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470E Model Lesson Plan 2

Include at least one reading and one writing
Include at least one SOL and one CCSS

Students will understand that


6.4 d) Identify and analyze figurative language.

6.5 c) Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the
meaning of a text.


6.7 CF Craft writing purposefully with attention to: deliberate

word choice; precise information and vocabulary; sentence
variety; and tone and voice.


4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are

used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings;
analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and


3. d) Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive

details, and sensory language to convey experiences and

Content/Topic (the
English stuff youll
Review figurative language:
simile, metaphor,
personification, alliteration,
onomatopoeia, hyperbole,
idioms, and clichs
Review being verbs: am , are,
is, was, were, be, being, been
Introduce strong verbs (active
vs. passive voice)
Definitions of tone, imagery,
and voice
Utilizing resources (i.e.
dictionaries and thesauruses)

Text (s)

First Day at School Roger


word choice
impression of
word choice
word choice
word choice

impacts the readers understanding and

a text.
creates voice to identify an author/narrator
creates and personalizes voice.
affects clarity of a text.

Students will know that

figurative language consists of simile, metaphor,

personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, idioms,
and clichs.
imagery utilizes figurative language to paint mental pictures.
tone is the particular quality, or way of sounding to the reader.
being verbs should be replaced with strong verbs to enhance

Students will

identify and analyze figurative language. (Remembering)

critique the impact word choice and imagery play in the
meaning of a text. (Evaluating)
analyze how a specific word choice impacts meaning and tone.
craft writing purposefully with attention to: deliberate word
choice; precise information and vocabulary; sentence variety;
and tone and voice. (Create)

(at least 1 from
Gallagher or
Spandel) and Why
Create a Word Cache
(Spandel) creating a word
cache will aid students in
recognizing and brainstorming
a list of sensory details (word
choices) that help make the
text alive to the reader.
Make that Thesaurus Work
for You/Utilize your
Resources (Spandel) using
dictionaries and thesauruses
to refine and expand on
students word caches will
allow students to not only
expand on their vocabulary,
but choose words that best fit
students voice while maintain
accurate use of vocabulary.
Harness the Power of
Verbs (Spandel) using a
thesaurus and dictionary,
students will brainstorm
strong verbs to add to their
word cache and revise passive
voice sentences to create
stronger and impactful
Revise for Clarity (Spandel)
Students will revise their Text
Reformulation drafts from
previous lessons utilizing word
choice to create stronger
voice, clearer passages, and
accurate use of language.

Activity (aligned with
at least one of the 6
Revise Text Reformulation to
contain clearer, effective, and
impactful word choice

Name: Megan Miller_ Lesson Topic: Word Choice (Power of Language)_ Grade:6 Class Length:90 min.

470E Model Lesson Plan 2

Steps in the Lesson

1. Begin with a hook problem

Students will read First Day at School by Roger McGough.

How can we discern (figure out) who the narrator is?
How does the authors word choice clarify who is speaking and how the
narrator feels?
Describe how certain words help you visualize what is happening in the

2. Introduce essential questions

In what ways does word choice influence the readers understanding and
impression of a text?
How might word choice create voice to identify the author/narrator?
When does word choice create and personalizes voice?
How might word choice affect clarity of a text?

3. Preview the culminating performance task

Today we are going to discuss how writers use figurative language and active
voice to create powerful writing. As we saw in First Day at School, word choice
plays a big role in how we respond to a text, and determines whether we can
understand what even made-up words refer to.
We are going to create what we call a word cache (which I will demonstrate in a
moment) to help us come up with important imagery/sensory, actions (verbs),
figurative language, and vocabulary we can use to spice up our writing.
While making our word caches we are going to practice using dictionaries and
thesauruses. I want you to find out all the different ways you can say something,
but I also want you to use the words correctly, else someone might get confused
when reading your text reformulations.
And finally, as mentioned, you are going to make a word cache for your text
reformulation. You can use the dictionary and thesaurus to help you come up
with strong word choices to make your reformulations vivid, clear, and you! The
words you choose should be words that make us think of you when we read it
and help us see what you are imagining when you write.
For those of you who finish your word caches, you can begin your revisions or
help your classmates with any questions they might have.

