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Jeffrey Hopkins

EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
Mini-Unit: Causes of the Irish War of Independence, Day 1
Grade Level: 9
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
SWBAT explain key moments in the history of British rule of Ireland IOT
setup reading of documents on southern Ireland achieving autonomy.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
England (and later Britain) ruled Ireland for several centuries
Irish desire for independence had led to revolts as early as the turn of
the 19th century.
Britain was slow to grant Ireland independence.
Easter Rising was a key moment in galvanizing Irish support for
independence
MATERIALS
Document A: Excerpt from Beck et al.s World History Patterns of
Interaction, with scaffolding questions on back.
Document B: Excerpt from James G. Douglass memoirs, with
scaffolding questions on the back.
PowerPoint with writing prompts and overview of English/Irish
history
Structured note sheet to go along with PowerPoint
LESSON SEQUENCE (NOTE: All lessons are designed to go 47 minutes,
the length at the school where I student taught)
-DO NOW: Students will write in their notebooks on the following: How do
you believe social movements succeed? What must happen for a group to
successfully bring about change in how or by whom they are governed?
(~7 minutes)
-Teacher will lead discussion based around students answers (~7 minutes)
-TEACHER TRANSITION SCRIPT:
All right, so what Im hearing from you guys is that social movements
succeed because they convince other people that they are in the right. In
other words, they make a good enough argument, through their words,
through their actions, that they convince other that they are right, and that
the people in power are in the wrong. Eventually, that pressure is too much
and the people in power have to relent or get moved out of the way.
That all sound great, but I think I have a instance where that might
emphasis on that word mightnot be the case. To start on that case, let me

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
ask you a question: whats the first thing that comes in my mind when I
say Ireland?
-Teacher will briefly solicit answers from students (~1 minute).
-Using PowerPoint, teacher will give lecture on the history of British/Irish
relations, which will conclude with southern Ireland gaining autonomy.
Students will fill in note sheet with details on the events covered in the
lecture. (~10 minutes)
-TEACHER TRANSITION SCRIPT:
So, hopefully you know have a better sense of how theres more to
Irish history than St. Patricks Day and Lucky Charms. In fact, I hope you
understand how much Irish history is defined by trying to get autonomy
from England/Britain, culminating southern Ireland doing so in 1921. But
that raises the question: if people had been fighting to make Ireland
independent since 1798, why did southern Ireland achieve Home Rule in
1921? Why not earlier?
Well, to solve that, Im going to have you look at some documents that
answer what will our Central Historical Question: Why did southern Ireland
achieve Home Rule in 1921? With the rest of today, youre to look at our
first two documents, Document A, Rebellion and Division, which is an
excerpt from youre a textbook and Document B, which is an excerpt from
the memoirs of James G. Douglas, who was a businessman in Dublin in
1916. I want you first to look at these documents and answer the questions
for each that are found on the back of the sheets they are printed on. Then,
tomorrow, what Im going to have you do is move into groups where youll
come to a consensus, with explanation, about how these document answers
our CHQ.
-Students read Document A & B and answer questions for each on their own
(~20 minutes).
-TEACHER WRAP-UP SCRIPT:
All right, so hopefully by reading the documents and doing the
questions, you now have some sense of what kicked of the events that lead
to southern Ireland gaining autonomy. So, tomorrow, Ill get you in your
groups and well start talking about them.
ASSESSMENTS
Initial prompt will allow assessment of students preconceptions on
the elements necessary for social change.
Structured note sheet will allow assessment of students
understanding of PowerPoint lecture
Worksheet questions and group discussion will allow assessment of
students understanding of first pair of documents
HOMEWORK
None

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

A Brief History of British/Irish Relations


As I give you a presentation on the history of relations between Britain and
Ireland, I want you to take its key points from each slide and express them
in no more than 20 words. The word restriction will force you to get to the
heart of what Im talking about. You will hand in this sheet at the end of the
period.

