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ETH102L Main notes for Exam Chapters

The brain has 3 sections which form a unit on 3 diff. levels, from the top to the brain-stem .
 . The brain has two sides. These sides are linked by an electronic and chemical relaysystem with millions of nerve cells.
 . There are at least seven intelligence areas in the brain.
 . Man has an active conscious brain and a subconscious brain.
 . The brain controls instinctive behaviour such as breathing.
 . The central part of the brain controls emotions.
 . The upper brain enables you to think, speak, reason and create.















There are more than 100 billion active neurones in the brain.
. Each is capable of sprouting between 2 000 and 20 000 branches, known as dendrites.
. Neurones transmit messages to & from the brain along pathways known as axons.
. Each axon is covered with a myelin sheath or insulation.
. The better the sheathing of insulation, the more effective the transmission will be.
. The dendrites are surrounded by glial cells.
The two sides of the brain are discussed. Note how the diff sections process diff types of
info. This info is taken in through our 5 major senses: by what we see, hear, touch, smell
and taste. The processing of info takes place in diff areas of the brain. Ensure that you
know which sections process which types of info. E.g. The diagram in the book.The ff.
facts are important:
. Both sides of the brain are linked by the corpus callocum.
This link is responsible for the flow of information from one side of the brain to the other.
. The corpus callocum balances the incoming messages and links the abstract, holistic
picture with the concrete, logical messages.
The emotional centre is very closely connected to the long-term memory storage system.
That is why information linked to emotions is easily remembered.
. The medulla controls the heartbeat and respiration.
. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.
. The visual cortex is responsible for sight and is situated at the back of the brain.
. The limbic system is responsible for fear, rage, emotion, sexuality and passion.

Study your prescribed book carefully as it contains much more information which you
should know. It would
seem that all these functions and areas of the brain lead to three types of learning styles , namely



. haptic learning (kinaesthetic-tactile learners)

Most learners combine these learning styles To learn effectively, the ff. must be considered:
. how information is stored and made available
. how information is applied to solve problems
. how information can be applied to create new ideas



. visual or reading-oriented learning
. auditive or sound-oriented learning

As a learner, its important to know how info is stored. The brain's ability to store & process
information This section deals with this ability of the human brain.





Emphasis is placed on the formation of associations.
Learning to store information in patterns and with strong associations is
probably the first step towards successful learning.
Apart from the ability to store info, the learner must learn to use the
subconscious mind.
Brain receives and stores information on different wavelengths.
Researchers believe that the brain absorbs most infowhen it is in a state of
``relaxed alertness''.

The hint is to start every learning session should with relaxation exercises. As you progress. set realistic deadlines for each step to achieve success. The skill of reading with speed and understanding is a prerequisite for successful learning. Use audio tapes. Gain from a specialist’s experience. Break it down into achievable bite sized pieces.. Certain tips are given which will assist you in mastering this method. easier  Very few people read effectively. If the person has different skills to you. one must adapt to the structure of the brain. understanding.  The transmission of messages in the brain is promoted by a sufficient intake of oxygen.  Reinforce with pictures and sound . Learn from peoples successful experiences first. to reinforce  Find the 3 best books on the subject by practical Achievers  Do not start with academic books on the subject.  Ask!  Never be afraid to ask.  Relearn how to read faster. The brain needs energy to function optimally & to create the necessary energy. If you do not know.  A correct diet to ensure that the brain functions optimally. dvd etc. CHAPTER 4 LEARNING HOW TO LEARN     Learning involves doing. form a team. of linear notes Achievers Memory pegs  Get – Get a coach or mentor  A – Ask  Set – Set goals & deadlines – take course in Accelerated  P – Practise Often  E – find Easy ways to retrieve learning  Ready – Relearn how to read– info Reinforce with pictures &sound  S – Start with Big Pictures  L – Learn by doing  S – Seek out Main Principle  Go – Go Digital  L – Learn art of relaxed  S – Start with lesson from awareness Sport  D – Dare to dream  Do not take linear notes draw mind maps  Modern researchers believe that to store information successfully in the brain. This structure is more or less in the form of the branches of a tree. . teach them something in return for what you want to gain  Set a specific goal and set deadlines  Decide what you want to achieve. Use the internet. better.  Get an enthusiastic mentor  To realise this goal it is important to find a mentor who shares your goal and enthusiasm. Then set a goal and work towards realising this goal. participating… 20 Steps To Better Learning >  T – Teach Others  H – have fun & games  Marks– Mind-mapping instead  F – Find 3 Books on Practical  R – Review & reflect  U – Use linkin tools eg. Exchange skills & knowledge with someone that can enlighten you in your goal. A number of hints are given here to assist you in mastering this skill. You will find an explanation of how to design a mind map in the book. rather. a balanced diet is essential.  Learning can be reinforced if text is supported with pictures and music to convey the message. you can read more difficult books on the subject. find out! Use information sources to broaden your perspective & gain more knowledge. find books which describe the subject in easy terms so that you can understand the message.

