 672, 6).
M8O8 ichchai ,-> M88|Oü ichchiyai, n. 1. Gift; offering; MdßOL. 2. Sacrifice; üßdu.
3. Worship; |8OG.
M8O8 ichchai ,-> M88|Oü ichchiyai-> s7¤ ijya To be worshipped. -7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 7¤| 1 A sacrifice;
20 ul (to meet, to love, to attach)-> M0 il-> MLL iṭṭi, n. 1. Epigrammatic verse;
80d|ûd8M8üüu. 2. Gift; MdßOL. 3. Worship; |O8 |O8 |O8 |O8. . . . 4. Desire; longing; M8O8 M8O8 M8O8 M8O8. .. .
MLL² iṭṭi, n. A religious sacrifice; üßdu. MLLdKu L0Olü00| (dßk8|LL.
dLOu. 19).
MLL² iṭṭi-> MLLu iṭṭam, n. 1. Purificatory ceremony; . 2. Sacrifice; üßdu. 3. Yōga;
MLL² iṭṭi-> sÍP iṣṭiḥ f. 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired
object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to
Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 A sacrifice.-8 An oblation
consisting of butter, food &c.-Comp. -H¤¬P H¤¬P H¤¬P H¤¬P a sacrifice lasting for a long time.
MLL² iṭṭi-> MLLu¹ iṭṭam, n. 1. Desire, wish, inclination of mind, will; OlmLLu. 0u
LOG 0ßMLß0 u|LLggß 0|G|gßd 0|OGu|GGß (GgOß. 20, 8). 2. Love,
attachment, affection; =GL. MLLußG Olü0Ld GûßG|L0 d|LLGßG
(d0gL. ðdd|ûOL. 15). 3. Friendship; 8|G0du. Colloq.
MLL² iṭṭi-> MLLu¹ iṭṭam-> sP iṣṭa p. p. 1 Wished, desired, longed for, wished for; -2
Beloved, agreeable, liked, favourite, dear; ˚HcPH HcPH HcPH HcPH Mu.2.8 fond of sons. -3 Worshipped,
reverenced. -4 Respected. -5 Approved, regarded as good. -6 Desirable; see sP|ü3 . -6 Valid. -7
Sacrificed, worshipped with sacrifices. -8 Supposed (4Í~ü3); oft. used in Līlavatī. -P P P P A sacrifice.
-PP PP PP PP 1 Wish, desire. -2 A holy ceremony -3 A sacrifice; Bṛi. Up.4.1.
MLLu¹ iṭṭam-> MLLG iṭṭaṉ, n.1. Friend; 8|G0 d|gG. 2. Endeared person;
OlmLLgg|0d|LGßG OG. 0ßG|LLMGG0muLLLû (=OLL.
g|mOû0 dd. dßLL, 4). 3. Master; O8ußGG. MLLMG Gd dßMLûO
GGO0Oû (O8O8. ußMßd. 16).
Reasons of Yajna
Brahmins performed these ceremonies because they desired Dhakshina/Gifts on behalf of Kings
who desired victory and without the state of enemy. Brahmins performed these ceremonies for
Vysyas who desired wealth. Rarely these Brahmins performed it for Sudras too.
However the Sacrifice procedures of Brahmins are totally different from sacrifice/offering Tamil
Country. However Sanskrit has borrowed these Tamil Words and Simple offering/sacrifice
concepts. Further Sanskrit pandits and Brahmins have developed them as complicated
Brahmin Priests:-
The Brahmins priests offered into the fire by enchanting Rigvedha to praise Demi gods like Indra,
Agni, Varuna etc. Therefore the function of these Brahmin priests is to praise.
20 ul [to praise)->L0 pul->(GLß0 Pol)->GLß00 PoTTu/PoTRu = v. tr. 1. To praise,
applaud; óg|gg0.2. To worship; OM0@g0. (Ll0.)
GLß00| pōTTi . n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; LdþMußþ|. (W.) 2. Brahman
temple-priest of Malabar; Gdßül0 |O8M8üüu uO0üßu0ßL0L
LlûßuMG. (W.) 3. See GLßgg|, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; óg|8M8ß0OOd.
GLßgg| pōtti, n. < GLß00|. Brahman temple-priest in Malabar;uO0üßugg|Quu
Gdßül0m8 8dG.
GLß00| pōTTi (PoTRi)->ï|³| hōtrā ï|³| 1 A sacrifice. -2 Praise;-3 Ved. Speech. -4 The office of
ï|3 4 priest.
GLß00| pōTTi/pōTRi -> ï|ͳ¬ hōtrin m. A sacrificing priest who offers the oblations.
GLß00| pōTTi/pōTRi -> ï|³| hōtrī The offerer of oblations, one of the eight forms of Śiva; (P=H
changes as in Tamil and Kannada)
GLß00| pōTTi/pōTRi->ü|3 pōtṛ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice
(assistant of the priest called ΰN¬ ).
GLß00| pōTTi/pōTRi->ü|3 pōtṛ->ï|3 a. Sacrificing, offering oblations with fire; . -m. 1 A
sacrificial priest, especially one who recites the prayers of the Ṛigveda at a sacrifice.
GLß00| pōTTi/pōTRi->ï|3 4 ï|³4 An assistant of the Hotṛi.
GLß00(PoTTu)->GLß00|Ou pōTTimai , n. Honour, reverence; OMddu. (W.)
GLß00(PoTTu)->GLßgg|, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; óg|8M8ß0OOd.

GLßgg| Poththi->(Poththai)->(Pochchai)->|O8 Poosai (Tamil) 1. Worship; homage to
superiors; adoration of the gods with proper ceremonies; =ûßgOG.. 2. Taking meals, as of
|O8->.¬æ ¯ pūja ] or .¬æ<c: pūja. n. Worship, reverence.
.¬æs:c: pūjakuḍu. n. A worshipper, a priest.
|8|-gg0 pūsi-v. 1. To perform acts of ceremonial worship; 2. To treat courteously, reverence;
3. To caress, fondle;
|8|-gg0->.¬aoc: or .¬æ±o: pūjinṭṣu v. a. To worship, adore, do homage or obeisance
to, reverence.
.¬æ ¯ pūza ] pūḍza.
|O8 pūsai->.¬æ (Pūja)->üH| pūjā
|O8 + =û (Pusai+aari)->|8ßû (poosaari)
|8ßûpūsāri-> .¬æo , .¬æ·o or .¬æ·oc·c: pūjāri. (.¬æ -co .· n. An officiating Brahmin or
priest of a temple. co.s:c:. .¬æ·o`·° pūjāri-sāni. n. A priestess. Zacca. vi. 127.
|8ß0| pūsāli, n. |8ßû. (üßþ. =d.).
=û OG0 =MLß0 Ol@g| gu|þ uL0u 2uuó. Cf/¶LLl0d : gO0
Talai +=û āri -> gO0üßû Talaiyāri-> g0ßû oc·o ¯ talāri ] or ocLo (Telugu) Village
officer. āri is a Tamil Suffix and it is not available in Skt.
|8ßû->Hindi üH|1| puja:ri: (nm) a worshipper, adorer; Hindu priest . No such word is available
in Sanskrit.
|8ßû-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÁ ¤H'ð' s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.
|8ßû-> (punjabi) PUJÁRÍ ¤H'ð| s. m. A worshipper, one who makes pújá, a priest.

|8dG pūsakaṉ -> (punjabi) PÚJAK ¤H= s. m. A worshipper (of a devtá, or the Deity.)

In Skt for the word üH4 pūjaka the meanings are given as Honouring, adoring, worshipping,
respecting &c. and not the priest.
Origin of Homa System:-
In Historical Times, peoples were depending upon fire for day to day domestic life.

=ûMl¹ araṇi, n. Pieces of pipal or mesquit wood, used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition;
g ddOLGdß0. =ûMl ülGL0g gGM0G (Lßûg. 8uLO. 7).
=ûMl¹ araṇi->H1ÍÞ araṇiḥ m., f. -Þ| Þ| Þ| Þ| f. A piece of wood (of the Śamī tree) used for kindling the
sacred fire by attrition, the fire- producing wooden stick; -Þ| Þ| Þ| Þ| (dual) The two pieces of wood used
in kindling the sacred fire. -ÍÞ ÍÞ ÍÞ ÍÞ 1 The sun. -2 fire.
Mkd|þ| ñekiḻi , n. < id. 1. Fire-brand; dOLdMdßuu|. Ol0MLß0| Mkd|þ|ül0
MdßLLL u|GG| (=d0ß. 108). 2. Piece of wood used for kindling fire by friction;
g ddOLGdß0. dßGOû . . . Mkd|þ| MLßgg (@0|k8|L. 226). 3. [T. negaḍi.]
Fire; g . (Ll0.) 4. Fuel; Ol0@. (Ll0.)
They were forced to keep at home inside the fire place. It became the profession of certain
people to keep and protect fire. Later it developed into Homa System.
GuL-g0 ōmbu- , 5 v. [T. ōmu, K. ōvū, M. ōmbu.] tr. 1. To protect, guard, defend, save;
Lßódßgg0. @LL00 dßgGgßuLl (@0u, 549). 2. To preserve; to keep in mind; to
cherish, nourish; GL0g0. Þ00|üßOu gGLßûL GLßuLOu (MLßm0. 186).
3. To remove, separate; to keep off; to ward off; góOßûßu0 dßgg0. 4. To dispel;
Lûdûgg0. OOGgó0 @0@g G0ßuL0 (@0u, 820). 5. To maintain,
support; to cause to increase; to bring up; Ouûgg0. d00ß0 MdûGüßuLl (GgOß.
1, 1).
GuL0²-gg0 ōmbaṭu-, v. tr. < GuL- + =0¹- 1. To protect; Lßódßd@uß0
G8ûgg0. 8|O0LL0ußd GOßuL0ggó (M8ß0. MLß. 114, 2Oû). 2. To
avoid; Lûdûgg0. LOLggO0d Mdßuuß Ou GüßuL0gg OüûL (L.
MO. 7, 3, MdßK). 3. To confirm; to encourage; to cheer up; 20g| ð0g0.
|uMLßþ|0L00dßO0OG GüßuL0gg0@u.
GuLOL ōmbaṭai , n. < id. +. 1. Protection, safeguard; LßódßLL.
GuLOLüuLLL (Mgß0. MLß. 91). 2. Place of protection; Lßódßd@u|Lu.
=0GGßuLOLüu (8|0L. 5, 179, =mu.). 3. Place where eligious instruction is
imparted; GLßg|d@u|Lu. (8|0L. 5, 179, 2Oû.) 4. Remedy; Lûdßûu. GuLOL
MüßG0k M8L Lßu (8Od. 232). 5. Keeping in mind, retaining in memory;
u0OßOu. gO0O0 GdßuLOL8ß000 (gkO8Oß. 139, 2Oû).
GuL-g0 ōmbu-> (GuLu ōmbam)->Guu² ōmam, n.1. Offering an oblation to the gods
by pouring ghee, etc. into the consecrated fire; GOuOlggül0 M0ü Og0| üG
MLüOd. Guu GOuOl ügOl gOkM8Lu (G8 óL. G8ó8. 51). 2.
Sacrifice; GOuOl. (g|Oß.)
Gu|-gg0 ōmi-, 11 v. To perform the hōma
Guu² ōmam-> ï|P hōmḥ 1 Offering oblations to gods by throwing ghee into the consecrated
fire, (one of the five daily Yajñas, to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa, called d ñ¤7 q. v.); -2 A burnt
offering. -3 A sacrifice; -Comp. -H͹¬ the sacrificial fire. -4P ¬ sacrificial act. -4~ü mode of
sacrificing. -4 ÞsP a hole in the ground for receiving the consecrated fire. -3 1s" a sacrificial
horse; -º|¬P a sacrificial chamber. -ºP the smoke of a burnt offering or sacrificial fire. -º ¬ a
cow yielding milk for an oblation. -H·P¬ n. the ashes of a burnt offering. -H|ÞsP a sacrificial
implement. -ñH| the time for offering oblations. -H|H| a sacrificial hall or chamber.
ï|ÎP hōmiḥ 1 Clarified butter. -2 Fire.
ï|ÎP¬ hōmin m. The offerer of an oblation, a sacrificer in general.
GuuOuû-gg0 ōmam-vaḷar-, v. intr. < id. +. To kindle and feed the sacrificial fire, which
should never be suffered to go out; GukM8üüuß0 =dd|G|Ouûgg0.
Gu@MLu ōma-kuṇṭam, n. Pit dug out in the ground for keeping sacrificial fire;
GOuOld@þ|. (d0gL. =ðûûüßd. 42.)
Gu8ß0g| ōma-sānti, n.Propitiating by fire; =dd|G|Ouûgó8 8ß0g|LM 0Od.

Gu8ßO0 ōma-sālai, n. Sacrificial hall; üßd8ßO0. (8|0L. 10. 143, =mu.)
Gugg|ûOlüu ōma-t-tiraviyam, n.Requisites for a sacrifice, including firewood;
GukM8üüu MLßmu.
GuuMLLu ōma-mạṇṭapam, n. Sacrificial hall; üßd8ßO0. (g|Oß.)
Gußdd|G| ōmākkiṉi, n.Sacrificial fire; GOuOlgg .
Gu|üu ōmiyam, n. Sacrifice; üßdu. Gu|ük M8üg0 @uug óMûu|GGß
(GgOß. 432, 8).Cf. 1. OûMdßuu| eri-koḷḷi, n. < Oû¹- +. Firebrand; dOLdMdßuu|.
OûMdßuu| Oû0óO þ Ou (L00ß. 41, 2Oû).
Oû0L0-g0 eri-y-ūṭṭu-, v.To set fire to; g dMdßKgóg0. M00Od Müû
0L0LL0u. (duLûß.).
OûGüßuL-g0 eri-y-ōmbu-, v. To make offerings in the consecrated fire;
=dd|G|dßûük M8üg0. d00ß0MdûGüßuLl (GgOß. 1, 1).
OûOuûLGLßû eri-vaḷarppōr, n. Brāhmans, who keep alive the consecrated fire by daily
offering; LßûLLßû. (Ll0.)
2.g OO0 tī-muṟai, n. < id. +. Fire-sacrifice; =dd|G|ül0 M8üüu Guu.
0ßGuO0 uûLl0 0 OO0 MüßmLß0 (8|0L. 5, 175).
g GüßuL-g0 tī-y-ōmpu-, v. To tend the sacred fire; üßddd|G| Ouûg g0.
g GüßuL OduuO0Güßû (g|O. MLûüg|. 7, 9, 7).
gOuû-gg0 tī-vaḷar-, v. 1. To tend the sacred fire; GOgßdd|G| Ouûg g0. 2.
To light a fire, as in suttee; 2LGdLOL Gü00Og0|üO00|0@
g OuûLGLßû tī-vaḷarppōr, n. 1. Brahmins, as tending the sacred fire; [OOg
dßdd|G|OüL GL0LOû| =0gMû. (8Lß.) 2. Ascetics; OG|Oû. (üßþ.
For Homa and Hotra, Sanskrit pandits give the meaning of offering into fire. However the primary
function of the Brahmin is to tend the sacred fire by pouring ghee, etc. into the consecrated fire.
Guu ōmam-> ï|P hōmḥ->(ï

P humḥ)-> ï

hu 1 To offer or present (as oblation to fire); make
an offering to or in honour of a deity (with acc.); sacrifice -2 To perform a sacrifice. -3 To eat.

hu-> ï

3 huta 1 Offered as an oblation to fire, burnt as a sacrificial offering; -2 One to whom an
oblation is offered; Ś.4; R.2.71. -3 3 3 3 N. of Śiva. -3P 3P 3P 3P 1 An oblation, offering. -2 An Oblation to fire; ñ
d ñ|¬H|H¤- ÍdÎ3 ï

3 ¬ ήï

3 ¬ Bṛi. Up.1.5.2; Bg.9.16. -Comp. -H͹¬ H͹¬ H͹¬ H͹¬ a. who has made an
oblation to fire; (-m.) a sacrificial fire. -HH HH HH HH 1 fire. -2 N. of the number 'three'. -3 Plumbago
Ceylanica (Mar. ά³4). -HH¬ HH¬ HH¬ HH¬ 1 fire;-2 N. of Śiva. -3 the Chitraka tree. ˚Pï|¤ an epithet of Śiva.
-HH¬| HH¬| HH¬| HH¬| the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (ï|ÎH4|). -HH HH HH HH fire; ήdÍHÞ|4 c¤ ï


3|HP R. 2.71. -H|3ñdP H|3ñdP H|3ñdP H|3ñdP a. one who has made an oblation to fire. -H H H H H H H H m. fire; -ñï ñï ñï ñï fire; . -ï|P ï|P ï|P ï|P a
Brāhmaṇa who has offered oblations to fire; (-PP PP PP PP ) a burnt offering

hu-> ï

3 huta -> ï

Î3 hutiḥ f. Offering oblations;
However the words ïñ havḥ and ﯤ havya havya were earlier used to denote food only, and
thereafter the meaning of oblation was ascribed to them.Lets see. if havi denotes sacrifice, then
ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 should be suffering from punarukta dhosha/tautology, i.e. [ïÍñP ïÍñP ïÍñP ïÍñP havis An oblation or
burnt offering in general+ ¤7 ¤7 ¤7 ¤7 yajñḥ any offering or oblation.
In Sanskrit Nighantu/Dictionary, ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 is mentioned as a kind of sacrifice without explaining
the nature. But if applies tamil meaning, ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 can be explained.