Beginnings of English Rule:

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
Religious Tensions:

The Rebellion of 1798:

Act of Union 1800:

Home Rule Act 1914:

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Easter Rising

Irish War of Independence (1919-1921):

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Document A: Rebellion and Division


Frustrated over the delay in gaining independence, a small
group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin during Easter week,
1916. British troops put down the Easter Rising and executed its
leader. Their fate, however, aroused wider popular support for
the nationalist movement.
After World War I, the Irish nationalists won a victory in the
elections for the British Parliament. To protest delays in home
rule1, the nationalist members decided not to attend Parliament.
Instead, they formed an underground Irish government and
declared themselves independent. The Irish Republican Army
(IRA), an unofficial military force seeking independence for
Ireland, staged a series of attacks against British officials in
Ireland. The attacks sparked war between nationalists and the
British government.
In 1921, Britain divided Ireland and granted home rule to
southern Ireland.
Source: Excerpt from textbook World History: Patterns of
Interaction (2005) by Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S.
Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, & Dahia Ibo Shabaka.

1 Proposal that Ireland would remain a part of the United Kingdom but have
full control over local matters

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Central Historical Question:


Why did southern Ireland achieve Home Rule in
1921?
Questions for Document
A: Rebellion and Division

Please answer the following questions on Document A. With all your


answers, please use quotes or refer back to where in the document you are
getting your answer.
1. (Sourcing) Where does this source come from? Based off that, what
assumptions can we make about who wrote this?

2. (Close reading) What event does this source present as being the most
important for starting the Irish War of Independence?

3. (Close Reading) How is the Easter Rising described in this document?

Document A Hypothesis: what answer does this document


give for the CHQ?

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Document B: Excerpt from the memoirs of Irish politician


James G. Douglas

It is almost impossible to express in writing the effect which


the Rising of 1916 and the events which followed had on my
mind. By training and conviction a pacifist1 I do not believe that I
was impressed very much by the fact that a small number of
badly-armed Irishmen had held out for several days against the
might of the British Army. Nor was I at the time impressed by the
declaration of a republic. Looking back I am inclined to believe
that the presence of armed British military in our streets and the
1 Someone who believes war cannot be justified.

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

fact that I could only move about because I had a British military
permit made me realize for the first time that Ireland was really

being held to England by force and that no normal parliamentary


action by Irish men and woman could change that position.
As with many Home Rulers1, my attitude of strong disapproval
was changed into one of sympathy by the execution of the
leadersBefore long I became a convert to the ideals of Sinn
Fin2 but still opposed to the policy of use of force. In particular
the idea of electing members of parliament who would stay in
Ireland and refuse to go to Westminster3 appealed to me.
- from Memoirs of Senator James G. Douglas, 1887-1954:
Concerned Citizen (edited by J. Anthony Gaugham and published
in 1998), which collected Douglass reflections written during
the late 1940s on the period in Ireland from 1916 to 1926.
Douglas, a businessman in Dublin when the Rising occurred,
would go on to be a major politician in Ireland.

1 Those who believed Ireland should have control of local matters


2 Political Party in parliament of the United Kingdom dedicated to making
Ireland independent
3 Place where parliament of the United Kingdom met

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Central Historical Question:


Why did southern Ireland achieve Home Rule in
1921?

Questions for Document B: Memoirs of Irish politician James G. Douglas


Please answer the following questions on Document B. With all your
answers, please use quotes or refer back to where in the document you are
getting your answer.
1. (Sourcing) Do you think Douglass views on the Easter Rising are
reflective of the Irish people? Does when he wrote this effect your
answer?

2. (Contextualization) What does this document suggest about the effect


the British response to the Easter Rising had on Irish people?

3. (Corroboration) Is this documents answer to what started the Easter


Rising similar or different to Document As?

Document B Hypothesis: what answer does this document


give for the CHQ?

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Mini-Unit: Causes of the Irish War of Independence, Day 2


Grade Level: 9
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
SWBAT analyze primary documents IOT develop a more complex
understanding of the causes behind southern Ireland gaining autonomy in
1921.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Things other than the Easter Rising and the British reaction to it
caused southern Ireland to gain autonomy.
The legacy of other Irish independence movements played a role, as
did the threat of Irish soldiers being drafted into the British army.
MATERIALS
Document A: Excerpt from Beck et al.s World History Patterns of
Interaction, with scaffolding questions on back.
Document B: Excerpt from James G. Douglass memoirs, with
scaffolding questions on the back.

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
Document C, Proclamation of The Irish Republic with attached
scaffolding questions.
Document D, speech in British Parliament from Capt. D.D. Sheehan,
an Irish member, with attached scaffolding questions.