4. Provide direct instruction and modeling (I-do)

Explain to students what comprises a word cache.

o We are going to create a word cache for First Day at School. We will reread
it and Ill start us off, but first let me explain what a word cache is.
o A word cache is a collection of words in the text that are important to helping
us visualize and understand what is going on.
o What sort of details can an author provide to help us imagine what is
Motion words (verbs), smells, sounds, feelings, tastes, figurative
Provide Figurative Language Cheat Sheet for students to refer to when identifying
figurative language in the poem. (Students are not yet expected to know the
various figurative language components, but they should begin familiarizing
themselves with use of figurative language in texts.)
Reread First Day of School while students follow along.

470E Model Lesson Plan 2

Begin a class word cache for the poem, utilizing one example for several
subsections of the word cache.
o Motion words: swallow; sounds: kids playing on the playground; feelings:
bewildered (misunderstanding of teacher and classroom);figurative language:
waiting for the bell to go

5. Provide practice (we-do)

Open class discussion for identifying other components in the poem to place in
the word cache.
How does this word/phrase influence your perspective of the poem?
Explain why the word is important in visualizing the text.
Add to and complete the word cache as necessary to assess students
understanding of the authors word choices to create imagery and voice in the
6. Provide opportunities for further discussion
In what ways could we alter McGoughs word choice to create an older
7. Provide an application task (we-do)
Provide an excerpt from my model text reformulation.
Have students volunteer details and figurative language from the excerpt to
create a word cache for the model.
What word choices stand out to you and create an image in your mind?
In what ways is my word choice clear? How does it create my voice?
8. Lead a whole-class discussion
What are specific changes I can make to create stronger voice in my text
How does my word choice succeed/fail to create imagery for the reader?
What is the difference between active and passive voice?
Explain to students how word choice (or verb choice) influence the strength of
voice and impact of description.
o Passive voice uses being verbs, such as: am, are, is, was, were, be, being,
and been.
Tammy was running to turn off the running water.
o Active voice contains strong and descriptive verbs that paint distinct images in
the readers mind.
Tammy raced to the spicket and plugged the gushing water.
o If the action happens to the narrator, rather than by the narrator, the author
is using passive voice.
The girl was overcome by sorrow.
o In active voice, the subject must be the one doing the action.
Sorrow overcame the girl.
9. Provide a small-group application (you-do-together)
Organize students into pairs according to reading, writing, and thinking abilities.
(Pairing is best if strong learners are matched with struggling learners to aid
teacher in clarifying and affirming students understanding of task.)

470E Model Lesson Plan 2

Have students use a thesaurus and dictionary to enhance word choice in my text
reformulation excerpt, substituting weak and passive verbs with stronger active
Using the word cache we created, come up with or find better word choices to
help revise this excerpt for clarity, vivid imagery, and distinct voice.

Pairs that finish before others may compare their revision of word choice with a
neighboring pair.
o Explain the changes you made and how your word choice improves
my text reformulation.
10. Revisit the original unit hook problem
Have students volunteer their revisions of the model text reformulation.
How does your word choice create voice to identify the author/narrator?
How does your word choice affect the clarity of the model text
Explain how the new word choices impact the impression and tone of the
text. How does the reader visualize the narration compared to before
11. Assign the final performance task (you-do-alone)
Have students focus attention to their own text reformulations they have been
creating this unit.
Have students begin a word cache for their own text reformulation, utilizing the
dictionary and thesaurus to identify the best word for their work.
Upon completing the word cache for their text reformulation, students may have
a peer (also finished) review and give further suggestions on areas requiring
further revision concerning clarity, imagery, and voice.
12. Give students opportunities to reflect on EQs/Collect Formative Assessment
In what ways does your word choice influence the readers
understanding and impression of your text reformulation?
How does your word choice create voice to identify yourself as the
When does your word choice create and personalize your voice?
How does your word choice affect the clarity of your text reformulation?