Make the associations outlandish. It can rhyme. audio-tapes etc. Change learning into a game and make it enjoyable & welcome experience for learners. The association can be physical. cds. & link it to as many senses as u can. the rule is not to take a picture more than 4feet from the subject. or visual. No matter what the subject area or skill. funny. most people associate it with negative feelings & reflections. Get a vision.  Review and reflect  Repetition plays an important role in the learning process.g. only regular practice will guarantee success. Find them out before filling in the details. become better at it. Have a passion to succeed. emotional. or be remembered by the first letter principle. To gain other type of knowledge one has to review regularly in order to become familiar with it and to remember. tactile.  . needs to be practiced in order to reinforce it.  Start with lessons from sports  . While you are conveying information to others. When doing a mental physical skill. Combine thoughts. examinations. certain principles are reinforced which are essential to learning.  Start with the big picture  It is always important to know what the end product will be. Any skill which is learnt.  Seek out the main principle  In every area you will be able to identify a main principle for success. Find out the rules & tips for success. punishment. in photography. Generate variety & interest & different types of activities to generate encouragement & motivation.  Use linking tools as memory pegs  Due to the importance of associations. like a jigsaw.  Practice  Practice makes perfect. irrelevant content or fear. Keep up with the times.  . you’re learning about the whole picture as opposed to bits of it which cannot be related to sister topics & defies the goal of applying knowledge in reality. Books. Sports achievers have dreams  Set specific goals and break them down into achievable steps. By learning through subject integration.. It is easier to work towards the end if one sees the whole picture first. body and activities. by learning the tricks to absorb more information in a lesser time span. Reviewing and reflecting should take place regularly Ð doing so just before an examination is too late.  . dvds.  Easy ways to retrieve what you have learnt .. Create opportunity for practicing skills. Use associations that are familiar to you.  Teach others  Learn to be a teacher to yourself. it is easier to learn if one relates the content to one's own life experience or something you already know. A mentor or coach is essential. a waste of time.  . like cooking you can learn by action. experienced professionals. play games  When one refers to learning.  .libraries. e. pictures. do not see these as mistakes. pursue empowerment & time management.  . homework. Have a positive attitude about mistakes. like boredom.  Take an accelerated learning course  You might find it necessary to take a course in accelerated learning. graphics.  Have fun.

are not encouraged by the traditional school system and the instruction which it provides. & thus create new ideas. is its ability to apply stored info to new situations & problems. Do not be afraid to dream.1st step is to ascertain what needs to be achieved. not developing a search for new ideas. . and identify the unknown.  Combine this with the different intelligence centres by adding music.  So use mind-mapping methods to master content & recall. slept.  It might take time to grasp this concept.  Highlight key phrases & sub-headings.  CHECK LIST FOR PRODUCING IDEAS : Deaf Dave gathered break task ifs. This dream flows from the vision you have set for yourself.  Learners are programmed into believing that success lies in a limited range of answers absorbed from a teacher in a classroom. a stage also acquired through meditation or yogic exercises. 12 steps are proposed to stimulate creative thinking:  Another characteristic of the brain. D – Define & formulate problem DV – Define and Visualise solution . & teaching thinking through strategies like Edward de Bono’s. & Improvement Strategies like the Japanese Kaizen.  Learn the art of relaxed alertness  Most of the activities which have been recommended up to now. or deep breathing exercises. eureka reflect.  The challenge lies.  An idea is a new combination of old /existing elements. which is fed back correctly to the teacher in an exam. it would be meaningful to apply these methods when recalling information.  Dare to dream and imagine your future  . most children are taught that all the answers have been found. .  Learners are not taught lateral thinking which refers to unconventional approaches to solving problems as opposed to the traditionally logical approach.  Learning is best done on this frequency  Learn by doing  Use all your senses to learn. “Six Thinking Hats”. therefore. in the unknown and not in the known.  This is the alpha frequency.2nd you need to reorganize thoughts.  To use the creative side of the brain you’ll have to focus on achieving a state of ``relaxed alertness''. used switch music. Re-skim immediately after you’re done. as most people tend to use existing knowledge to solve problems.  It would seem that the skills & knowledge used in this approach. method: . The theory of any knowledge must be followed by doing what has been learnt in practice. Apply what you have learnt. are targeted at the logical left brain. If the manner in which the information is stored in the brain relates to pattern formation and association.  Why is there no revolution process in the educational field?  The reasons lie in the structuring of the schools.3nd you need to arrive at a solution. & redo mindmap.  The success in generating creative solutions lies in adopting Thinking Strategies. CHAPTER 5 LEARNING HOW TO THINK CREATIVELY The ff. & looking in new directions. Demand hands on experience with most things you study. David Buffin’s Action Kit.