=Ol¹-g0 avi- , 4 v. intr. 1. To be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming; Lßdußg0.

=Ol²-gg0 avi- , 11 v. tr. caus. of =Ol¹-. 1. To boil in a liquid, cook by boiling or steaming;
GOd8M8üg0. =0ggOlg gßû8 8Ougg LluOud @d0gßû
(uO0O8. 20).]
=Ol³ avi, n. 1. Offerings made to the gods in sacrificial fire; GOuOlgg ül0 GgOûd@g
Mdß0d@u 2MO 2MO 2MO 2MO ( (( (Food). (@0u, 413.) 2. Food; 2MO. =Ol ü00ûd@8
ðOOLdû0 GgOl (Lg|MGß. g|mOlOL. 7). 3. Boiled rice; G8ß0. (8Lß.) 4.
Ghee; M0ü. (Ll0.)
=Ol³ avi-> =Olð avisu, n. 1. Offering made to the gods in sacrificial fire; GOuOlg
g ül0 GgOûd@d Mdß0d@u 2MO. (gddüßdL. 46, 2Oû.) 2. Ghee;
M0ü. (0ß0ßûgg.) 3. Cooked rice, prepared without straining the conjee;
dk8|OLüßó 8Ougg G8ß0 dk8|OLüßó 8Ougg G8ß0 dk8|OLüßó 8Ougg G8ß0 dk8|OLüßó 8Ougg G8ß0. .. . Loc.
=Olð avisu-> ïÍñP havis 1 Clarified butter; -2 Water (boiled?). -3 Food (H=¬); -Comp. -
HH¬P HH¬P HH¬P HH¬P ( (( (ïÍñ1H¬P ïÍñ1H¬P ïÍñ1H¬P ïÍñ1H¬P ) )) ) devouring clarified butter or oblations.
=Olü0 aviyal, n. 1. Boiling, cooking; LßdkM8üOd. (Ll0.) 2. Food; 2MO.
M80g|OGül GOlü0 (ðûuL. dMMGuM. 145). 3. Kind of vegetable dish;
d0|OOd. 4. Swelter, sultriness; Lmddu. 5. Soreness of the mouth; OßüLLM. (W.)
=OO²-gg0 avai-, 11 v. tr. [Tu. abay.] 1.To cook, boil; =Olgg0. (Ll0.)

=OOlüu³ avviyam n. Oblation offered to the gods; GgOûdd|0u L0|. (u8 8L.
8|ûßggßO. 2.)
=LLlüu appiyam, n. Oblation to the gods; GgOûdd|LLL0u =Olð. (=0M00|.
=OOlüu³ avviyam-> ﯤ havya a. To be offered in oblations. -¯¤P 1 Clarified butter. -2 An
oblation or offering to the gods (opp. 4¯¤ q. v.). -3 An oblation in general; -¯¤| A cow; ss 1=3
ﯤ etc. ŚB. on -Comp. -HH fire. -4¯¤P oblations to the gods and to the Manes, or spirits of
deceased ancestors; -ü|4 an oblation cooked with butter and milk, or the pot in which it is
cooked. -H Íï¬ , -ñ|7, -ñ|ï, -ñ|ï¬ m. 'the bearer of oblations', fire;
=Ol³ avi-> ïñ havḥ 1 An oblation, a sacrifice;
=Ol³ avi-> ïñ havḥ-> ïñ¬P havanam 1 Offering an oblation with fire. -2 A sacrifice, an
oblation. -3 A sacrificial ladle. -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ 1 Fire. -2 A fire-receptacle. -Comp. -H¤ P H¤ P H¤ P H¤ P m. fire.
=Ol³ avi-> ïñ havḥ-> ïñ¬| havanī
ïñ¬| = ïÍñ³| q. v.
ïñ¬|¤ havanīya
ïñ¬|¤ a. [ï

4P ÍÞ H¬|¤1 ] Sacrificial. -¤P ¤P ¤P ¤P 1 Anything fit for an oblation. -2 Clarified butter
or ghee.
ïÍñ³| havitrī
ïÍñ³| A hole made in the ground for holding the sacred fire (to which oblations are offered).
=Ol³ avi-> =Olð avisu-> ïÍñP havis An oblation or burnt offering in general
=Ol³ avi-> =Olð avisu-> ïÍñP havis-> ïÍñΆP3 haviṣmat a. Possessed of oblations.
ïÍñΆP3| haviṣmatī
ïÍñΆP3| N. of the mythical cow Kāmadhenu;
ïÍñΆ¤P haviṣyam
ïÍñΆ¤P 1 Anything fit for an oblation; -2 Clarified butter. -3 Wild rice. -4 Rice mixed with ghee.
-Comp. -H=¬ H=¬ H=¬ H=¬P P P P food fit to be eaten during certain holidays or days of fast. -HÎH¬ HÎH¬ HÎH¬ HÎH¬ , -HH HH HH HH m. fire.
Therefore, the meaning of ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 ïÍñ¤ 7 is nothing but food oblation into the sacred fire.

Difference between original Tamilian offerings and Brahminical offerings.
Sacrifice Non Brahminical Tamilian offerings Brahminical offerings
Grains, Food (Veg and Non Veg),
Domestic Animals (Goat, Chicken)-live
or killed, body parts, one's own life,
and blood.
Food (rice, ghee), Animal (Horse),
other human being's life (Naramedha)
to whom God Fire, in the name of God
by whom Generally Farmer for Brahmins
for whom Nil King, also Merchants, rarely Sudra
to thank God for an abundant harvest
and cattle
Fee(Dhakshina)/Wifes to be given by
King, Merchants, Wealthy Sudra
place of offering
alter, and fire pit (which is later
fire pit
Requirement of
Nil Brahmin
Procedure Simple language
Complicated procedure with Rigvedha
expenses very less Very high

Why Ravana and his Associates were called as Rakshasa or Arakkan or Iraakathan or Nisachara?

Sanskrit could not explain the origin of Rakshasa (demon) and it is showing the root Raskha (to
protect, preserve) to that rakshasa. They could not explain how they are inter related.

The reason is the said rakshasa (Ravana and his men in Dandakaranya) were doing raksha
(protection) against immoral animal sacrifices by preventing the yajnas done by so called sages
like viswamitra. They were preserver of law and order in South India. They prevented the
sacrifices, which is to totally in contrary to South Indian Sacrifices. Hence they prevented the
sacrifices and not the penance of the sages. Indra alone obstructed the penance of sages including
viswamitra whose sacrifice alone was prevented by so-called rakshasa on ground of animal or
human sacrifices in the initial stages of yajna. They did so only in the Dandakaranya region only.
They did not prevented the Aswamedha Yajna done by Rama’s brother-in-law Sage Rishya Shringa
for the sake of Dasaratha.

The etymology of the word Rakshasa from raksha is as follows.

Prevention of evil thing always considered as protection or preservation of good thing. Wearing an
Amulet or raksha round the wrist in India is considered as prevention of evil thing and protection
of one’s wellness.

The word Raksha and Rakshasa are derived from the Tamil as follows.

20 ul (to leave, remove, go, prevent, reduce, destroy)-> =0 al-> (=û) ar)-> =ja÷¹-an
arakku- , v. tr. 1. To rub with the palm of hand, or the sole of foot; Ca1Jan. aæcjaan
(aCmi. 456). 2. To waste, ruin; aæaJan. (÷ta.) 3. To press down; =qJan. cjna|
|æn1jaamam (Caca. 223, 11). 4. To cause trouble to, afflict; c¬Jaan. cnnja÷ú . .
. Gjaccm (aútja. z1Ca1. 230). 5. To clip off, prune; aæoa|J an. Loc. 6. To cut,
sever; Cct1an. aa¬i Caa¬ ujaa (c+a1au. 42, 4). 7. To cause to diminish;
÷æ|Jan. aajja÷± atn (Caca. 46, 8). 8. To eat up; maamææan. Loc. 9. To push,
drag or otherwise move, as a heavy body; G¬0uct10 Ct11Jan. (J.)

=ja÷¹-an arakku -> =ûddG arakkaṉ , n. Demon; MûßddgG. (Ll0.)

1HP rakṣas 1 An evil spirit, a demon, an imp, a goblin;. -2 Ved. Hurt, injury. -Comp. -sH sH sH sH, -¬|¤ ¬|¤ ¬|¤ ¬|¤
an epithet of Rāvaṇa.

It seems that the Tamil word Arakkan is still an ethnic name in Southern Myanmar. ARAKAN iss the
country which was also known as Rohang or Rakhapura or Rakhaingpryi. The earliest inhabitants
of Arakan belong to the Negrito group. Burmese mention them in the Arakanese Chronicle as
Rakkhasas or bilus (cannibals), which is similar to the North Indians’ description about South
Indian/Ravana or his associates. The word Arakan is definitely of Tamil origin having the same
meaning in both these languages. It is the corruption of the word Arakan. But Ibn Batuta wrote
the name of Arakkan as Arkan. The name Rakhine is another name of Arakan. It is also derived
from Tamil word Arakkan.
Area of Arakan
Arakan is situated between India in the North, Burma in the East and People's Republic of
Bangladesh in the West. To the south, it extends up to Haigri Islands and is bounded on the
southwest by the Bay of Bengal.The area of Arakan was more than 20,000 sq. ml. till the British
period. But, Burmese ruler, without the consent of Arakanese people, split up a north western
Arakan Hill Tracts area bordering India and a southern most part of Arakan (from Kyauk Chaung
River to Cape Negaris) from the Arakan mainland. Due to these partitions,it comprise less than
half of historic Arakan territory. Today area of Arakan is located between Lat. 16' 00" N- Lat. 21'
20" N and Long. 92' 20" E- Long. 95' 20" E. Arakan is known as one of the poorest states under so
called Union of Burma ruled by military junta called SPDC (State Peace and Development Council)
with its official name, Rakhine State.
Arakanese, use the term "Arakan" to mean the area, which was historically and traditionally
known as Arakan before the 1784 Burmese invasion. Despite over 200 years of Burmese
occupation of Arakan, the Arakanese peoples refuse to be conquered and subjugated by the
Burmese. Arakan independent movement started just after it lost independent and is carrying on
until now.

In the old poems and songs the Rakhine people are portrayed as a great nation, proud of
possessing high morale, and are reputed for being pious and just. They are also said to be brave
and enterprising. The name Rakhine also stands for the proud Buddhist traditions of benevolence,
unity, peace and compassion.

The Greeks attributed the name of Argyre (Land of -Silver) to Arakan/Rakhine, while the
Tibetans called it as Kawky. The Indians and Europeans always referred it as Arakan/Arracan.
Indians often call the Rakhine people as the Maghs, since they are alleged to be the descendants
of the Sakya clan of Magadha. Maurice Collis fondly called it as The Land of the Great Image' - or
the land of the Mahamuni Buddha Image which was carried off by Bodaw Maung Wain, a Burmese
feudal warlord, and which is enshrined at the Arakan Temple in Mandalay. The Source.

It is popularly believed that Rakhine was established by king Marayu and his queen Rucita
Mala while Marayu was a distant descendant of the Magadha kings.

According to tradition Dwarawady city (Sandoway) was established by Ten Brothers
including Bala Deva, Vasu Deva, etc., Who are also alleged to be of Indian Aryan descendants. The
story is almost legendary since no concrete proof of this otherwise mythical city has ever been
found. Many think the city to have vanished into the Bay of Bengal. But who, after all, can tell
this? The Historians.

1. The earliest Rakhine tribe came from Magadha, through the contiguous south-eastern ranges of
the Great Himalayas into the soil of Rakhine so that they are called the Maghs.

2. The early Indo-Aryan group migrated from the Ganges Delta, Magadha, into the southern
reaches of Rakhine called Dwaravadi and got settled there with their relatives.
- U San Shwe Bu

3. Marayu who established First Dhanyavati (B.C. 3325-3263) was the son of King Arjuna of
Kapilavastu and Queen Indamaryu, the Sakya woman (in the old script the queen is described as
Chaik-ma, which can mean as Chaik-daughter or the daughter of a Chak> Chakma> Sakya chief.
- U San Tin, Ramree

4. When the Aryans migrated to the northern parts of India, they racially mixed with the
indigenous Dravidians and became Aryo-Dravidians; likewise the Mongolians after intermixing
became Monogolian-Dravidians ...
- K S Latourette

5. When the Aryans met the Dravidians, they disparagingly named the aboriginals as Rakshasas or
demons ...
- E B Aavell

All these comments leads us to the conclusion that the Rakhine people are the descendants of the
Indo-Aryans, with an admixture of Dravidian and dominantly Mongolian traits.
The Name

Rakhine is a name that signifies a people and also the land they live in. The name actually has a
story of gradual evolution. In the old palm-leaf Razwang it is written:

'Taking shelter in the rain foests and hills, conquering the local cannibals or Rakshasas, they in
time attained the name of Rakhine, and preserved the name very fondly.'

'Defeating the Raksasas' as recorded in the Razwang probably means 'overpowering the aboriginal
cannibal tribes' who were no better than 'demons' in their way of life. Compared with E B Havell's
observations this statement can help us to conclude that the Raksasas were actually the ethnic
Dravidians. Again in other writings we find that because of their unbroken tradition of
safeguarding their national indentity the name of Arakkha' or preservation has been conferred
upon them. 'Arakkha' in time, after natural modifications, changed into Rakkha, Ftakkliaing.

The Land

The name of the land also has an interesting story of evolution. The process was rather like a
metamorphosis, changing a shade here and another there. In the tenth century Ananda Candra
pillar Sanskrit inscription the land is mentioned as 'Araksadesa'. This stone pillar is now preserved
at the Shit-thaung temple, Mrauk U. In the early histories Rakkhapura was the name ascribed to it.
In some traditional histories the name of ' Mahimsaka-taing' is also given to the land. From these
old stone inscriptions and chronicles we can draw an inference that Rakhaing is aconsiderably
ancient land with a somewhat accurate history.

The Name

Rakhine is a name that signifies a people and also the land they live in. The name actually has a
story of gradual evolution. In the old palm-leaf Razwang it is written : 'Taking shelter in the rain
foests and hills, conquering the local cannibals or Rakshasas, they in time attained the name of
Rakhine, and preserved the name very fondly.'

'Defeating the Raksasas' as recorded in the Razwang probably means 'overpowering the aboriginal
cannibal tribes' who were no better than 'demons' in their way of life. Compared with E B Havell's
observations this statement can help us to come to the conclusion that the Raksasas were actually
the ethnic Dravidians.