470E Model Lesson Plan 2

MATERIALS ATTACHED: (E.G., PowerPoints, Graphic Organizers, etc.)








To compare one
object or idea with
another to suggest
they are alike
States a fact or
draws a verbal
picture by the use
of comparison
When human
characteristics are
given to an animal
or an object
The repetition of
the same initial
letter, sound, or
group of sounds in
a series of words
The use of a word
to describe or
imitate a natural
sound or the sound
made by an object
or an action
An exaggeration
that is so dramatic
that no one would
believe the
statement is true
peculiar to itself
grammatically or
meaning something
it does not actually
an overused
expression that has
become trite and
sometimes boring

like a rose
as hot as fire

Figurative Language Cheat Sheet

He is a cuddle

A millionbillionwillion miles from home

Waiting for the bell to go. (To go where?)
Why are they all so big, other children?
So noisy? So much at home they
Must have been born in uniform
Lived all their lives in playgrounds
Spent the years inventing games
That don't let me in. Games
That are rough, that swallow you up.

The geese laughed

at me.

We were waiting
willingly while they

Crash, clanks,
whirr, splunk!

He was thirsty
enough to drink an
entire ocean

mums the word

Play it cool
pop the question

Early bird gets the


First Day at School by Roger McGough

And the railings.

All around, the railings.
Are they to keep out wolves and monsters?
Things that carry off and eat children?
Things you don't take sweets from?
Perhaps they're to stop us getting out
Running away from the lessins. Lessin.
What does a lessin look like?
Sounds small and slimy.
They keep them in the glassrooms.
Whole rooms made out of glass. Imagine.
I wish I could remember my name
Mummy said it would come in useful.
Like wellies. When there's puddles.
Yellowwellies. I wish she was here.
I think my name is sewn on somewhere
Perhaps the teacher will read it for me.
Tea-cher. The one who makes the tea.

McGough, R. (n.d.). First day at school. Retrieved

November 11, 2014, from

470E Model Lesson Plan 2

Initial Plans for Adjusting Instruction/Materials to Meet Diverse Needs of Students
Need (Discuss at least 3)

English Language Learners

Students who struggle in the

area of __________
(Reading, writing, thinking)
Students who are advanced
in the area of ________
(Reading ,writing, thinking)

Plans for Adjustment to instruction and/or materials

ELLs will focus on defining words and building their vocabulary with which to write. By
using a dual language thesaurus and dictionary, ELLs will gain greater mastery of the
English language and become proficient in writing texts in the English language. Class
discussion and pairing will also allow ELLs the opportunity to expand and gain
understanding of vocabulary and specific uses of words. They may be paired with nonstruggling students helpful and confident in explaining vocabulary terms, or ELLs might
be grouped together in order to discuss new language comfortably in their own tongue,
allowing them easier grasp of English vocabulary meanings. (ELLs being grouped
together depends on their level of understanding English language and ability to focus
and stay on task.)
Students who struggle in the areas of reading, writing, and thinking may spend most
of their time building their word cache and revising their text reformulation. They may
seek help from advanced peers to test word choice in creating tone, voice, and clarity
during WE-YOU, pairing, and individual practice on their text reformulations. While
students work on creating word caches for their writing and revising their text
reformulations, they are encouraged to seek peer reviews or ask teacher for advise,
clarity, or evaluation of their work.
Students advanced in the areas of reading, writing, and thinking will aide their fellow
students by peer reviewing classmates text reformulations and word caches,
suggesting vocabulary and revisions classmates could make to create stronger voice
and clarity in the text. Doing this will allow them to affirm and communicate the power
of word choice to their classmates, putting to practice the information they have
learned and summarizing lesson points to struggling peers.