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Callie Freeman

ELEC2210 (W 3-5pm)
(Experiment 7: BJT Transistors)
March 11, 2015
1. In this lab I measured forced base current and forced base-emitter voltage ICVCE characteristics. I constructed a bipolar transistor inverter circuit to better
understand the concepts of voltage and current saturation. I learned how to use
a bipolar transistor to turn on a large current with a small voltage or current. I
learned how to make voltage transfer curve measurements.
2. Part 1: Forced IB Output Characteristics
I opened the 3-wire current voltage analyzer soft front panel via the ELVIS
instrument launcher. I set the Vc step to .05 volts and set the number of curves
to 5. I connected the collector to the DUT+ terminal, the emitter to the DUTterminal, and the base to the BASE terminal. I clicked run and the plot is Figure
1.

Fig. 1 Forced IB Output Characteristics

I then plotted B as a function of VCE for IB = 30uA which is in Figure 2.


0.01
0.01
0
0
0
0
0

Fig. 2 Beta vs VCE for IB = 30 uA


Part 2: Forced VBE Output Characteristics
I built the circuit shown in Figure 3. I downloaded the LabVIEW program provided
and set vbe start to .65 volts, vbe stop to .75 volts, number of vbe steps to 6,
vce start to 0 volts, vce stop to 1 volt, nsteps to 30, and current limit to 0.040
amps. The screenshot of the plot is in Figure 4.

Fig. 3 Circuit Schematic for Part 2

Fig. 4 Screenshot of the Forced VBE Output Characteristics


Part 3: NPN Transistor Switching Characteristics
I constructed the circuit in Figure 5. I downloaded the LabVIEW program provided
and changed the number of steps to 100 and clicked run. The screenshot of the
plot is in Figure 6. I reconnected AI0+ and AI0- across the collector load resistor
and re-ran the program. The screenshot of the plot is in Figure 7. I reconnected
AI0+ and AI0- across the resistor in series with the base and re-ran the program.
The screenshot of the plot is in Figure 8. I reconnected AI0+ and AI0- across the
base and emitter and re-ran the program. The screenshot of the plot is in Figure
9.

Fig. 5 Circuit Schematic for Part 3

Fig. 6 Screenshot of the Collector to Ground plot

Fig. 7 Screenshot of the Collector Load Resistor Plot

Fig. 8 Screenshot of the Resistor in Series with the Base Plot

Fig. 9 Screenshot of the Base and Emitter Plot


The Output voltage starts to drop appreciably when Vin is around 0.7V. It is
similar to the turn on voltage of a Si PN junction. I plotted IC and IB vs Vin in
Figures 10 and 11. I then plotted Beta vs. Vin in Figure 12.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1

Fig. 10 IC vs Vin

4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5

Fig. 11 IB vs. Vin


14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

Fig. 12 Beta vs. Vin


Beta, the ratio of IC/IB, changes very quickly at first then saturates and becomes
more constant.
Part 4: Transistor as a Switch
I constructed the circuit shown in Figure 13. I opened the Digital Multimeter,
selected DC Current, and clicked run. I opened the Digital Writer and clicked run
and toggled the least significant bit. I measured and recorded the values of VCE,
VBE, VBC, IB and IC when the LED was on and when it was off in table 1. I could
confirm that the BJT was in saturation when the LED was on, and in cutoff when
the LED was off. I replaced Rb with a 1k resistor. I replaced the LED and 330
ohm resistor with a fan and repeated the process. I measured and recorded all

the same values when the fan was on and when it was off in table 2. The
transistor still saturated when the fan was on.
Table 1. Values for Voltages and Currents with LED
LED On

LED Off

VCE

.103 V

3.482 V

VBE

.75 V

0V

VBC

.646 V

-3.478 V

IB

.417 mA

0 mA

IC

8.53 mA

-0.05 mA

Table 2. Values for Voltages and Currents with Fan


Fan On

Fan Off

VCE

.926 V

4.93 V

VBE

.871 V

0V

VBC

-.031 V

-4.93 V

IB

3.93 mA

0 mA

IC

126.38 mA

-0.01 mA

3. In this lab I measured forced base current and forced base-emitter voltage ICVCE characteristics. I constructed a bipolar transistor inverter circuit to better
understand the concepts of voltage and current saturation. I learned how to use
a bipolar transistor to turn on a large current with a small voltage or current. I
learned how to make voltage transfer curve measurements.