LESSON SEQUENCE
-DO NOW: Students will move into groups, where they will reach
consensus, with reasoning, on how Documents A & B answer the CHQ (~5
minutes).
-Teacher will call on representative from each group to explain their groups
answer and the reasoning behind it. Teacher will bridge this into wholeclass discussion debriefing these documents (~10 minutes).
-QUESTIONS & POINTS FOR DOCUMENT A:
The source note, and how students respond to this document being
from a textbook. Does that make them think its more trustworthy
(more likely), or does the distance in terms of time make them think
its less trustworthy (less likely)?
How does this document present the relationship between the events
it describes (the Easter Rising, Irish nationalist leaving Parliament
and forming their own government, the outbreak of war)?
What was the Easter Rising about? And is the Easter Rising
responsible for everything that happens after it?
-QUESTION & POINTS FOR DOCUMENT B:
The source note, and whether the fact Douglas was writing later in his
life means his observations might be less accurate.
I do not believe that I was impressed very much by the fact that a
small number of badly-armed Irishmen: Was the Easter Rising
violent?
The presence of armed British military in our streets: British
response to the Rising encompassed more than executing leaders.
My attitude of strong disapproval was changed into one of sympathy
by the execution of the leaders: What effect did the execution of
the Risings leaders have?
-TEACHER TRANSITION SCRIPT:
Okay, based of what Im hearing, there seems to be something of a
consensus across the groups: that the Easter Rising caused Ireland to
become independent, although each document says for different reason. In
the textbook, the Rising itself roused people to get rid of the British, and
that kicked off everything that led southern Ireland becoming autonomous.
For Douglas however, it was how the British government responded to the
Rising that mattered most. So, these two documents seem divided on
whether morality was kind of the main cause, like you guys said yesterday.
The textbook indicates it was, Douglas says not so much.

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
All this raises the question though: how well do we know that were
getting the complete picture? We talked a bit about whether Douglass
views represented those of all Irish people, and how trustworthy the
textbook really was. I think to answer this we need to look at some more
documents, which Im going to pass out now. We have Document C, which is
a document written by the people behind the Easter Rising and Document
D, which is a speech in Parliament from a politician representing Ireland.
--Students read Document C & D and answer questions for each on their
own (~20 minutes).
-In groups, students will have to reach consensus, with explanation, on how
Document C & D answers the CHQ. (~10 minutes)
-TEACHER WRAP-UP SCRIPT:
All right, so youve hopefully had a chance to come to a consensus
about how these documents answer the CHQ. First thing tomorrow, Im
going to have a representative from each of your groups explain it, then
well bridge that into debriefing both of these documents. Finally well talk
about all of these documents together.
ASSESMENTS
Hearing from group representatives followed by full-class discussion
will allow assessment of how much students understood first pair of
documents.
Worksheet questions and discussion among students will allow
assessment of students understanding of second pair of documents.
HOMEWORK
None

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Document C: Excerpt from the Proclamation of the Irish


Republic

We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the


ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish
destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long
usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government
has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished
except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every
generation the Irish people have asserted their right to
national freedom and sovereignty1; six times during the past
three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing
on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in
the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic
as a Sovereign Independent State. And we pledge our lives
and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its
freedom, of its welfare2, and of its exaltation3 among the
nations.
The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the
allegiance of every Irishman and Irish woman. The Republic
guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal
opportunities of all its citizens, and declares its resolve to
pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and
1 A nations control over its own issues
2 Well-being
3 Rise in rank

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation

equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by


an alien1 government, which have divided a minority in the
past.
-Speech given by Patrick Pearse on General Post Office
in Dublin on April 24, 1916 on behalf of the leaders,
Pearse included, of the Easter Rising.

Central Historical Question:


Why did southern Ireland achieve Home Rule in
1921?

Questions for Document C: The Proclamation of the Irish Republic


Please answer the following questions on Document C. With all your
answers, please use quotes or refer back to where in the document you are
getting your answer.
1. (Sourcing) What type of document is this? For what purpose was it
written?

2. (Contextualization) What does this document suggest about relations


between Britain and Ireland?

3. (Contextualization/Close Reading) What events inspired the authors to


write this speech?

1 Foreign

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Document C Hypothesis: what answer does this document


give for the CHQ?

Document D: Excerpt from speech from Capt. D.D.