Again in other writings we find that because of their unbroken tradition of safeguarding their
national indentity the name of Arakkha' or preservation has been conferred upon them. 'Arakkha'
in time, after natural modifications, changed into Rakkha, Ftakkliaing.

The Land

The name of the land also has an interesting story of evolution. The process was rather like a
metamorphosis, changing a shade here and another there.

In the tenth century Ananda Candra pillar Sanskrit inscription the land is mentioned as
'Araksadesa'. This stone pillar is now preserved at the Shit-thaung temple, Mrauk U. In the early
histories, Rakkhapura was the name ascribed to it. In some traditional histories, the name of '
Mahimsaka-taing' is also given to the land. From these old stone inscriptions and chronicles, we
can draw an inference that Rakhaing is a considerably ancient land with a somewhat accurate

The present area of Rakhine is about 14,200 square miles, and population is a little over four
million. The indigenous races living there are the Rakhine (Arakanese). Chin, Khami, Thet,
Daingnak, and Barua (Maramagri). Chittagonian dialect speaking Bangalee Muslims also live
there.Besides such agricultural produces as rice, cotton, black pepper, varieties of citrus fruit,
areca nut, Rakhine also possesses a wealth of forest produce like teak, timber, bambooo and
rattan. The flora and fauna of Rakhine consist of a caleidosopic collection. Along the coastline of
the Bay the vast expanse of blue sea teams with countless kinds of sea-life. The state with its
rugged hills and mountains mav be a source of untapped natural resources, including gas and
minerals. Back in the history Rakhine was a flourishing kingdom with its sway felt at Ganges delta
of Bengal in the west, at Assam and Manipur in the north, at Hanthawadi (Burma) in the east.
(From Udina Langa verse).Most of the time the boundary encompassed Chittagong in the west,
Western Irrawaddy in the east, Assam and the Chindwin in the north, and a string of islands
including Koko in the south.

20 ul-> M0 il-> Mû ira-> MûL8dG iraṭcakaṉ , n. 1. Protector, preserver, guardian;
dßLLß00LOG. 2. Saviour; 2üOlLLOG. Chr.

20 ul-> M0 il-> Mû ira-> MûL8|-gg0 iraṭci- , 11 v. tr.. 1. To preserve, protect, guard,
defend; dßLLß00 g0. 2. To save; 2üOlgg0. Chr.

MûL8| -> MûL8|LL iraṭcippu , n. 1. Preserving, protecting, saving; dßLLß00Od. 2.
Salvation; 2üO. Chr.

MûL8| ->MûLO8 iraṭcai , n. 1. Protection; dßLL. OMg gu|þ|0 d|ûLO8üßu
(Og0O. dLOu. 3). 2. Amulet, charm: mark made with sacred ashes, etc., as a protection;
dßLLßd M0 Oó 3. Sacred ashes; g|m0 0.

20 ul-> M0 il-> Mû ira-> Mûdd|-gg0 irakki-, v. MûL8|gg0. Mûdd|dOd
üßG0 üülûOG (O8O8. MLßó. 204).

20 ul-> M0 il-> Mû ira-> Mûdd| 1H rakṣ 1 P. 1 To protect, guard, take care of, watch,
tend (as cattle); rule, govern (as earth. -2 To keep, not to divulge;. -3 To preserve, save, keep away
from, spare (often with abl.); -4 To avoid;.2. -5 To observe (as a law, duty). -6 To beware of.

Mûdd| -> MûdOd irakkai , n. 1. Amulet or charm; dßLL. 2. Sacred ashes, as a charm or
protection against evil; g|m0 0. MûdOdMü Ou GLûß u|g0@ (O8O8.
MLßó. 204).

MûdOd irakkai ->1H| rakṣā 1 Protection, preservation; guarding; 5. -2 Care, security. -3 A
guard, watch. -4 An amulet or mystical object used as a charm, any preservative; q. v. below. -4 A
tutelary deity. -5 Ashes. -6 A piece of silk or thread fastened round the wrist on particular
occasions, especially on the full-moon day of Śrāvaṇa, as an amulet or preservative; (1H| also in
this sense).

1|HP rākṣasa. Belonging to or like an evil spirit, demoniacal, partaking of a demon's nature; -P P P P 1
A demon, an evil spirit, a goblin, fiend, imp..

Like a security guard during night time to guard, these Lankan men and other similar persons were
also called as one who moves about to prevent sacrifices involving animal killing or slaughter in
Dandakaranya (only and not Kosala or other Aryan kingdoms) during time and words to denote
that actions were also evolved.

MûO, Mûß= Night
dgG= one who moves
g|ûGOßG= one who moves/roams

MûOl00|ûGOßG iraviṟṟirivōṉ , n. < MûO¹ + g|û-. Demon or goblin, one who moves
about during night-time; =ûddG. Mû Ol0 0|ûGOßûdLd|O0 (GgOß. 111, 8).

MûßddgG irākkataṉ n. Giant, demon or goblin; =ûddG. (g|O. MLûüßþ. 4, 4, 8.)

Mûßddg| irākkati , n. Giantess, female goblin;

0|8ß8ûG nisāsaraṉ , n. Lit., night-rover. [MûOl0 g|ûGOßG| 1. Asura; =ðûG.
0|8ß8ûûGu0 GLûßþ|MdßML LlûßG (g|O. Mü0. 1, 83). 2. Rākṣasa;
=ûddG. 0|8ß8ûOmLLMû M0mLL 0 ûOuüßG (duLûß. ügg.
u0g|ûL. 42). 3

0|8ß8û nisāsari , n. 1. Rākṣasī; =ûdd|. Gû 0|8ß8ûgßG O0gßOu (g|O. Mü0.
8|0|ü. u. 39). 2. Owl; ðOd. (Ll0.) 3. Whore; GO8|. (üßþ. =d.)

0|8|8ûG nisi-saraṉ , n.e 0|8ß8ûG. 0|8|8ûGOL üOLgû (GgOß. 615, 8).

Hü| -¬1 ¬1 ¬1 ¬1 (Kshapaa charah) moving about by night ,a demon, goblin.

άH|-¬1 ¬1 ¬1 ¬1 a. (-1| 1| 1| 1|, 1| 1| 1| 1| f.) moving about by night, night stalker.

1Hά rajaniḥ ¬| nī 1 Night;. -Comp. -¬1 ¬1 ¬1 ¬1 1 a nightstalker, demon, goblin. -2 a thief. -3 a night-

1|ͳ rātriḥ ³| trī 1 Night;. -2 The darkness of night. -3 Turmeric; Mb.13.136.25. -4 One of the four
forms or bodies of Brahmā. -Comp. -¬1 ¬1 ¬1 ¬1 (also -1|ͳ ¬1 1|ͳ ¬1 1|ͳ ¬1 1|ͳ ¬1) (-1| 1| 1| 1| f.) 1 'a night rover', robber, thief. -2 a
watchman, patrol, guard. -3 a demon, ghost, evil spirit; -¬¤| ¬¤| ¬¤| ¬¤| 1 night-roving. -2 a nightly act or

ñ¬¬1 vanēcara : Dwelling in a wood.-1 1 A forester, woodman; -2 An ascetic, a hermit.-3 A wild
beast.-4 A sylvan, satyr.-5 A demon.

Mm8| iruci , n. A female demon to whom sacrifices of rice, milk and blood are offered after
sunset and which are then eaten by the devotees the same night; ¶m MLMLl8ßð.
Mm8|üOLOu ülûßgg0d 0ßdßó. (W.)


Danda was the youngest son of Ikshvaku. His Kingdom was between the mountains of
Vindhya and Himalaya. Madhumanta was a city founded by him. Once Danda raped Araja, the
daughter of Sukra, when she was doing penance in a forest. Due to natural calamity, his country
was destroyed and the forest in hat country is known as Dandakaranya, which is vast, forest lying
between the Rivers Godavari and Narmada. Dandakaranya covers about 35,600 square miles
(92,200 km
) of land, which includes the Abujhmar Hills in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the
east, including parts of the Madhya Pradesh (Chattishgarh), Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh states. It
spans about 200 miles (320 km) from north to south and about 300 miles (480 km) from east to
Tataka was a Yakshni and wife of Sunda and mother of Maricha, Subahu. She possessed
the great strength. She was the daughter of Suketa @ Suketu. Khara and. Dushana were
prevented animal sacrifice in yajna held at Janasthana. Dushana was the commander of the army
of Khara.
When Agastya killed her husband Sunda, she attacked him. So he had an enmity with her.
NOT far from Chitrakuta, Janasthana was in charge of a famous warrior named Khara, who was a
brother of Ravana.
Tumburu was a participant in Kubera’s assembly. Since he had an eye on Rambha who
was the wife of kubera’s son Nalakuvara, he did not attended kubera’s assembly often. Therefore,
he was expelled from the assembly. Later had occupied a portion of Dandakaranya and he was
known as Viradha. He later became the friend of Ravana and Khara brothers who are opposing
sacrifices to kill animals and humans.
Vishwamitra demanded Rama from Dasharatha to kill Subahu and Mareech. His words
were piercing in his heart. First Dasharatha refused to give him his son, due to that he became
very angry. Vasishtha asked Dasharatha to send Rama with him praising him in different ways to
Dasharatha. Though Vasishta and Viswamitra are having enmity against each other, Vasishta
supported Viswamitra who is doing animal sacrifice in Yajnas. The same was objected and
prevented by Ravana and his men as the same were done in the land of Ravana without the
authority and sanction of Ravana.
Having no other option, Dasharatha compelled to send Rama with Vishwamitra, after
hearing the statement of Vasishtha. Dasharatha send Rama with him. Vishwamitra explained
about Malad, Karusha and Tataka forest permitted Rama to kill Tataka. He inspired him for the
killing of Tataka. Hence, Rama got ready to kill Tataka with the orders of this monk. Viswamtira
directed Rama to kill Tataka before sunset.
He spent night in the forest of Tataka along with Rama. He explained the technique of
killing of the weapons to Rama and gave instructions of the various other weapons to kill Ravana
and his associates.
Rama protected his sacrifice and assassinated Subahu and his associates who opposed
animal sacrifices in the yagas. "He proceeded to Mithila along with Rama and Lakshmana.
On the way in the evening, every body retired on the bank of Shona bhadra. He reached
the sacrificial place of the king Mithila along with Rama and Lakshmana. The king Janaka offered
libation with respect to him. Upon the request of king Janaka, he, introduced Rama. The king
Janaka praised him and returned to his palace obtaining permission from him. The king Janaka
after welcoming him along with Rama and Lakshmana explained about the bow kept with him and
expressed his determination to marry Sita to Rama on Rama stringing the bow. The king Janaka
made the bow to be brought in the assembly hall. After Rama broke the bow, viswamitra ordered
Janaka to send ministers to call for the king Dasharatha. He selected the daughters of
Kushadhwaja for Bharata and Shatrughna, which was agreed by Janaka.
The great drama of Exile:-
However, the popular legend portrays Kaikeyi in a villainous manner, but actually; Kaikeyi
has helped Lord Rama to expand his kingdom. Once Rama went to mother Kaikeyi and
approached her for a discussion. It seems that as he intended to expand his kingdom without loss
to his troops and country, Rama discussed with Kaikeyi that he needed to leave Ayodhya. Rama
asked mother Kaikeyi to do something so that Rama, Sita and Lakshmana could leave the country
in the disguise of exilement of `Vanavasa` (forest abode).
He said that Kaikeyi would be depicted as villainous character for the future generation
forever. Kaikeyi was a bold, strong and wise woman. Kaikeyi's name was pronounced as a wicked
and evil woman and shameful motherhood. However, she sacrificed for the welfare of humanity.
Under the pretext of Kaikeyi's devoted desire to retain superior status over Kausalya, due to her
Love over Rama and at his request, she demanded the two boons granted to her years earlier by
Dasaratha and to further remind him of his promise to Ashwapati that the son born of her
(Kaikeyi's) womb should succeed Dasaratha as King of Kosala. In order to ensure that Rama would
be no threat to her son, Kaikeyi further demanded the exile of Rama from Ayodhya for 14 long
years. After sending his son into exile, a grief-striken Dasaratha died of a broken heart six days
after Rama left Ayodhya. Kaikeyi came to blame herself for this death and she never blamed Rama
for this.
However, Bharata swore never to ascend the throne as it was his older brother's birthright
and he blamed his mother Kaikeyi for his father's death. Kaikeyi was said to have died a lonely and
broken-hearted woman, estranged from her son, his wife (the cousin of Rama's wife, Sita) and
their two sons, her only grandchildren. Bharata agreed to govern Ayodhya, not as its ruler, but
only as Rama's representative.
Walking, through the great Dandaka forest, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana reached a spot
where many those who are doing animal and human sacrifices lived. Even as they approached the
place, they saw the sacrificial materials. They welcomed Rama. "O, King! You are our protector,"
they said. "Whether we are in the town or in the forest, you are our king." Moreover, they gave
the new comers all they needed and a place in which to rest.