.  Keep asking “What if ? ” (7) Use all your senses  Consciously use all your senses & the principle of mind mapping. (2) Determine the ideal solution and visualise it  Determine the solution which you have in mind and then viisualize the ideal solution. a reader. (10) Sleep on it  While a person is sleeping. & ask What if? Use all the senses Switch off. join old combinations to new fields. music. ask yourself questions that redirect your mind. (4) Break the pattern  To find creative solutions. Visualise your info.  You have to have a wide variety of information on the facts. discover new linkages. a long walk.  Use nature. (6) Try different combinations  Remember the key words: a new idea is a combination of old elements. “What would happen if…. of Swatch watches (3) Collect the facts  If a new idea is really a combination of existing elements.  E. the subconscious mind works on the problem.  Remember to relax while you are seeking a solution. so the solutions remain the same. try different combinations.g.G– B– T– U– S– U– S– E– R– Gather facts Break the Pattern Try new combinations.  Become a collector of information.  Remember that the subconscious mind will carry on trying to find a solution.  People tend to seek solutions within their own knowledge. then the next important step is to collect all the relevant facts. you have to open up new pathways.  Apply this in practice.let it simmer Use music or nature to relax Sleep on it Eureka! It pops out! Recheck (1) Define or Formulate the problem  Be specific but not limiting when formulating the problem. a hot soak in a bath. (9) Relax.  To break the pattern.  Focus on using this technique. find new crossover points.  Organise your thoughts to bridge the gap between where you are now & where you’d like to be. (8) Switch off & think about it  Sometimes it is helpful to set possible solutions aside for a while & to review them at a later stage. to create a solution. someone who accepts challenges & who stores info.?” (5) Go outside your own field  Put existing preconceptions aside  Find solutions to problems by using information from other different fields. anything that is soothing & relaxing to get the brain working at the alpha frequency.

CREATIVE THINKING STRATEGIES BRAINSTORMING . (12) Recheck the solution  Re-evaluate the solution you have found.  Remember to always set yourself a time limit. the solution might come to you at a most unlikely moment or place.(11) Eureka! The solution pops out!  If you follow the above steps.  It must be useful and meaningful.

 White hat = neutral – where neutral facts.  These are left on display as a continual spur to wards the agreed action.g.  David Buffer’s Hexagon Think-Kit for Creative Ideas & Strategic Planning  Staff or students are encouraged to fire new ideas.Spurring Questions During Brainstorming S – Substitute C – Combine A – Adapt M – Modify / Magnify P – Put to other uses E – Eliminate R – Reverse or Rearrange Innovations -Use suggestive words to encourage innovation. subdue. or even a collaborative task. -Think up improvements on present technologies  The Kaizen Japanese Improvement Strategy:  Involving all one’s staff in continuously striving to upgrade every aspect of performance in any industry. like aconductor controlling the orchestra. figures & info goes  Red Hat = person’s unjustified hunches. invert. choices)  Again this list encourages you to speculate Step 5 “6 Thinking Hats” (Summarising technique)  6 hats are drawn in colour coded fashion. Step 2 = CFA (consider all facts)  In search of new factors. they should rewrite the points to draw out any that didn’t spring to mind immediately. Step 1 = PMI (plus. eliminate. feelings. divide. e. I.  The learners are asked to think of an outlandish idea.Idea. Step 3 = C & S (consequences & sequel)  Logically both should be written above but de Bono says people don’t consider all the consequences unless they’re specifically drawn to it. intuitions are placed  Black Hat = all logical negative facts to be placed  Yellow Hat = all logical positive facts to be placed  Green Hat = all creative ideas. thoughts to be placed  Blue Hat = is a control hat = which looks at the thinking itself rather than the subject. minus.  The teacher /facilitator writes each one on a diff coloured hexagon & places on a large magnetic board. possibilities. unify. labeling them P.  The group then arranges the hexagons into various themes or activities. & think of ways to fix / overcome the problem. Step 4 (alternatives. & agrees on main priorities. “What if computers ran the government”  Students must think of points to fit under the 3 columns. freeze -Create a “bug list” of things that irritate you like the cork top breaking off in the wine bottle.  Edward de Bono’s Thinking Teaching Strategy : “Six Thinking Hats”  Works on 5 Step Techniques. or statement like. interesting)  Draw 3 columns. Multiply. M. .