Sheehan to Parliament
You have, at this moment, absolutely killed all interest in Ireland
in any question of self-government. Conscription 1 is the only
question with which Irishmen are concerned at the present
moment. You have only to read the papers and the resolutions
1 Drafting soldiers

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

adopted by public bodies, north, east, south, and west, to see


that the only question is that of resisting this proposal to the
uttermost.
There can be only one solid excuse for going forward with
Conscription in Ireland, namely, that you will find, within a

reasonable time, a sufficient body of men to justify its application


to that country. I tell you at once that you will not. I have told you
already earlier in the course of these Debates that it will take at
least three Army Corps to get one Army Corps out of Ireland, and
I do not believe you will succeed even in getting one.
- Speech to the joint British & Irish Parliament, which was
debating whether to draft Irish soldiers for the British army, by
Capt. D.D. Sheehan on April 12, 1918. Sheehan served in the
British Army during World War I and represented a section of
Ireland in Parliament.

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Central Historical Question:


Why did southern Ireland achieve Home Rule in
1921?
Questions for Document D: Speech from Capt. D.D. Sheehan
Please answer the following questions on Document D. With all your
answers, please use quotes or refer back to where in the document you are
getting your answer.
1. (Sourcing) What type of document is this? Who is the speaker
addressing and why?

2. (Contextualization) What does this document suggest about how the


potential drafting of Irish soldiers was viewed in Ireland?

3. (Corroboration) In what other documents do we see the concerns


voiced in this one?

Document D Hypothesis: what answer does this document


give for the CHQ?

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Mini-Unit: Causes of the Irish War of Independence, Day 3


Grade Level: 9
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
SWBAT hold full class discussion, using all four primary documents, on the
causes of southern Ireland gaining Home Rule IOT gain a more wellrounded sense of whats required to enact social change.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Southern Ireland gaining autonomy was caused by particular
decisions, not people being convinced by an argument.
Social movements require more than righteousness to succeed.
MATERIALS
Document A: Excerpt from Beck et al.s World History Patterns of
Interaction, with scaffolding questions on back.
Document B: Excerpt from James G. Douglass memoirs, with
scaffolding questions on the back.
Document C, Proclamation of The Irish Republic with attached
scaffolding questions.

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
Document D, speech in British Parliament from Capt. D.D. Sheehan, a
member representing a part of Ireland, with attached scaffolding
questions.

LESSON SEQUENCE
-DO NOW: Students will return to groups from previous two days and get
reacquainted with the consensus they reached on how Documents C & D
answer CHQ (~2 minutes).
- Teacher will call on representative from each group to explain their
groups answer and the reasoning behind it and bridge it into whole-class
discussion debriefing these documents (~10 minutes).
-QUESTIONS & POINTS FOR DOCUMENT C:
How the documents genre impact its content?
If this is a speech, what are Pearse et al. trying to get people to do?
How are Pearse et al. trying to make their case?
Six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it
in arms.: How is this document tapping into a longer legacy of Irish
independence movements?
And oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien
government: Leaders problems are bigger than delaying
independence.
-QUESTIONS & POINTS FOR DOCUMENT D:
You have, at this moment, absolutely killed all interest in Ireland in
any question of self-government.: Is Sheehan being accurate here?
How does this paint a different picture of whats causing tension
between Ireland and England?
How might where and to whom Sheehan is speaking affect what he
says?
-TEACHER TRANSITION SCRIPT:
Okay, so you guys seem to have caught onto the fact these documents
are saying something a little different from the first pair. Document C seems
to be suggesting the Irish movement for autonomy succeeded for the
reasons you guys were talking about a few days ago: because it made a
good moral argument. It tapped into previous movements for Irish
independence, and lamented the way Britain had treated Ireland in the past.
Meanwhile, Document D pins the blame on the attempt to draft Irish
soldiers, which made people support Irish independence.
So, we have all these different ideas swirling around, and what I
wanted to do is try to weigh them against each other and see if we can
come to a single answer to our CHQ. To do that, Im going to give you five
minutes to look over all your sheets and talk with your neighbors. Then, Im
going to throw the CHQ open to the whole class: What caused Ireland to
achieve autonomy in 1921?