There they met Viradha @ Tumburu. Viradha found out rama’s intention and invention.
He lifted his weapon, roared horribly and, springing forward lifted Sita and as he held her, shouted
at the princes: "Who are you, little fellows? How dare you enter this forest? You look young but
wear matted locks and bark garments. You have disguised yourselves as ascetics; yet you carry
bows and arrows. Whom are you trying to cheat? Are you not ashamed of yourselves? You are
besmirching the good name of the monks by your conduct, you hypocrites! Know that I am
Viradha himself.
Rama was bewildered and did not know how to meet the Rakshasa. But Lakshmana,
hissing like an angry snake, said: "Rama, you are strong like Indra and, with me by your side, you
should not talk dejectedly. Look at what my bow and arrow can do. The earth will presently
drink this monster's blood.. I shall attack this creature and slay him."
Viradha roared again: "Who are you? Tell me at once." Rama's mind now cleared. His face
glowed with courage and calmly he said: "We are princes of the Ikshvaku race. We have come to
live in the forest. May we know who you are?" The Rakshasa answered. "And so, you are the sons
of Dasaratha, are you? My father's name is Jaya. And I am known among rakshasas as Viradha."
Rama bent his bow and shot a sharp arrow at the monster. It pierced his body and
emerged red with blood, glistening like fire, and fell on the earth beyond. The aforesaid Viradha
stated to Rama that now I have recongnised you that you are Rama and your brother Lakshmana
and your wife Sita with you. And further he asked Rama to meet the saint Sharbhanga explaining
his address. he was burried in the ditch by v and Lakshmana. Rama showed Sita the place where
he had killed Viradha, while returning to Ayodhya.
When the persons doing sacrifice, of that forest heard the news of Viradha's death they
came to Rama and surrounded him. "It is our good fortune, O King," they said, "that you have
come to dwell in this region. Hereafter, we shall perform our sacrifice untroubled by them. Those
who are doing sacrifices on the banks of Pampa and Mandakini live in constant fear of their lives
from them. The King's duty from which he may not fail without sin is to protect his subjects. Just as
householders pay taxes, a share of the merit of our penances goes to the King's benefit. You are
radiant like Indra, king of the gods. Protect us from this persecution of the rakshasas. You are our
only refuge." Rama answered: "I am bound, O great ones, to obey your command. I gave up
kingship and came to the forest in obedience to my father's wish. I shall stay in the forest and
destroy the those who prevent sacrifices and free you from trouble. Shed your fear."
Rama's promise of help gave relief and joy to those rishi who are doing sacrifices. Rama,
Lakshmana and Sita then proceeded towards the ashrama of Sutikshna. They met the sage.
That night they stayed in the sage's ashrama as his guests. Sita handed to them their
swords, bows and quivers.
Rama decided to destroy those who prevent sacrifices in the Dandaka forest. A fear arose
in Sita's heart like a shadow cast by events to come. "Why should you and Lakshmana who are
properly to be merely ascetics in the forest" asked Sita of her beloved husband, "take on yourselves
this task of protection? You have come here to fulfil a promise of the late King. The duty of
protecting the rishis belongs to the ruler who is actually reigning. It is not for you, engaged in
penance, to protect those who are doing sacrifices. To kill anyone, except in self-defence, is
opposed to the vow of ascetic life. But you have rashly promised protection to them. I wonder
where this will lead us?" Thus Sita argued in soft and affectionate words while they were going
from Sage Sutikshna's ashrama towards some other ashrama in the Dandaka forest.
"Bear with me, my Lord," she said, "for seeming to counsel you. I speak but as a weak
woman out of my infinite love for you. You know what dharma is. But, men (i.e including Rama),
it is said, are driven by desire into three kinds of sin: falsehood, lust and violence. Falsehood is
unthinkable in one who for truth's sake has renounced a kingdom and is here in the forest. And
as for lust do I know that you will not allow even the thought of another woman to enter your
mind. But I am afraid of the third kind of sin. Should we kill one who does not attack us?
Whether it is a rakshasa or anyone else, why should we kill anyone who leaves us alone? You
were in a hurry, I feel, to give your word to those who are doing sacrifices. To destroy the wicked
is no doubt the duty of a kshatriya but can that duty still cling to you when you have renounced
the privileges that go with it, and elected the life of a recluse in the forest? The duties of
kingship go with actual status. Dressed in garments of bark and with hair matted, you are now
an ascetic, pure and simple. Of course, you know best. I am only asking you to think well before
undertaking anything."
Rama's love and admiration of Sita rose all the more for her is misgivings. "Indeed, my
love," he said, "you speak like a true daughter of Janaka. But, Sita, did you not once say yourself
that the weapons borne by kshatriyas are for protecting others? When helpless people suffer
persecution, how could a kshatriya sit still? When we came here the sages complained of their
sufferings and entreated our protection. They could not endure the cruelties. Did they not show us
a great heap of bones to show what had been done? 'You are the king's son,' they said. 'Our
troubles will now end as darkness before the rising sun. You are our only refuge.' Could we princes
hear their piteous appeal and refrain from helping them? Every kshatriya, everyone has to do his
duty, not the king alone. You are, of course, solicitous for my safety. Even granting that what you
say is right, I have given my word and I cannot go back. They said, 'You are our refuge,' and I
have given my word to protect them. A pledge thus given cannot be withdrawn. What I have
spoken cannot now be unsaid. You and I must tread together the path of dharma. How can we
differ?" Talking thus, they went along the forest path.
This conversation occurs in the poem like the cloud that precedes the storm. For ten years,
Rama, Lakshmana and Sita lived among the rishis who are doing sacrifice of animal and humans.
During these ten years, Ravana and his brothers never disturbed Rama and his associates who
lived in Dandakaranya being encroached by them, which is belonging to Ravana and his brothers
Khara, Dhushana and Trishira.
When after ten years had thus passed, the end of their forest life was approaching, Rama
wished to have meet sage Agaththiyar @ Agasthya who lived in the south.
This Agaththiyar @ Agasthya is claimed as great scholar in Tamil and he is respected for
his Tamil Knowledge and medicine. Earlier he has settled in Himalalayn region and later crossed
the Vindhayachal mountains. The Vindhyachal mountain range divides North and South India in
middle. Another name for Agastya is Kurumuni (short muni).
Pulastya was married to Havirbhoo one of the nine daughters of Kardama and Devhooti.
Pulastya and Havirbhoo had two sons namely Agaththiyar @ Agasthya and Vishravaa.
Agaththiyar @ Agasthya had permanantly settled in Southern India. King of Vidarbha (an
area in south-central India, just south of the Vindhya Mountains), was childless and was
undergoing penances and prayers for the gift of a child. Agastya arranged for the child he had
created to be born the daughter of that noble king of Vidarbha. The child was named
"Lopamudra" by her parents. Upon her coming of age, Agathitar approached the king and sought
the hand of his daughter. The king asked Agastya to get enough money so that his daughter would
not have to live a life of total hardship. In order to fulfil this condition Agastya approached king
Srutarvan, Vradhnaswa, and Trasadasyu. Trasadasyu explained that only Vathapi and Ilwala kings
would be able to meet Rishi Agastya's requirement. Accordingly, they went to the king Ilwala who
had a younger brother named Vatapi. The brothers destroyed Brahmins who were doing animal
sacrifice in Yajna. When the three kings and Agastya arrived at Ilwala's court, the king decided to
kill them. In the mean time, Agastya assassinated Vathapi. Ilwala then made many attempts to
summon his brother but all that happened was a loud belch by the Rishi. When Ilwala saearched
for his brother, Agastya laughed and said, "He cannot come out now. I have killed him." Though
Ilwala was saddened at the death of his brother, he asked the Agastya about his requirements.
Agastya repeated his request and condition. Ilwala then gave Agastya more than he needed. At
the hermitage, Rishi Agastya gave the excess wealth to the three kings for their service and
company. With the wealth obtained from Ilwala, Agastya was able to satisfy all of the king
Vidarbha’s conditions. In time, Agastya asked for the hand of Lopamudra in marriage.
The king was initially chagrined to hear such a suggestion from a renunciate, but
found that his daughter insistent that he should accept the proposal. Lopamudra and Agaththiyar
@ Agasthya were duly married and a son was born called Dridhasyu. It is also said that they had
two sons - Bringi & Achuthan.
Now Vidarbha, which is near to Dandakaranya, was under his control after marrying
Lopamudra. Later he had the full control of souther India. Valmiki has mentioned the same in
yuddha kanda in the Rama’s conversation with Sita.
nirjitaa jiivalokasya tapasaa bhaavitaatmanaa |
agastyena duraadharShaa muninaa dakShiNeva dik || 6-115-14

nirjitaa= (you have been) won by me; bhaavitaatmanaa= whose mind stands purified;
tapasaa= by asceticism; dakShiNaa dik iva= as the southern quarter; duraadharShaa= which
was difficult to be approached; jiivalokasya= by the world of mortals; (was conquered by)
agastyena= by the Sage Agastya.

"You have been won by me, whose mind stands purified by asceticism as the southern
quarter, which was difficult to be approached by the world of mortals, was conquered by the
Sage Agastya."
When Agastya assassinated Tataka @ Tadakai @ Tadaka’s husband Sunda, she attacked
him. Therefore, he had an enmity with her. However, he could not do anything to kill her. Later
she was killed by Rama. Therefore Agaththiyar @ Agasthya was very much interested to meet
Agaththiyar @ Agasthya warmly welcomed the princes. He said: "I heard of your having
come to dwell in Chitrakuta, and I was looking forward to your visit. The end of your exile is
approaching. Stay here during what remains of it in peace. This place is free from the fear of
enemies." Rama answered: "I am happy to receive your blessing and I thank you for your gracious
welcome. But I have promised protection to the rishis who are doing sacrifices in Dandaka forest
and I must return to that forest."
And Agaththiyar @ Agasthya answered: "What you say is right." Then the Sage gave the
bows and an inexhaustible quiver, as well as a sword to Rama who dressed in garments of bark
and with hair matted, as an ascetic. He advised him to destroy those who prevent sacrifices with
these weapons." Agaththiyar @ Agasthya advised the prince to spend the rest of his exile at
Panchavati. He did so knowingly that he will meet and kill his relatives Ravana and his associates.
The simple reason is that his brother vachchiravagu @ vishrava has already occupied Lanka
without giving any share to him, though he is elder brother. Later the same was occupied by his
son Kubera who later deposed by his half brother Ravana.
The Princes and Sita, following Agastya's instruction, took the way to Panchavati. They
met Dasaratha’s friend Jatayu. They then proceeded on their journey. Panchavati is in
Dandakaranya region. The same was once ruled by Vidyujjihva who is an ascetic unlike Agaththiyar
@ Agasthya or Viswamitra who is doing animal sacrifices inYajna. The said Vidyujjihva was
belonging to Kaalakeya clan and married to Ravana’s sister Surpanakha. Once upon a time, by
mistake, Ravana has killed his brother in law Vidyujjihva during the battle against Kaalakeya.
Ravana felt sorry for the same. Ravana has given the authority to his Sister Surpanakha as a
superintendent of Dandakaranya and ruler of Panchavati. At that time she was carrying and gave
birth to one male child namely Jambukumara. Ravana also directed his brothers Khara, Dhushana
and Thrishira to take care of Surpanakha.
Without obtaining her permission, the princes and Sita had entered the Panchavati. Rama
decided to build an ashrama in Panchavati. He directed Lakshmana to do so.
Lakshmana while building an ashrama entered the deep forest and thereat he found
Surpanakha’s Son doing penance. Immediately he assassinated the young boy who is in
Knowing of the assassination of his young son by Lakshmana, Surpanakha has approached
Rama by complaining Lakshmana and sought justice for the same. As the same was done by
Lakshmana, Rama directed her to approach Lakshmana for justice (?). Lakshmana has insulted
her. Catching hold of her hair, he kicked her and drew his sword took up his sword and maimed
Surpanakha and drove her out. Disgraced and mutilated, Surpanakha ran into the forest, bleeding
and loudly appealing to her kinsfolk: "Oh, brother Khara! Oh, brother Ravana! Oh, Indrajit! Are you
all asleep? A man has insulted me and cut off my nose. Do you not hear my lamentations?"
This is the actual occurrence. To give demon characters to Ravana and Surpanakha, who
lost her son in Dandakaranya, with ulterior motive, Surpanakha was described as whore longed for
Rama and then Lakshmana.
ACCOMPANIED by the fourteen generals of Khara, Surpanakha came back to Rama's
ashrama. Rama told Lakshmana: "Take care of Sita for a while, while I deal with those fellows."
Saying this, he took up his bow. Rama announced himself to Khara's generals and said, "Tell us
the reason that you come here. Know that we are here in the forest at the bidding of the rishis
for the purpose of destroying their enemies, who prevent animal sacrifices in Yajna’s. If you wish
to escape with life, leave us alone."
From his statement, it is clear that Lakshmana hurt Surpanakha only to initiate War
against Ravana and his associates who always against animal sacrifices in Yajna. He very well knew
that reason, but he pretended that nothing has happened and enquired fourteen generals of
Khara about their visit. He has assassinated them in that war initiated by him. Once again,
Surpanakha went to Khara. The destruction of the powerful detachment he had sent was
inconceivable. He could not believe it. He sought to soothe his disturbed sister with soft words. "I
have sent warriors unconquerable, each one like Yama. They must have by now fulfilled their
mission. Why do you weep'? Why need you bewail while I am here?"
Surpanakha rose, and wiping the tears from her eyes, said: "True, you sent your fourteen
warriors with me. But the fourteen now lie stiff and cold in death, assassinated by Rama. If you
have a spark of pride in you, start at once; fight with Rama and save our race. If you do not, the
destruction of our people is certain. But if you are afraid, tell me so and I shall understand. These
young men who have entered your country without permissionare determined to destroy your
race, unless you first meet and destroy them."
These words, spoken by his sister in a loud voice before all his courtiers, pierced Khara's
heart. A great army, fully armed, went in advance under the leadership of Dushana. Behind the
army, Khara proceeded majestically in a chariot. Hearing the tumultuous noise of the approaching
army, Rama and Lakshmana prepared for battle. Rama told Lakshmana: "Do you see the signs? It
is certain that the army of Janasthana is coming here to their death! I see in your face the glory
of the victory that awaits us. They destroyed the army of Khara.

Only Khara and Trisiras remained. As Khara rushed forward to meet Rama, Trisiras
stopped him saying: "I shall go first and kill Rama. Or else, I shall be killed. After I am dead, you
may meet him." Rama met them with arrows that hissed like deadly serpents. At last Trisiras
collapsed and fell spitting blood. Khara directed his chariot towards Rama. Khara stood like Yama
in his chariot, sending his stream of arrows. Rama's armor (Who is living as an ascetic in
Dandakaranya) was pierced by Khara's arrows. Rama now took up the bow given by Agaththiyar @
Agasthya and laid low Khara's chariot and cut his bow in twain. Khara then took his mace and
approached Rama. Rama shouted that "You have been a terror to those who are doing sacrifices.
You have persecuted and killed them engaged in animal sacrifices in the forest. You will now
receive the punishment due for this. I have come to the Dandaka forest to destroy wicked
Rakshasas. My arrows will pierce the bodies of all your kinsfolk. Your head will soon roll on the
ground like a ripe fruit."
Khara responded that "Son of Dasaratha! Have done with boasting! You are proud
because you have killed a few of us. A hero boasts not as you do. Only a Kshatriya banished by his
people can talk boasting like this. You have shown you can brag. Let us see now if you can fight!
Your words have blazed up like burning straw with little heat or life. Here I stand mace in hand,
like Yama to take your life. Be prepared to lose your life. I am here to avenge the death of these
my followers whom you have killed. So saying, he whirled his mace, and hurled it at Rama. The
mace was split by Rama's arrows into splinters which fell harmless on the ground. "Have you
finished speaking, Khara? Now you shall die. This forest will be safe hereafter and those who are
doing sacrifices will do it in peace," said Rama. He aimed deadly darts at Khara. Rama has
assassinated Khara.
Akampana, one of the few those who survived the great slaughter at Panchavati, fled to
Lanka and informed Ravana that "Almost all our people who occupied Janasthana are dead and
Janasthana is now an empty ruin. I alone have managed to escape with life." Ravana was furious
with anger. He stared and violently shouted: "Who destroyed my lovely Janasthana?. Akampana
told his tale. "Rama, son of Dasaratha, fought with Khara and Dushana at Panchavati and
destroyed them."
"Well," said Ravana, "I do not understand this but I shall start at once. I shall destroy them
and return."
However, Akampana advised him that there is only one way of killing him. His wife is with
him. The whole earth holds not her equal in beauty. If you contrive to carry her off, separation
from her will kill Rama; so great is his love for her. Consider how you can do this. Do not think of
battle with him."
He advised so because it was common in ancient Tamil Nadu to capture women and
chattel belonging to enemies before and after war as an claim and announce king’s victory. The
same was done by Vali when his younger brother who tried to kill him in a war against Dundubhi
by closing the cave with big stone and crowned himself as the king of Kishkindha, and possessed
Ruma along with Tara as his wife. Later Vali marched to Kishkinda and confronted Sugreeva. He
was very furious. Seeing Sugriva acting as king, he came to know that his brother had betrayed
him. And possessed his wife Tara. As a result, Sugriva was ostracized from the kingdom, Vali
forcibly took Sugriva's wife, Roma, and the brothers became bitter enemies. [When Vali was
assassinated by Rama, Sugriva reclaimed the kingdom and Vali's Widow Tara from his brother Vali.
Rama has allowed Sugriva to do so as it is common in South Indian war winning Identity and he
sought Sugriva’s help to reclaim Sita. Thus he permitted Sugriva but not Ravana’s practice to claim
enemies’ wife. It is nothing but double stand took by Rama for his personal gains.]
It seems that Sita was also claimed as daughter of Ravanaa and Mandodari (T'os'akanth
(=Dasakanth) and Mont'o), so according to Thailand's popular national epic Ramakien, Vibhisana
(P'ip'ek), the astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts calamity from the horoscope of Sita. So
Ravana has her thrown into the waters, who, later, is picked by Janaka. It seems that he misguided
Ravana to do so because he was not given any portion of land unlike, Khara, Dhushana, Thrishira.
[He apprehended that Ravana would never do any favour to him. At the time of his exile, he left
his family in lanka only. Sarama was the wife of Vibhisana who was kind-hearted towards Sita.
Kala, his eldest daughter has informed Sita that Ravana had turned down the proposal of
Vibheeshana to return Sita back to Rama. Trijataa is another daughter and revealed to others, of a
horrible dream in which Rama had destroyed Ravana along with his kith and kin]. It is further
verified by the fact that he reclaimed the lanka from Ravana after his defeat by Rama.
Ravana accepted Maricha's advice. While all looked at his sister with horror struck eyes in
stunned silence, her anguish broke out in burning words. "What a fool are you that sunk in
sensual pleasures and arrogantly secure of sovereignty. You are not awake to the deadly anger
that threatens your existence at your very doors! Surely that king who is drunk with self-
importance and dead to all portents that threaten his state is doomed to shame and destruction!
No object is of less account or more contemptible than a ruler who falls through his own
remissness. Know you not that Rama has exterminated your brothers, Khara, Dushana and Trisiras
and your gallant army and that your outpost at Janasthana has been destroyed? One moment I
saw a single warrior stand proud in the glittering pageantry of war and the next; they lay dead
slain by that man's arrows, strewing the ground like ripe crops devastated by a terrible hail-storm.
And you see me, your own sister, disgraced, mutilated and heartbroken! Have you no thoughts of
vengeance, you, a hero, a brother, king?"
Stung by her contempt and heart-struck by her suffering and sorrow, Ravana said: "Be
sure you shall have vengeance. But this Rama, who is he? What sort of man is he? What are his
weapons? How does he fight? What seeks he in Dandaka forest? And how happened it that you
were so cruelly mutilated?" She gave a description of the brothers and Sita.
Listening to these words of his sister, Ravana dissolved the council and retired to muse
alone. He had to think and think again, because he remembered what Maricha had told him. He
turned in his mind the pros and cons and finally coming to a decision ordered a chariot to be kept
ready in secrecy. He reached Maricha's ashrama and met Maricha who, with matted hair and bark
garments, lived the life of an ascetic. Seeing his king and kinsman, Maricha welcomed Ravana duly
and said: "Why have you come all this way a second time and unannounced?" Ravana, skillful in
speech began: "I am in great trouble from which only you can save me. I beg you for help. Do you
know how my brothers, under my orders, ruled Janasthana and how they and their warriors knew
no opposition all these years? But now this man Rama has killed them and their whole army.
Today, in the Dandaka forest, rid of Rakshasas, the rishis doing animal sacrifices. This Rama has
been wandering in the forest alone with his wife, Sita. This fellow dressed like an ascetic but
enjoying sense-pleasures, this renegade from dharma, proud of his strength and for no other
reason, has mutilated the face of my sister and insulted our race. My sister who has suffered this
pain and shame had come and complained to me. If, with all this, I sit still and do nothing, would I
still be a king? To avenge myself I have decided to carry off Rama's wife from the Dandaka forest.
To disgrace and punish this Rama is a duty I owe to our race. And for this I need your help. With
you to help me, I have no fear. In courage, strength, skill and magic powers, none on earth can
equal you. That is why I have come to you. You cannot refuse me. I will tell you how you can help
me. Rama losing his wife is sure to languish in sorrow and lose his manly spirit. It will then be easy
to kill him and avenge ourselves."
MARICHA told Ravana, "I have listened, my king, to all that you have said and I am filled
with boundless sorrow. Rama earlier defeated him. Maricha earnestly pleaded for the good of
Ravana who, however, was far from pleased or convinced. Ravana refused to listen to Maricha's
counsel. And so be agreed to the Ravana’s proposal to take away Sita, Maricha said: "I have given
you good advice, but you will not listen. Come, let us go to Dandaka." The two ascended the
chariot and proceeded towards the Dandaka forest. They flew over cities, mountains, rivers and
kingdoms. Reaching Dandaka, they espied Rama's ashrama in a banana garden. Maricha has
diverted the attention of Rama by some trick, Ravana has took away Sita from ashrama and she
was kept in Ashoka Garden. In that instant, Rama killed Maricha.