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
-Students work in their groups and think about how they might answer the
CHQ (~5 minutes).
-Students and teacher have discussion on CHQ (~10 minutes)
-QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION:
What exactly was the role of potentially drafting Irish soldiers in
southern Ireland gaining autonomy?
How much stock do we put in the textbooks account?
Was the Easter Rising really tapping into a lone legacy of rebellion?
What role did Irish violence play in starting the war?
If the Easter Risings leaders werent executed would the rising still
have happened?
Was the War of Irish Independence about morality in any way?
-TEACHER TRANSITION SCRIPT:
Well, I think we solved that definitively. Seriously though, the fact you
are coming to all different types of answers shows there are a lot of
different ways to answer our CHQ. And thats okay, because it means youll
all have different answers for our wrap up activity.
Now, youll remember I started things off two days ago by asking you
the question How do social movements succeed?. And I said the Ireland
gaining autonomy would be a little different than the answers you gave me.
Now, that weve come to the end of this min-unit, I want you to think about
how its different.
-Teacher introduces and explains essay prompt. Using quotes from four
documents, students will have to answer the following: What does Ireland
gaining independence tells us about necessary factors for social movements
to succeed? (~2 minutes)
-Students will begin working on outline for essay, which will be attached to
essay prompt.
-TEACHER WRAP-UP SCRIPT:
So, now that you are all clear on what Im looking for in this
assignment: I want you to combine everything weve talked about over the
past few days with the primary documents in order to determine what
lessons can be learned from what happened in Ireland. I especially want you
to integrate that with quotes from the documents. Your analysis doesnt
mean much if you dont use the documents from the past couple days within
it. And with that, happy writing.
ASSESSMENTS
Groups answers with documents C & D will allow assessment of how
students understood it.
Final groups discussion will allow assessment of students
understanding of all documents and how they relate to the CHQ
HOMEWORK
Students will need to finish essay within a week of final lesson

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans
Mini-Lesson on Aspect of Writing:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
SWBAT articulate the five parts of integrating quotes well IOT do so within
their writing.
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Putting quotes into your paper should not be done for its own sake.
Quotes should be a bridge between two points you are making
Quotes should have their context and effect fully explained
MATERIALS
PowerPoint outlining the parts of using quotes correctly
Worksheet on using quotes correctly
LESSON SEQUENCE
-Teacher Transition Script:
So, to start off things, I want to talk to you a bit about you essays you
handed in the other day. I was looking over them, and I saw a lot of you
guys were having issues with how to use quotes. You guys were just kind of
plopping them down without thinking about they fit into your argument. So,
what I want to do today is take you through the steps for integrating quotes
well into your writing well.
-Teacher goes through PowerPoint outlining five steps of integrating quotes
well. (~5 minutes)
-Students are given worksheet where they have to follow these steps with
quotes from the four documents in the lesson. They will start it in class and
finish for homework (~10 minutes)
-Teacher Wrap-Up Script
All right, so you should all now have a better sense of how to use
quotes in your writing. Put the worksheet away for now, but do finish this it
up for homework.
ASSESMENTS
Worksheet will allow teacher assessment for how well students
understood parts of using quotes.
HOMEWORK
Students will need to finish worksheet for next day

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

Integrating Quotes
Down below are the five parts for using a quote correctly. What you need to
do is select a quote from the four documents from our lesson on Irish
independence, Pick out one quote from them, then fill in the other parts in a
way that fits the model from the PowerPoint I just showed you.
Point A:

Explaining Quotes Context:

Quotes:

Explaining Quotes Effects:

Point B:

Jeffrey Hopkins
EDUC 657
Final Unit: Lesson Plans

WORKS CITED
Beck, R. B., Black, L., Krieger, L. S., Naylor, P. C., & Shabaka, D. I. (2005).
World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell.
Clarke, T. J., Ceannt, E., Connolly, J., Mac Diarmada, S., MacDonagh, T.,
Pearse, P. H., & Plunkett, J. (1916, April 24) [Proclamation of the Irish
Republic]. The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives
(http://www.nli.ie/1916/pdf/1.intro.pdf), The National Library of Ireland,
Dublin.
Douglas, J. G. (1998). Memoirs of Senator James G. Douglas (1887-1954)
Concerned Citizen. (J. A. Gaughan, Ed.) Dublin: University College Dublin
Press.
Sheehan, D.D. (1918, April 12). CLAUSE 2.(Power by Order in Council to
Apply Act to Ireland.) United Kingdom. House of Commons. Edited Hansard
5th Series, Volume 104. 30th Parliament. Retrieved from
http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/12/clause-2-powerby-order-in-council-to#column_1918.