Cutomery practice of War In South Dravidian
India (Tamil Country)
Chola king Karikalan destroyed towns of his enemies by setting fire.
G8ßþG dûdß0 MLmOuggßG LdQu MûOu dmgßó
LOdOûó 2Oûg g ülL0 =0g ¶u|ül0 LOdOûdu|G
L0uLG0ßO8üLG MdßuOuül0gO0 OlmuLLOG
OGLgOG,"O0O0üu MûOu OMMßü LOdOû2û ð0 Oluddg
gmOlu|d duLO0dMdßuOu GuOO0 üßd0|G¨OG0 L00ßO00L
LßL0ß0 (7) =0|d|G0ßu.
Chola king Rajasuyam Vetta Perunarkill has looted Paddy fields and destroyed the houses.
G8ßþG Mûß88üu GOLL MLm00d|uu| LOdOûó M00
OlOuüu Oü0dOud MdßuOuüLgó O 0dOud MdßKgg|ü
M8ü0 GLß00LL0d|G0ó.LOdOû 0ßLOL Oûd@u MdMdß0kM8ü0
=LddL 0|dþ0gOuüß0gßG G8ûußG LßO0 LßLü MLm0d00Gdß,
O00|ü LßO0 0|0gg|0@ ¨M8mu|@ 8|GGO0gG 8|O0g|0gg
L0uGLß0¨ OG0 2OOuOüL LüGL0gód|0ßû.
Nannan, king of Puzhi Country tied the elephants of his enemies with the help of hairs of
queen and ladies in the king’s apartment.
0GGG OG0 @00|0 uGGG gGOOLü LOdOûdOu
MOG0 Ll0@ =Oûdu|G 2ûOu udu|ûG gO0Oü uþ|gó
=dð0gO0d dül0ßdg g|ûgó, =ddül00ß0 =LLOdOûG
üßOGOüL LlMlggßG (000|OM 270).
Chera King Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan also did the same after defeating Pazhaiyan.
GO0Mdm @L0OG OG0 G8û uGGG LOþüG OG0
uGGOG MOG0 =OG uOGOlüßûG ð0gO0d MdßM0 g|ûddL
ML00 dül00|Gß0 üßOGdOu OMLül0 |LL =OOMLül0
MOLLLLLL LOþüGó dßO0 uûgOg O00|8 M8G0ßG (Lg|00L
Lgó 5u Lgó).
Chera King Kanaikkal Irumporai also planted the teeth of King Moovan in the main Doors
of Thondi Fort.
dOMddß0 MmuMLßO0 OG0 G8û uGGG HOG
OGLOOGL GLßû0 MOG0 =OGó L0dOuMü00ßu Ll00d|g
MgßML 0dû GdßLOLd dgOl0 Lg|ggßG.
Maththi, king of Paradhava also planted the teeth of Ezhini in his Venmani Fort.
ugg| OG0 LûgOû gO0OG Oþ|G| OG0 @00|0 uGGG|G
L0dOuL Ll00d| gGó MOMuMld GdßLOLd dgOl0 Lg|gó
OOggßG. (=du 211).
King Raja Raja Chola after defeating Irattaipadi, has destroyed towns; assassinated
children, priest and married young women.
ûß¿ ûß¿ G8ßþG|G Muü dûgg|du|0 =OGó MO00|8
8|0LLdu|0 ¶G0ßd ¨MûLOLLßLüu, OþOû M0ddOu MOG0¨
OG0 MgßLû MLuML0d|0ó. ûß¿ ûß¿G gG udG Og0ßu
MûßG80g|ûOG =OLLl MOMO00|OüL ML00ßG.Og0ßu
MûßG80g|ûG gO0Ouül0 M8G0 G8ßþû LOL 8güß8|OûüG OG0
GuO08 8Kddû uGGOLG GLßûL0 MOG0 MûLOLLßLOüd
OdLL00|üó MLGLßû0 MûßG80g|ûG Gu0MdßML Lþ| M8ü0dOu
8gg|üß8|OûüG|G d|.Ll. =ülûgg| Oþßu =M0 dß0gg|ü d0MOL0
LlGOmuß0 @0|LLl0d|0ó. (8ßOg|û 1989: 23940).0ßLOL 8O0üßL
LßþL0gg|GßG. 0dû0dOud MdßKgg|GßG. Mu0@þOldu =0gMû
OG0u Lßûßu0 =OûdOud MdßG0u dGG|üOûd OdLL00|
uOGOlüûßdd|GßG. =0gM8 8ßg|Oü =þ|góu =uO00
MLßmudOud dOû0ó MdßM0u gG 0ßLL0@g
g|muLlGßG.MOOß0 8O0üßL O0g M80Ogg|G ¶m L@g|Oüg
gkO8 MLmOOLüßû GdßOlQd@ Oþ0d|GßG.

During 1017-18 AD, King Rajendran has conquered the country and took away his hairs on
the head and wives, her hair on the head, his daughter etc as a sign of war victory.
MûßG¿0g|ûG|G dû0Og8 M8LGLLLG Muüdûgg|L L@g| ¨ . . .
üßOGdu, @g|Oûdu, ûgg|G0du, MLMdu, @OLg Mgß@g|du¨
=d|üGO0O0 8gg|üß8|ûüG|Lu|m0ó ûß¿ûß¿G L0|gód
MdßMLgßdd @0|LLl0d|0ó (g0Ogüßd|ü Mûß¿ûß¿Gß0
=OLLLLLLOuüß0 MûßG¿0g|ûG|G MO00|8 8|0LL Mûß¿
Mûß¿G|G MO00|8 8|0LLßdd @0|LLlLLL0d|0ó).MûßG¿0g|ûG
LLLgg|0@ O0g Ll0@ (1012-1044) 0|dþgg|ü GLßûdu|0 =OG
M8ü0Lß0 OggOdüó? OGLOgd dMLß0 Gu0ð0|ü d0MOL08
M8üg|du 2MOuüß? MLßüüß? OGLó L0Gß@u. d|.Ll. 1017-18M0
MOG 0Lgg|ü ÞþL GLßû0 Þþ uGGOG MOG MO00| dM0
OdLL00|ü MLßmu @0|gó MOG MOu|ülLL dû0Og8 M8LGL0
(M8üüu 58-59) LlGOmuß0 @0|LLl0d|0ó.¨=OOOLü 0ßLOLüu,
=OOOLü OLOüüu, =OOOLü =û8 Lgg|G|Oüüu,
=OKOLü OLOüüu, =OOOLü udOuüu, u00L MLßmL
@Olü0dOuüu . . . OdLL00|GßG. ¨8|0du 00ßG udßOu8u
8|0du uGGG dßL0d@u GLLGLßGgßdOu, 2LGLß0 M8üó
MdßuKOgßd8 M8ß00|ü G8ßþLLOL =OOG 2ülGûß0 LlLgód
MdßM0, Gu0MdßML M8ü0dOu LlGOmuß0
@0|LLl0d|0ó.¨gß0du LlLgg =û8OGüu g0du Odd@u 8|dd|ü
dmO00dOuüu 2LGG G8ßþ uGGOd@ =OLLl OOggGû.
LßódßLLßd L0 ML0du|0 M00Od OmOóu OOddLLLLm0g
0|OGO8 8|GG =O0dOu 2OLgó =O00|0|m0g MLßGGß0ßG
2mO0dOu =Oûdu O0gó8 M8G0Gû. =Oûdu dMLLL
ML0du|M000ßu MLugg 8uügó uL0dOu =þ|gó MûgggOg
20|kðu =ûddûdOuL GLß0 M00OdülG M80O0du
=OGgOgüu MdßuOuüLggGû¨ (8ßOg|û, 1989: 272). O0dßu
Gg8gó uGGG ud|Lß0OG MOG0 üßOGdu, MLMdu, M800u
O00ßO0O0üu OdLL00|d MdßMLßG (Gu0ó: 281).

King Rajadhi Rajan I has invaded Ceylon country and defeated Veera Jalamegha. Then King
Rajadhi Rajan had jailed Veera Jalamegha’s elder sister and his wife and cut off his mother’s nose.
Og0 MûßG¿0g|ûG|G Hgg udGßG ûß¿ßg|ûß¿G (1018- 1054)
M00OdülG uó LOLMü0gó, O û8ß0GudG OG0 8|0du
uGGOG MOG0ßG. 8|0du uGGG GL ¶u|ü =OGó
gudOdOüüu, uOGOlOüüu 8|O0 LlLggóLG =OGó gßülG
HdOd =0ggßG (K11 111; 5056).
His war against Chalukyas, several women were imprisoned at Poondur. That Town was
destroyed altogether.
ûß¿ßg|ûß¿G 8ßKdd|üûdKLG 1048M0 0|dþgg|ü GLßû0
d|mOMß =000dOûül0 2uu |M0û OG0 2û0 @00|0
uGGûdKLG OMM00 MLMdKu 8|O0LlLddLLLLGû.|M0û
0dû =þ|góg gOûuLLußddLLLLó. dmOgdu |LLü Oûß0 2mó
Oû@ OlOgddLLLLó. ußu|Od g dd|OûüßddLLLLó. G8ßþû
d0MOL0ddu ð0u M8M8üg|du u|OdLL0ggLLLLG OG0
ð0u 8ßOg|ûüßû (1989; 346)
During II Kalinga War, King Kulothunga chola has imprisoned ladies including horses,
elephants, cames etc. Lades were enslaved, the warriors nose were cut off.
Og0 @G0ßgó0d8 G8ßþG (1070---1120) MûMLßu d0|0dL
GLßû0 (d|.Ll. 1110) MOG0 @g|Oûdu, üßOGdu, ¶LLd0du u00u
M80O0dKLG udu|Oûüu OdLL00| O0gßG. HG0ßu
@G0ßgó0dG (d|.Ll. 1178- 1218) uóOûülG uó LOLMü0gó MOG0
LlGGû =OG M8üg M8ü0dußd =OGó Muüdûgg|du
LlGOmLOG0O0d @0|LLl0d|G0G.1. MLMdu =LOudußdd
MdßM0 M800LLLLGû.2. Ggß00Oûdu|G Hd@ =0ddLLLLó.3.
LßMLüG|G ðL uMLLgOg (OL 8L0u uMLLu) MLgó
dmOg OOûL |LL 2mgGû. g|mOß(ûg gO0OGßd Mm0g
d0Od MdßMLßG 2ggu G8ßþûßüG|G LOLüg|dßûüßG ðggG
dMLg| OGLOOG ¨LOdOûdu|G uOGOlüûd@d dMOG¨ OG0
¶m d0MOL0 @0|LLl0d|0ó (ARE 1913 L. 97).d|.Ll. 1219M0 G8ßþ
0ßLLG uó LOLMü0gg Og0 uß0OûuG ð0gûLßMLüG (1216 -
1238) gGó O û8M8ü0dOu, M8üüu OLOl0ßG Muüdûgg|üßd
d0MOLL0 MLß0|góuußG (I.P.S; 290, 323) LódGdßLOL ußOLLu
@0u|üßG uO0ül0 2uu =dd0MOLLG 2Oû0OL OLOu
Omuß0:Mdß00 GdßLOOLü @g|OûdOuüu, üßOGdOuüu
M8Qgg|8 M8G0 G8ßþûdu|G gkO8 0dOûüu M80gþ0|L0d
MdßKgg|GßG. =þd|ü @OOu u0ûdKu, 0 0 u0ûdKu gu
=þOd Mþd@uLL @u0dOuüu =0dOuüu d0dd|GßG.ðLu,
ug|0, GdßLûu, =L0 0|dmu =û0d0du, ußL ußu|Oddu,
dmO00du =d|üGO0O0 MLgóg guu|GßG.gGOG O0ó
=LLMlüßg LOd uGGûdu|G uOGOlüûdu =mg dMM û =0ßd
G0uLL8 M8ügßG.LOdOûó 0|0gOg, dmOg |LLü Oû MdßM0
2mó MOuOûOd OlOgggßG. G8ßþû gO00dûßd Olu0d|ü
OLMdßML G8ßþLûu M8G0 ¨Ol¿üßLlGOdu¨ OGOu 8L0Od
MOG M8ügßG. =gG MLßmL0 G8ßþ =û8|üu, =0gLLûgóL
MLMdKu gMM ûd@Lu Og0|ü u0d0L MLßmudOu ðu0ó
OmuLL dLLßüLL0ggLLLLGû (8ßOg|û, Gu0ó, 579).
Kopperunchingan imprisoned several women in the enemies’ apartment. For that reason
he was named as Para Raja Anthahpura Bandhikaran.
L00O uûOL8 G8û0g GdßLMLßmk8|0dG OGLOG OOg d
8uügOg8 G8û0gOG. 8|00g 8|O LdgG. 8|guLûu 0Lûß8û uó
MLmuL00 2OLüOG OG0 MOGó Oû0ß0O0 Omg|ü OO.=û.
Lß0ðLLlûuMlüG (1965: 117) @0|LLl0d|0ßû. O8Oûdu|G Odd|ü
LMMlüg g00dKu ¶G0ßG 8|guLûgg|0 2uu 0Lûß¿û
GdßOl0|0 Mg0@d GdßLûu dLL gßGu M8üóuußG. MgGß0
MOGó LLLL MLüû ¶G0|G MLüûß0 ¨M8ßdd8üG g|m0|O0
OmGdßLûu¨ OG0 MdGdßLûu =OþddLLLLó. 8|guLûgg|G dOþd
GdßLûgOg Om0|O0d GdßLûußd 2üûgg|d dLLGßG. gG LOd
uGGûdu|G g0dd d|ûL0dOu 2mdd| MdGdßLûgg|G g0dd
d0ü0dOu8 M8ügßG. g|mOMMßuO0, dßk8| OdßuLû0ßgG
GdßOl0, g|mO ûLLßMu, M¿uLGdOOûu, uóOû, dßudOg| =d|ü
8|Ogg00du|0 g|mLLMldKu gßG0dKu
M8ügßG.¨g|mLLg|dMu00ßu @uLlLLmu| GgOgßG0dKu
g|mOlOLüßLL0dKu MO0ülOl OlLLmu| g|mLLMlMü00ßu
M8ügmu|¨ OG0 =dðû 8ß8Gu (SI XII; 129) MOGó Ldg| 2uugOg8
ðLLd dßL0u.MggOdü 8|OLdgGßG GdßLMLmk8|0dOd@ûü
LLLü0dKu ¨Lûûß¿ =0gLLû L0g|dßûG¨ OGLóu ¶G0 OG
MOGó =00û 8ß8Gu ð0u (SII XII; 120). Ll0 uGGûdu|G
=0gLLûgOg 8|O0LlLLLOG OGLGg MLLLLgg|G MLßmuß@u.
In a war against Thirumalai Naicker, Army of Mysore King Gandharva Narasa rajan cut off
the nose of subjects on their way to Madurai.
uóOûOü =ML g|muO0 0ßüddû (1623-1659) dß0gg|0 LOd
0ßL0d @Luddu|G HdOd =0d@u Lþddußd Mó
Ouû88|ü00ó.d0g|mO 0û8ûß¿G (1638-1659) OG0 Ou8û uGGG
g|muO0 0ßüddmLG GLßûL, gG LOLOü =OLLlGßG. =LLOL
uóOû G0ßdd| OmuGLßó Oþ|ülQuu 2ûdOu O00ßu
MdßuOuülL0u, M0mLLlL0u =þ|ggó. =Mdu, MLMdu,
@þ0Ogdu OG0 GO0Lß0 MG0| Og|ûLLGLßû Hd@dOuMü00ßu
=0ggó. =0LLL Hd@du 8ßd@ HLOLdu|0 Ou8md@8
M8G0G.0ßL0g óGûßd|dKd@ Oþ0dLLLL gMLOGüßdGO
Hdd0gg0 Mm0gó. Ou8û uGGG Og|û 0ßL0 uddKd@
Oþ0@u gMLOGüßd MOg uß00|GßG. Hdd0LLg0MdGG0 Gû
MmuLd duLlOü Ou8ûLLOL O ûûdu OOgg|m0gGû.
MddmOlülG óOMüß0 HdOdüu GuQgLOLüu
=0góOl0Oßûdu. =0gg Hd@du|G OMMldOdd@ O0L
=OûdKd@L Lûð Oþ0dLLLLó. uO8 2uu GuQgL0d@L Lûð
=g|du (8gg|ü0ßgüüû 1956; 50-52).Mg0@L Lþ|Oß0@u OO0ül0
gG guLl @ußûOgóOlG gO0Ouül0 ¶m LOLOü g|muO0
0ßüddû Ou8md@ =OLLlGßû. Ou8ûL LOLO ûûdu gu|þ0ßLL0
0|dþgg|ü Hdd0ggO0 Ou8û0 0ßüddû LOL Gu0MdßMLó.
M0g|ül0 Ou8û uGGOGd Odó M8üó =OG HdOdüu
=0ggGû. (Gu0ó)Oûüû OG0 =0d|0 =0OO umgóOû
1673d@u 1681d@u MOLLLLL dß0gg|0 Ou8ûL L@g|ül0
ð00LLüMu M8üóuußû. Hdd0d@u M8ü0 @0|gó =Oû
LlGOmuß0 @0|LLlL0uußû. µû0dLLLLMgg|G uGGû gG
LOLO ûûdKd@, LOdOûdu|G HdOd =0d@u Lül08|
Mdß0góuußû. ¶m GdßMlLOL =uOl0ßG Hd@du uGGûG
dßO0 2MOd@ Oþ0dLLLLG. 2ülûdOud Mdß0Oó =Oûó 8uü
0uLldOdd@ uß0ßGó OGLgß0 =Oû MOOß0 M8üd|0ßûßu
(Gu0ó). d|.Ll. OLLßu 000ßML0 =g|80dûûß0 0|0OLLLL
8|m0Gdû uLu dm0ßLdgg|0 2uuó. LûðûßuLß@ OG0 uûßLLü
M0óg guLg| dm0ßLdgg|G uó LOLMü0ggGLßó M0ó uLu
OG0 8|m0Gdû uLgOgd MdßuOuüLddßu0 OlL0OlLOl0O0.60
0L8u MLmußGu 2uu =Mld0Gdu üßOG, @g|Oû, L00d@
=d|üO0O0 =0d|m0ó MdßuOuüLggßG. 8|m0Gdû uLßg|Lg|du
OM0d| O0g 8ßûgß GgOlülG OldûdgOgL LûLLL GLßLLßG.L0
LlûßuMd @mddOud MdßG0ßG. 2ülmd@L Lü0ó GLßü
80dûß88ßûüßû dßk8|0ß OG0 MLgg|0@ GL
¶u|0gßû.=0d|m0gLLGü Ou8û0 Mm0g g|LL ð0gßOd@ 2gOl
GOML dLgu Omg|Gßû. g|LLOu 8ßûgß L LgOg uM0u 0|0O
LMOu gßG|ü0dKu g0ógOlGßG. 8ßûgß L LgOgd dßdd
LOLdOuüu =OLLlGßG. M8M8üg|dOu 8|m0Gdû 8ßûgß
uLgg|Quu =OM0duß0 =0|d|G0ßu (8|OMMß, 1999 : 4142).
This is the practice of Kings of South India (Dravidian Kings). The same act was done by
Ravana. But Ravana was alone condemned for his imprisonment of Sita.
Reaching the ashrama, they found it, as they had feared, empty. Sita was not there. He
wandered about like one mad. They met and injured Kabandha in Dandakaranya and Kabandha
directed them to meet Sabari and Sugriva. Rama and Lakshmana now set forward in the direction
of the Pampa. In that lovely region they visited the ashrama of the aged sanyasini, Sabari. The
fugitive Vanara prince Sugriva and his faithful adherents with the watchful vigilance of fear saw
Rama and Lakshmana roving in the forests and were troubled with doubts. Having been ejected
from his kingdom by Vali, Sugriva chose this mountainous spot. And now he feared that here, too,
Vali in disguise was following him in order to kill him. Or else, he feared, some Kshatriya warriors
taking the side of Vali were there to kill him. Hanuman was Sugriva's chief minister. He reassured
Sugriva, saying: "This is not Vali, and they are not the friends of Vali, it seems to me. There is no
ground for fear. I shall go and talk to them and find out the truth." Sugriva was pleased and said:
"Do it, but be careful. Go, find out the truth and come back. Use all your skill. I am full of suspicion.
They behave as if they are searching for someone. Could it not be that it is me they seek?" Then
they began to talk freely to one another. As a result of this talk, Lakshmana conceived a great
affection for Hanuman. He said to Hanuman: "My brother has left his kingdom and come to the
forest. Here his wife was abducted. We seek Sugriva's help to rescue her and recover her, for a
Kabandha, told us: 'If you secure the help of Sugriva, the Vanara King, you will regain the princess
stolen by the Ravana.' And so we are here. We seek the friendship of your king." Hanuman
answered: "Sugriva too has been persecuted by Vali and deprived of his kingdom and his wife. It is
now certain that he will regain both. My king will gain much by your friendship and with his help
you will also succeed in your efforts." Then the three went to Sugriva.
Sugriva narrated the story of his life. Vali, ruled Kishkindha without giving any share to him. It had
comes about this way. Ravana’s wife Mandodari’s brother named Mayavi came at midnight to the
gate of Kishkindha, their capital, and vauntingly challenged Vali to instant combat in pursuance of
an ancient feud. Vali, rushed forth impetuously, followed by Sugriva; and seeing them, he fled.
Pursuing him they saw him disappear into a great cave the mouth of which was overgrown with
brushwood. Vali bade Sugriva, exacting an oath from him, to wait at the entrance for him and
plunged into the darkness of the cave after the foe. Availing the opportunity Sugriva blocked the
entrance of the cave with a huge rock and returned to Kishkindha with his tale of Vali's
assassination. While he was enjoying the sweets of power, like a bolt from the blue, Vali burst on
them. Crowned himself as the king of Kishkindha, and possessed Ruma along with Tara as his wife.
Later Vali marched to Kishkinda and confronted Sugreeva. He was very furious. Seeing Sugriva
acting as king, he came to know that his brother had betrayed him, and possessed his wife Tara.
As a result, Sugriva was ostracized from the kingdom, Vali forcibly took Sugriva's wife, Roma, and
the brothers became bitter enemies
In contrast to Sugriva, when the ministers and subjects in Ayodhya pressed Bharata to
accept the crown, he was firm in his refusal. Bharata's strength of character was great. But
Sugriva was different.
Sugriva concluded his story with a piteous appeal to Rama. "For fear of Vali I am a
wanderer in the forest. I live concealing myself here. Could you, will you, kill Vali and restore to
me my kingdom and my wife?"
Rama answered: "Certainly I will. Vali cannot escape this now. Be assured.
THEN Sugriva heard the story of the calamity that had befallen the Rama princes at
Panchavati. They talked how to set about and it was finally agreed that Sugriva should appear in
Kishkindha and challenge Vali to single combat. Vali was sure to come out, and as the brothers
were fighting, Rama would kill Vali with an arrow. They proceeded to Kishkindha. Sugriva went
ahead. Rama followed him and stood away behind a tree in the dense forest. Sugriva shouted. Vali
heard the shout and in great rage emerged from the fortress, radiant like the morning sun.
The two brothers fought each other fiercely. But Rama, who was standing bow in hand
behind a tree, was bewildered. As they wrestled together the brothers were so similar in form and
feature, in equipment and method of fighting, that Rama could not distinguish Vali from Sugriva
and was afraid to shoot lest he kill the wrong combatant. Meantime Sugriva, having the worst of
the fight, broke from his brother's grip with a desperate effort and, wounded and weary,
disappointed and despondent, fled for life and reached Rishyamuka forest.

The assassination of Vali
EVENING was approaching. Once more Sugriva roared at the gate of Kishkindha and
challenged Vali to fight. Vali disliked Tara’s advice. Vali issued from the fort hissing like an angry
cobra and went to meet Sugriva. And Sugriva too ran forward to meet Vali. "If you love your life,"
warned Vali, "run away. Do not fall a victim to this fist of mine!"
Sugriva retorted angrily and the battle began. It was now or never and placing a deadly
arrow on the string and pulling it to his ear, Rama sped it at Vali's mighty chest. Astounded at
being hit and laid low, when he least expected it from an unknown quarter, Vali looked round in
perplexed surprise and saw Rama and Lakshmana approaching him bow in hand. With tears of
indignant wrath, and in a voice faint with approaching dissolution, he accused them of ignoble
perfidy in dealing causeless assassination to a person engaged in combat with another.
"Rama," he said, "you are the son of Emperor Dasaratha. Born of a noble race and famous
by your own exploits, how did you bring yourself to do this deed? The world is full of praises for
your valor and virtue. Yet, while I was absorbed in a battle with another, you came unseen, and
from behind, shot a fatal arrow at me. How false and undeserved is your reputation for manly
virtue, for truth and forbearance! What will the world think of you now? What harm have I ever
done to you? Did I come out to fight with you? You have killed me like an assassin concealing
yourself behind the trees. For a royal prince to kill an innocent person in this way is grievous sin.
You are unworthy for kingship. My greatest sorrow is that I am killed by a base and sinful wretch.
If it was battle with me you wanted, I would have given it to you, and assassination by me in fair
combat you might have been lying in the dust as I do now. Or if it was help to recover your Sita I
would have won her back for you in a day. I would have killed Ravana and dragged his body with a
rope round the neck and placed it at your feet. No matter where he has hidden Sita, I would have
discovered her and restored her to you."
Thus Vali, son of Indra, reproached Rama with his dying breath. Vali's words were
addressed to Rama. "All is over, I shall blame you no more. My dear, dear son Angada is orphaned.
You and Sugriva should look after him. I entrust him to you. Look after him it is your duty to see
that he does not pine away like a withering lotus-plant in a dried-up tank. Tell Sugriva that he
should not imagine that it was Tara who set me up against him. Ask him to treat Angada as he
should treat a prince, with honor and affection. Do this for me. I want no more. " So ended Vali's
THERE was panic in Kishkindha when the news came that Vali had been assassination by
an archer, and the Vanaras fled hither and thither in hopeless confusion. Tara, seeing this, laid
aside her own grief and like a queen put courage in her husband's subjects saying: "Till this day
you walked before the King to battle! Why, then do you flee in fear now? There is no danger for
you. Rama killed Vali only to make Sugriva king. Your lives are in no danger; you will only have a
different ruler; that is all. You need not fly or fear."
When she tried to go to the spot where her husband lay dead, the Vanaras stopped her
saying: "We shall crown Angada king and we shall make safe the fortress. We shall defend the
town against Sugriva and his allies." But she said: "Now my noble lord is dead, nothing matters."
And boldly she went straight to where Rama and Lakshmana were standing. When she saw her
husband lying wounded to assassination she could not control her sorrow. She sobbed and cried.
"Ah my hero!" she wept embracing the wounded Vali. "How many heroes have you laid low and
now you lie low yourself! And you have left me here!"
Soon Vali's son Angada reached the spot. Tara rolled on the ground and lamented:
"Leaving dear Angada an orphan and myself a helpless destitute you have gone on the journey
from which there is no return. My Lord! My hero! " Hanuman tried to console her: "The dead
reach their places in heaven. Why lament for Vali? Angada will be crowned in due course and we
shall then rejoice. It is our duty to look after Angada. Let us now think of performing Vali's
obsequies." "I care for nothing," answered Tara. "It is for Sugriva to perform the obsequies and to
look after Angada. What is there for me to do? Can a thousand Angadas equal in my eyes my
husband? With him I shall enter the house of Yama. That alone will please me."
Vali, unconscious till now, opened his eyes for the last time and addressing Sugriva said:
"Brother, we two could have been friends and reigned happily over the kingdom. But it was not
given to us to be so wise and happy. I am more to blame than you, but why talk about that now?
Hereafter you shall rule the kingdom. I have entrusted to you Angada, my son, dearer than life
itself to Tara and me. He is a warrior equal to you in prowess. Be a father to him and look after
him with kindness. This is my only request to you. And be kind to Tara who was not only a
blameless and affectionate wife, but also a very wise and far-sighted counsellor. Whatever she
foretells is bound to happen. Do not disregard her advice on any matter. Here, take the necklace
that Indra gave me and take with it its secret power. My life is over and so is my resentment. May
you be happy!" Thus the generous Vali blessed his brother Sugriva. He gave good advice to
Angada: "Sugriva is now your king. Be loyal to him and give him patient, affectionate service."
Like a flowering creeper embracing a forest tree felled down by an axe, Tara lay on the
ground clinging to Vali. Nila, as gently as he could, drew out the dart from Vali's chest. Blood
gushed out of the wound and spread into a pool. Vali's life left his body. Tara lamented loudly.
"For the last time salute your father," she bade Angada in heart-broken accents. "O my husband!
Your dear son is bowing before you. Will you not say a word to him? Alas! I am a widow and he is
an orphan."
The sight of all this struck Sugriva to the heart. He said to himself: "Moved by desire I
closed the entrance of the cave and leaving Vali there, I seized and enjoyed his wealth. What a
sinner have I been!"
Sugriva felt that desire had unknowingly blinded and betrayed him.

Sugriva lamented, "Though my sin was great, he would not kill me. He drove me out and
allowed me to escape with life. That was all. But I conspired to slay him and succeeded. There is
no sinner like me in the world and yet with his last breath he gave me the kingdom to rule and
gave, too, the gift of Indra, the necklace of power. Indeed he was noble. Why should I still cling to
this base life, I, who brought about the assassination of my heroic brother?"
Rama had gently approached the weeping Tara With fear and hesitation. The words she
addressed to the slayer of her husband were worthy of a hero's queen. "With the weapon with
which, O Warrior, you killed my husband, kill me too and enable me to join him. Even in heaven,
he will not be happy without me. Do not fear it would be a sin. It will be a meritorious act to unite
husband and wife. This will cleanse your sin, your treacherous slaying of my husband."
Vali's obsequies were performed with due form and ceremony. After the auspicious bath,
Sugriva was crowned king and Angada was made Yuvaraja.
Rama and Lakshmana spent the time in their cave waiting for the end of the rainy season
and the fulfilment by Sugriva of his promise. Sugriva addressed this enormous army and showed
them their appointed camping places. Later, he divided the host into eight divisions and sent each
under its commander, thoroughly to search in the eight directions for Sita.
One point is worth noting here. The Tamil poet Kamban describes Tara as a chaste
widow living a life of discipline and privations. It is different in Valmiki, who includes Tara and
the other women as part of the inheritance Sugriva won from Vali, in fact, as an appendage of
the throne.
In ancient times, when an elder brother died leaving a wife, there was a custom in royal
and other noble families for the younger brother to take the widow as wife and protect her. It is
difficult for people of one age to judge the customs of another age. Imagination and great
flexibility of mind are needed to assess the merits and defects of usage's with which we are not
Sugriva gave orders to his army. "Sita must anyhow be discovered. No matter where she is
hidden, you can and must find her. Within a month you must return with news of her."
Satabali and his army proceeded northwards. Vinata went east, Sushena westwards,
Hanuman, Angada and General Tara travelled southwards. Hanuman and Angada entered and
searched the caves and forests of the Vindhyas. FROM Sampati the Vanaras learnt the place
where Sita was kept a prisoner in the land.
But then they had to cross the sea. Hanuman crossed the ocean and approached the coast
of Lanka. On the shore of the island he saw groves and mountains and forests and the mouths of
rivers. Hanuman saw the wealth of Ravana's kingdom and the beauty of the fortified city.

The Vanara walked towards the fortress gate. The moon shone brightly. Hanuman was
glad and grateful for this help in his search. Even on a distant view Hanuman wondered at the
wealth and beauty displayed in Ravana's capital. The streets and mansions were bright with flags
and festoons and glittered with gold and precious gems. The breeze blew gently from the sea.
After passing through many mansions and gardens filled with merriment and music, he came to a
great palace rising aloft in a nobility of splendor far transcending all the magnificent buildings
Looking at the elephants, horses and foot-soldiers in front, the high walls surrounding it
and the beauty of its structure and the richness of its decorations, he concluded that this was
Ravana's own palace, the central glory of splendid Lanka. He entered this palace. It was in every
way a heaven on earth worthy of Ravana's peerless power and glory. The park, the birds sporting
there, the shrines scattered here and there, filled Hanuman with wonder.
He said to himself, "What wealth, what beauty and what bliss!"
He was for a while lost in amazement. Soon he recollected that he had not yet found Sita.
Passing through many mansions, he entered the innermost private apartment of Ravana
and was almost overcome with the luxury and richness of its apartments, which made it look a
very abode of the gods.
Finally in the Ashoka Vanam, Hanuman met Sita and."DEAR, dear Vanara friend," said Sita,
"I do not know whether to rejoice or grieve at the news you have brought. Your words are like
nectar mixed with poison. My lord's love for me is sweetest nectar, and his grief over my plight is
bitterest poison." Thus, Sita spoke what she felt and found comfort in putting in words her love
and her grief. Later Lanka was set fired by Hanuman and escaped from Lanka


Ravana carefully stationed his warriors. He posted Prahasta at the eastern entrance,
Mahaparsva and Mahodara at the southern entrance and Indrajit, his illustrious son, accomplished
in the arts of secret magic, at the western entrance, while he decided himself to guard the
northern entrance. Virupaksha, the mighty, was appointed commander of the army within the
city. He just fortified his area instead of attacking Rama and his associates.

However Rama, Sugriva, Vibhishana and others held a council of war. Rama distributed his
forces to meet Ravana's disposition and assigned to each commander the task he was to perform.
He ordered Nila to meet Prahasta at the eastern gate. Angada was to meet Mahaparsva and
Mahodara at the southern entrance. At the western entrance Hanuman was to encounter Indrajit.
"Lakshmana and I shall meet Ravana, the terror of the world, and we shall direct the assault on
Lanka. Sugriva, Jambavan and Vibhishana shall stay behind with our main army." The army rested
for the night on Mount Suvela. The following morning, standing on the mountaintop, they took a
good look at Lanka. The beautiful city on the summit of Trikuta seemed as if suspended from the
sky. Behind the thick fortress wall the army stood sentry, looking like another massive wall.
Observing the great and beautiful buildings in Lanka, Rama was moved to pity. And he said: "Alas!
Because one person, drawn by the noose of time, has committed a sin, all this wealth and the
whole race must now be destroyed. Alas that this scion of a noble race should forget his real
greatness and pull assassination and destruction on himself and his people!"

Rama continued: "However, we should now bend all our thoughts to the task before us to
win this battle and destroy Ravana. There will be much confusion in the course of the battle. If we
stand together maintaining due order we can know who is who, slay our enemies and help our


THE Vanara army descended from Mount Suvela and entered the forest adjoining the city
of Lanka. Gazing now from below at the mountain fortress and the beautiful city, Rama was again
filled with wonder and exclaimed: "Oh what beauty! What wealth." The Vanaras, for their part,
noted the Lankan warriors' strength and readiness for battle, the thick walls and mighty engines of
defence. From Lanka, all ready for war, the sounds of drums and trumpets issuing from the city
increased the eagerness of the Vanaras for battle. The army stood in ordered divisions as
instructed by Rama.

Looking at Lanka he said: "Lakshmana! Look at the beauty of the city."

RAVANA went up the tower of his mansion and surveyed the scene. On every side he saw
Vanara warriors. At the same time, Rama ordered an immediate assault. Then Ravana sent forth a
big army. He commanded it to go out and slay at once all the Vanaras. They beat their drums and
blew their trumpets till the sky resounded. Besides this gruesome engagement, there were many
duels between individual warriors. Angada encountered Indrajit like Rudra against Yama. There
was a duel between the Prajangha and Sampati, one of the companions of Vibhishana. Hanuman
fought a duel with Jambumali, Nila with Nikumbha, Lakshmana with Viroopaksha, and so on. The
chariot and horses of Indrajit were destroyed and Angada received a blow from the mace of
Indrajit. Jambumali hit Hanuman with his weapon and Hanuman smashed his chariot to pieces.
The Ravana’s army concentrated their attack on Rama, and fell in thousands under his arrows.
Vidyunmali aimed his darts at Sushena. The latter smashed with a rock the chariot of the Associate
of Ravana. Vidyunmali jumped out with his mace and attacked Sushena who crushed him to
assassination with a rock. In this way many warriors fought and many died.

The battle raged throughout the day. The battle became fierce. Blood flowed in streams.
There was terrible slaughter on both sides. Angada attacked Indrajit, slew his horses and
charioteer and smashed the chariot.

The Vanara warriors wounded and downcast, seeing Rama and Lakshmana laid low,
concluded that all was over. Vibhishana, who saw Sugriva standing helpless and forlorn, put
courage in the Vanara king. "It is foolish to lose hope," he said. "Look at Rama and Lakshmana.
Their faces are still bright. They are not dead. Be not afraid. Soon they will recover from this
swoon and resume fighting."

The Assassination of Ravana

Ravana with uncontrollable fury hastily summoned Vajradamshtra and said: "Oh bravest
of warriors, go without delay and destroy these wicked fellows." Vajradamshtra bowed low before
the king and followed by a mighty army sallied out of the southern gate and encountered Angada.
The Lankan Army under the leadership of Vajradamshtra waged grim battle and slew countless
Vanaras. And yet the Vanara army stood firm and would not withdraw. On both sides the fighting
was intense. In the end, Angada and the Lankan chief fought hand to hand for a long while.
Vajradamshtra was assassination, gallantly fighting to the last, and the Lankan Army fled in
confusion. The Vanaras surrounded Angada and shouted in exultation.

Then Ravana ordered Prahasta: "Send Akampana and let him have the most terrible
Lankan Army to accompany him. Let them go and slay Rama, Sugriva and the Vanara army. None
can resist Akampana's might and skill."

Accordingly, Prahasta sent an army of Lanka under the leadership of Akampana. True to
his name, Akampana was firm and immovable in battle. He had chosen his weapons and his
warriors carefully. As he advanced, bad omens met him. But neither he nor his followers regarded
them. The noise of their challenge rose above that of the ocean.

A great battle ensued. Blood flowed in streams. Dust rose and cut off the sun plunging the
earth in portentous gloom. The slaughter on both sides was enormous. Kumuda, Nala, Mainda and
Dwivida attacked Akampana who defended himself with courage. Then Hanuman slew him.
Ravana's spirits fell when he received the news of Akampana's assassination but he found strength
in anger and desperation and began thinking of new plans. He went round the defences of the city
again and took counsel with Prahasta, the commander-in chief.

Prahasta answered humbly,"I am bound to obey you. I am prepared to sacrifice my life,
my family, my all for your sake. I shall lead this sortie, if such is your pleasure."

A huge army was collected and everything was got ready for a supreme endeavor,
including the solemnisation of special rites and sacrifices. Then Prahasta marched out to the
beating of drums. Evil omens presented themselves. But he disregarded them.

Seeing the great army led by Prahasta issuing out of the eastern gate of the fortress,
"Look," said Rama, "there comes out a Lankan men at the head of an enormous army. Who is he?"

Vibhishana replied, "It is Prahasta, the commander-in-chief of Ravana. A third of the
imperial army is his to command". Dwivida, Durmukha and Jambavan and stain, opposed
Prahasta’s followers, Narantaka, Mahanada, Kumbhahanu and others. There was a prolonged
battle between Prahasta and Nila. At last Prahasta, armed with a massive mace of iron rushed
towards Nila. Nila smashed Prahasta's head killing him on the spot.

Some of those who fled from the battle carried to the Lankan King the news that Nila had
assassination Prahasta. Ravana was beside himself with rage and grief. "My warrior chief," he said,
"who could vanquish Indra and his host of gods, has been killed by these Vanaras. We cannot treat
this lightly. We must destroy Rama and the monkey host." So saying, Ravana got into his chariot
and went forward like Rudra, the destroyer. Seated in his radiant chariot and issuing from the city,
Ravana beheld the Vanara army and heard their uproar, which resounded like the ocean.

Ravana attacked innumerable Vanaras and laid them low. Nila opposed Ravana gallantly
but was felled by a fire-dart. Hanuman attacked Ravana with violence and the two fought an equal
battle for a while but Ravana could not be subdued and wrought great havoc in the Vanara host.
There was a fight between Lakshmana and Ravana. Lakshmana fell down unconscious but
Hanuman intervened and carried Lakshmana away to Rama. Then Rama, riding on Hanuman's
shoulders, gave battle to Ravana. The Lankan king was sorely wounded. His olden crown was
broken. So was his chariot. Deprived of every weapon, he stood before Rama.

"You may go now," said Rama. "You have fought well today. Go away and rest and come
back tomorrow, refreshed and with weapons." And Ravana retreated shamefacedly to the city.

Ravana entered the fortress, ashamed and anxious. After deliberating a while, he
recovered his courage and ordered his sleeping brother Kumbhakarna to be roused. Ravana's
officers and their servants accordingly went to Kumbhakarna's palace. Rejoicing at the arrival of
his peerless brother, Ravana stepped down from his throne and embraced him. "What can I do for
you, brother?" asked Kumbhakarna. "

"Brother! You do not know what has happened," said Ravana. " I know your love for me. I
know your keenness and your courage in battle. Go at once and annihilate these enemies and help
us in our need and save Lanka."

Kumbhakarna, when he heard Ravana's words of anxiety, was moved at first to fury
against the enemy but soon he remembered the whole story and Ravana's vainglorious
confidence in his invincibility and that made him smile a little bitterly. Kumbhakarna armed with
his great spear was about to go to battle alone, but Ravana stopped him and sent an army to aid
him. He covered his brother's big body with jewels and garments and blessed him saving: "Go, my
hero! Destroy the enemies and return victorious."

Dwivida, Hanuman, Nila, Vrishabha, Sarabha and other chiefs attacked Kumbhakarna
fiercely. But he disregarded them all. Angada himself received a blow, as a result of which he
fainted and fell on the earth. Sugriva was struck down.

Lakshmana tried with his arrows to obstruct his progress but the Lankan Army passed him
by and rushed forward to face Rama himself. Rama wounded his arms and the feet. At last, Rama
cut off his head with an arrow. When the army told this assassination, Ravana felt that his own life
had left him. He swooned. After recovering consciousness, he cried in grief and anger. Trisiras and
his other sons tried to console Ravana.

A great battle ensued. Narantaka, riding on horseback spear in hand, wrought havoc
among the Vanaras and was proceeding towards Sugriva. Angada opposed him and killed him and
his horse. Likewise, Devantaka and Trisiras were assassination by Hanuman, and Mahodara by
Nila. Atikaya fell a prey to Lakshmana's arrows. But before they died, these four had fought like
four Yamas and caused enormous loss to the Vanara forces.


INDRAJIT comforted his father. "Why should you worry when I am here alive?" he said and
gathered an army, and with it made another sortie. He swooped down on the Vanara forces and
killed and wounded thousands of them. They were helpless against his fury.

Vibhishana rallied the Vanara leaders who had scattered in all directions and put hope and
courage into them. The battle was resumed. Taking counsel with Rama, Sugriva now chose a few
Vanaras and ordered them to enter Lanka and set fire to the city. Towards midnight they entered
the city with torches. They attacked and overpowered the sentry and set fire to the palaces and
turrets of Lanka. Houses in their thousands were reduced to ashes.

The proud city was reduced to a mass of ruin.

Seeing Lanka being burnt down by the Vanaras, Ravana was furious and sent to the
battlefield Kumbha and Nikumbha, the sons of Kumbhakarna, together with Yupaksha and other
Lankan warriors. After another terrible battle, Kumbha was assassination by Sugriva and
Nikumbha by Hanuman. Makaraksha, son of Khara, who opposed Rama, fell to his fiery arrows.
Many more mighty Lankan warriors perished. Then, at the bidding of Ravana, Indrajit went once
again to the battle.

As a result of his trick, Indrajit gained time to perform an asuric sacrifice. Rama and
Lakshmana, like the Vanara warriors, believed that Sita was dead and were lost in grief. They were
completely bewildered and helpless when Vibhishana came and inquired what had happened. He
listened to their story. Then he said: "You have been deceived. Never would Ravana allow Sita to
be killed. This is only a trick of sorcery. Indrajit tries to defeat you through magic. Having given up
all hope of achieving success by normal means, he has gone to perform an asuric sacrifice of great
power. If he completes it, we cannot vanquish him. We should therefore go and obstruct the
sacrifice. Let Lakshmana go at once and mar Indrajit's purpose." Accepting this advice, Rama sent
Lakshmana who was ac companied by Hanuman and other Vanaras, besides Vibhishana. They
went to the spot where Indrajit was about to offer oblations to evil spirits. The sacrifice was
interrupted and a long and fierce battle ensued. Ascending his chariot, the son of Ravana sent
forth his arrows. Standing on Hanuman, Lakshmana did the same. As they were well matched in
strength and skill, the battle lasted long. The chariot of Indrajit was destroyed in the course of the
combat and both the heroes stood on the ground and continued the battle.

At last, Lakshmana used the Indra-astra spell and uttering the name of Rama discharged
the fatal arrow. The head of Indrajit was severed and fell to the ground and as it fell, it shone like
fire. Lakshmana then went to Rama. He was wounded all over and bleeding. He walked slowly,
supported by Jambavan and Hanuman.

The news reached Ravana that Indrajit had been assassination by Lakshmana. When he
heard that Vibhishana helped Lakshmana in slaying Indrajit, his grief and anger swelled and the
tears he shed burnt where they fell. And from his mouth issued fire.

"Alas, my son! O peerless warrior! O hero! Vanquisher of the great Indra! Has
Assassination won after all? Have you entered the heaven of heroes? But I should not grieve," he

But the father's heart would not thus be denied, and again he cried: "What! Is Indrajit
gone? The world is now empty for me. Oh son, you have left your mother Mandodari and your
dear wife and myself heart-broken and disconsolate. Nothing remains to us now but revenge and
despair. It is best to kill Sita, the cause of all this tragedy. My son killed the maya-Sita. Now I shall
kill the real Sita her self." So saying he rushed out, sword in hand, intending to do it. Some fierce
Lankan warriors, seeing Ravana issuing out in anger, applauded him with joy; but the minister
Suparsva was horrified and appealed to Ravana's better sense and what was due to himself as a
man and a king.

"King!" he cried, "how dare you think such a thought? How can you do it? Oh, Lord of ten
heads! Brother of Kubera! Are you thinking to kill a woman? Are you going to incur this shame
and sin? Can you thus be tempted by anger? You have mastered the Vedas and all the sciences.
You have performed many penances. How can you end up with such a thing as this? Who is equal
to you? Let us direct our anger against Rama. It will be new moon tomorrow. Gather all your
armies, issue out of Lanka, slay Rama and Lakshmana and achieve victory. Then take Sita. Put on
the armour. Ascend your chariot and go to battle."

Ravana felt that Suparsva was right and his words were good. Seated on his throne, he
was silent for a while, lost in profound meditation. Then he addressed the commanders with
folded hands, saying: "Go now with all your strength and slay Rama. If even you fail, I shall go
myself and destroy him."

Never before had he been so courteous and humble when dealing with his officers.
Adversity had taught him this lesson. Mounted on chariots that shone like the hills on the evening
horizon and on the back of great elephants and beautiful horses, Ravana's army went in full force
for the great battle. Rama easily baffled these arrows with his own and struck Ravana repeatedly,
without however being able to penetrate his armor. Thus they fought, these supreme bowmen,
each bent on slaying the other and using increasingly potent missiles of secret power, while the
gods in heaven looked on with marvel and admiration. Neither hero had met such an opponent
before and on both sides admiration was mingled with wrath. Rama pierced with his darts every
limb of Ravana. And yet he did not fall.

Then Lakshmana and Vibhishana together attacked Ravana. Furious with his brother and
determined to kill him, Ravana flung at him a powerful weapon. But intercepted by a dart of
Lakshmana it broke into two and fell on the ground like a burning brand. Once again, Ravana
aimed another mighty sakti against Vibhishana. This too Lakshmana intercepted. Then Ravana
hurled a sakti at Lakshmana crying: "Now you are dead!" Under its impact Lakshmana fell down
unconscious on the ground. Not observing this, Rama went on keeping up his pressure against
Ravana. While the battle raged between the two, the Vanara leaders took counsel and sent
Hanuman once again to the Hill of Herbs to save the life of Lakshmana. For the second time,
Hanuman flew northwards and, not wasting time searching for the plants, returned with the
whole mountain. Lakshmana got well again and resumed his part in the battle.

Then followed a aggressive battle. Sorely wounded, Ravana fell unconscious and, noting
this, his charioteer quietly took him out of the battlefield.

When, a little later, Ravana recovered consciousness, he was highly wroth, with his
charioteer for taking him out of the battlefield and insisted on being taken back to face Rama. The
grim battle began again. Every astra was met by another. In new and wonderful ways, the two
chariots moved and the two warriors fought for a long time, while both armies watched the
spectacle with breathless admiration and anxiety.

Then the bow slipped from the Ravana's hand and he fell down from the chariot and lay
stretched on the battlefield. Lakshmana, Vibhishana, Jambavan and other warriors surrounded
Rama, lost in joy and adoration. When the first flush of triumph was over and Vibhishana looked
at his brother's body, the natural call of blood and memories of boyhood days when Ravana and
he had loved and played quite overwhelmed him and he burst into lamentations over his lost
brother. "O warrior!" he cried. "O brother of heroic deeds! O scholar learned in all Shastras! O
valiant and famous King of kings! Your great arms are, now sprawling helpless on the ground! Self-
willed and self-deceived, surrounded by bad advisers, you would not heed my warning! The worst
I feared has happened now! You reaped what you sowed and you lie on the bare ground, O once
mighty ruler of the Lanka!"

To Vibhishana thus lamenting, Rama spoke: "Ravana fought like a true warrior and fell
fighting like a hero!." Rama cleared all confusion from Vibhishana's mind and bade him do the
funeral rites for his departed brother.

Vibhishana, The traitor

VIBHISHANA was crowned King of Lanka in a magnificent ceremony. The new Lord of
Lanka came out to the Vanara camp and bowed low before Rama.

Rama, the Suspect

But Rama did not meet Sita in Ashoka vanam. . But he just said to Hanuman: "With the
King's permission, enter Lanka and tell Sita what has happened." Hanuman accordingly took
permission from Vibhishana and went to Asoka Vana to convey the news to Sita. Sita's joy was
beyond words. She was silent. "What message am I to carry to Rama?" he asked. "I am eager to be
in his presence," she answered. "That is all."

Hanuman returned to Rama and gave an account of his visit. For some reason Rama's face
now darkened and with lack-lustre eyes he fell into a frown study. A little later he turned to
Vibhishana and said: "Ask Sita to bathe and bedeck herself and bring her here."

When the message reached Sita in the Asoka Vana, she said: "I would rather go as I am."
"Not so, my lady," said Vibhishana, "the prince's orders should be obeyed." So, after a bath and
bedecked with jewels and seated in a palanquin, Sita went to the camp.

As Sita's palanquin was taken through the great concourse of Vanaras, they thronged
round the princess and caused confusion. It was made worse by the Vanara leaders trying to push
them aside and make way for the palanquin. "Let no one be kept away," said Rama. "These dear
Vanaras have stood and suffered for me. Sita will be pleased to see me surrounded by such
friends (i.e.for his victory over Ravana but not meeting her husband). Let no one be pushed

Rama's face showed a strange transformation of mind. None of those around him, not
even Lakshmana could understand. Alighting from the palanquin, Sita, with downcast eyes,
proceeded towards Rama. "Aryaputra," she said and sobbed, unable to speak more. "I have
assassination the enemy," said Rama (he is claiming his victory and not his wife). I have recovered
you. I have done my duty as a Kshatriya. My vow is now fulfilled." Incomprehensible and wholly
unexpected were these words that he uttered. His face darkened for some reason. Then he spoke
even harsher words.

Insulted Sita

"It was not for mere attachment to you that I waged this grim battle but in the discharge
of duty as a Kshatriya. It gives me no joy now to get you back, for doubtfulness envelopes you like
a dark cloud of smoke." "What do you wish to do now?" he continued. "You must live alone, for
we cannot live together. "You were won by me with that end in view (viz. the retrieval of my
lost honour). The honour has been restored by me. For me, there is no intense attachment in
you. You may go wherever you like from here. O gracious lady! Therefore, this has been spoken
by me today, with a resolved mind. Set you mind on Lakshmana or Bharata, as per your ease."

tadadya vyaahR^itaM bhadre mayaitat kR^itabuddhinaa |
lakShmaNe vaatha bharate kuru buddhiM yathaasukham || 6-115-22

22. bhadre= O gracious lady!; tat= therefore; etat= this; vyaahR^itam= has been spoken; mayaa=
by me; adya= today; kR^ita buddhinaa= with a resolved mind; kuru buddhim= set your mind;
lakShmaNe= on Lakshmana; atha= or; bharate= on Bharata; yathaa sukham= as per your ease.

"O gracious lady! Therefore, this has been spoken by me today, with a resolved mind. Set
you mind on Lakshmana or Bharata, as per your ease."

"O Sita! Otherwise, set your mind either on Shatrughna or on Sugreeva or on
Vibhishana; or according to your own comfort. How can a Kshatriya take back a wife who has
lived so long in a stranger's house?"

shatrughne vaatha sugriive raakShase vaa vibhiiShaNe |
niveshaya manaH siite yathaa vaa sukhamaatmanaH || 6-115-23

23. siite= O Seetha!; niveshaya= set; manaH= your mind; shatrughne vaa= either on Shatrughna;
atha= or; sugriiva= on Sugreeva; vibhiiShaNe va= or on Vibhishana; raakShase= the demon;
aatmanaH yathaa sukham= or according to your own comfort.

"O Seetha! Otherwise, set your mind either on Shatrughna or on Sugreeva or on Vibhishana the
demon; or according to your own comfort."

na hi tvaaM raavaNo dR^iShTvo divyaruupaaM manoramaam |
marShayeta chiraM siite svagR^ihe paryavasthitaam || 6-115-24

24. dR^iShTvaa= seeing; tvaam= you; divyaruupaam= who are endowed with a beautiful form;
manoramaam= and attractive to the sense; paryavasthitaam= detained; chiram= for long;
svagR^ihe= in his abode; raavaNaH= Ravana; na marShayetahi= could not have endured (your

"Seeing you, who are endowed with a beautiful form and attractive to the sense, detained for long
in his abode, Ravana could not have endured your separation."

Sita looked at Rama. Her eyes flashed fire. "Unworthy words have you spoken!" she said.
"My ears have heard them and my heart is broken. The uncultured may speak such words but not
one nobly born and brought up like you. Your anger, it seems, has destroyed your understanding.
My lord does not remember the family from which I come. Janaka, the great seer, was my father
and he brought me up. Is it my fault that ravana seized me by force and imprisoned me? But since
this is how you look at it, there is but one course open to me."

Then turning to Lakshmana, " Lakshmana, and kindle a fire," she said.

self-pride of Rama

Lakshmana, who had been watching Rama's behavior in dismay and indignation turned to
look at Rama's face seeking his orders, but Rama did not say 'No' to Sita's request nor show any
sign of softening. Obeying Sita, Lakshmana kindled a big fire and the princess, with eyes fixed on
the ground, circumambulated her lord and exclaimed "Ye Gods, I bow before you. Oh rishis, I bow
to you. Oh Agni, you at least know my purity and will take me as your own!" With these words she
touched the flames and proved her chastity.

Rama and Sita, now reunited, ascended the Pushpaka, which carried them swiftly in the
air with their friends, the Vanara warriors and Vibhishana, to Ayodhya. As they travelled in the sky,
he said: "Look there! That is the causeway built by Nala." Again, "Look there, that is Kishkindha,"
he said, "where I met and made friends with Hanuman and Sugriva." And Rama pointed out to Sita
the spots where he and Lakshmana had wandered disconsolate and related to her all his
unforgettable experiences. Alighting at Bharadwaja's ashrama, they sent word in advance to Guha
and Bharata. The city of Ayodhya swam in a sea of joy. Rama and Bharata met.

Unlike Sugreeva and Vibhishana, for fourteen years till the return of Rama, Bharata
installed Rama's padukas and administered the kingdom as a devotional exercise in the service of
his brother. Now that Rama was crowned King as his father had wished, Bharata's penance was at
an end and his heart was filled with joy.

Places invaded by Rama

Kingdoms established by Lava and Kusa after Rama

Rama's sons Lava and Kusa inherited parts of this kingdom. Lava ruled from the city called
Sravasti and Kusa from the city called Kusavati. Mahodaya was the name of a city, which was
established by Kusanabha, the son of Kusa. A colony of Kosala kings existed in Madhya Pradesh. It
was called Dakshina Kosala. Rama's mother Kausalya was from this kingdom.

Kingdom established by Bharata

Rama's brother Bharata colonized the Gandhara kingdom and founded the city of
Takshasila there. Gandhara was situated close to Kekeya Kingdom, the native kingdom of
Bharata's mother, Kaikeyi.

Kingdoms established by Lakshmana

Rama's second brother Lakshmana founded the city of Lakshmanapura near river Ganga,
which is now known as Lucknow. He colonized the Vanga kingdom and founded the city of
Chandrakanta there. Rama's youngest brother Satrughna destroyed the forest called Madhu and
founded the city of Mathura which later became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom.

Kingdoms established by Satrughna

Sumantra entered the presence of Rama and Lakshmana, one evening and announced the
arrival of animal sacrificing monks who lived on the banks of the Yamuna, led by Chyavana.

Rama welcomed them and enquired about their visits. They complained about Lavana
whose father was Madhu. Madhu was a mighty king and the eldest son of Lola. He built a lovely
palace and married Kumbhinasi, the daughter of Visravasu and Anala. They had a son called
Lavana. Lavana caused much trouble to these who are doing animal sacrifice in yagas – monks).

They further stated that with no other option, they decided to approach the assasin of
Ravana, Rama, himself and complained Rama who helped vismamitra by killing Subahu and his
associates for obstructing Viswamitra’s animal sacrifice in Yajnas. He enquired the animal
sacrificers to describe what Lavana was like and how he lived, so as to plan the best form of
attack. Rama has no intention to involve himself and he asked which of his brothers would like to
volunteer for the assignment without consulting his Kulaguru who earlier advised Dasaratha to
send Rama to aid/support Viswamitra’s animal sacrifice.

Bharata volunteered first, but Satrughna made a case for himself. His argument was that
Bharata had already done so much in looking after Ayodhya, while missing Rama terribly and living
without any comforts while waiting for Rama’s return. Thus he cleverly created an opportunity to
occupy that land for himself instead of Bharata.

Rama crowned Satrughna the king of Madhu-nagara, immediately, with Vasishtha
performing the rites. Satrughna felt happy that he had wittingly come in the way of Bharata’s

Rama asked Satrughna to wait on the eastern gate of Madhu-nagari and challenge Lavana
to a fight when he was returning from his hunt, with his sula inside the city and he gave him 4000
horses, 2000 chariots, 100 excellent elephants, 100,000 pure gold coins, rows of stalls with goods
for purchase and sale as well as actors and dancers. He advised Satrughna to keep his army well
governed and happy.

He asked Satrughna to proceed slowly so as to not rouse suspicion from Lavana as to his
true purpose. The army was to proceed with the Brahmans separately and he proceeded alone to
the city gates in the rainy season, after summer had passed. Satrughna told his army chiefs, where
to cross the river during summer and where to wait at the pre-appointed places at the beginning
of the rainy season.

The next day, Satrughna waited alone for Lavana at the eastern city gate as planned.
Lavana was very delighted to find Satrughna waiting for him and to be challenged to a duel and he
asked him to hold on while he went in for his Sula. However, Satrughna released the arrow and it
pierced Lavana’s chest.

Satrughna established the city in the month of Sravana itself.

Impartant persons in Ramayana

Viswamitra and Agasthya are at the first instance resposble for the invasion of Rama in
South India and for the spread of animal sacrifice in South India, which was prevented by Ravana
and his men in Dandakaranya.

Best traitor in Ramayana is Vibheeshana and then Sugreeva for slaying their own brothers
by invader Rama in their own country without the consent of public of their country to rule the
country. However, Kubera who was dethrowned by Ravana never joined with Rama unlike
Vibheeshana and Sugreeva.

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