You are on page 1of 6

Education 5306/5406

Dominican Student: XXXXX

FBA template, 2014


Complete an FBA for EACH BEHAVIOR that is interfering
with the students academic and social potential

DATE: 3/31/2015


AGE: 14




DATE (S) OF ASSESSMENT: 3/24/15, 3/26/15, 3/27/15, 3/30/15, 4/1/15, 4/2/15, 4/6/15, 4/7/15

Explain the target behavior in specific, observable terms, describing what the behavior looks like and the
reason for this referral. (If there is more than one behavior, complete additional forms.)

Jane often refuses to speak. She will rarely utter more than a quiet whisper. She is an English Language
Learner (ELL) at the early intermediate level, and appears to be embarrassed by her accent and language
skills. This behavior occurs in all situations, regardless of with whom she is interacting.



Gather background information in order to assess the behavior in each of the following categories:
Family consultation (family interviews)
Previous interventions
Defining and prioritizing behavior
Assessing student environment

Education 5306/5406
Dominican Student: XXXXX

FBA template, 2014

Development and Health History

According to Janes parents, her birth was normal. She reached all developmental milestones, at a normal
pace, with the exception of speech. Saying her first word and sentence took longer than usual. Janes
speech development was delayed.
Family History
Janes IEP indicates that she lives in Novato with her parents, younger sister, and her aunt and uncle.
When she was seven, she moved back to Mexico with her mother and sister; she returned to the United
States in 2013.
Academic History/Previous Interventions
According to Janes IEP, she did not go to preschool. She spent her kindergarten through second grade
years in the Vallejo Unified School District. There, she received interventions for her speech delay in the
form of special education services for speech and language impairment; she attended speech and
language therapy every week. Jane attended third through seventh grade in Mexico. According to Janes
current teachers, she has difficulty speaking in English. While her father speaks English, Spanish is the
language spoken at home. Janes teachers feel as though her difficulty with English contributes to her
resistance to speaking. Jane receives language support in an English Language Development (ELD) class.
According to Janes IEP, when she was in 8th grade, she was administered the Clinical Evaluation of
Language Fundamentals (CELF), in both English and Spanish, in order to identify her language skill deficits.
Jane was found to be performing far below average, in both languages.
Social/Emotional History
Janes parents describe her as shy and timid. While she was a happy child, she would most often play
alone. According to Janes English teacher, she continues to be very shy. She is reluctant to speak and
interact with others. She is not on medication.
Student Environment
Jane takes three periods of specialized academic instruction (Differentiated English, Math, and Earth
Science), and three periods in a general education setting (Art & Design, Geography, and PE). According
to her Differentiated English teacher, while her special day classes never exceed 10 students, they can be
noisy and chaotic. The general education classes are even noisier, and include sometimes up to 30 kids.
Jane does not seem to be bothered by this. However, her Differentiated English teacher is concerned that it
may deter her from feeling comfortable enough to speak out.

Describe briefly (include data collection forms):

Education 5306/5406
Dominican Student: XXXXX

FBA template, 2014

Interviews (student, teacher, paraprofessional, support staff, school psychologist, counselor. . . )

Observation (ABC Chart, scatter-plots, interval/duration/frequency recording, incident log, etc.)

Interview- Paraeducator
The classroom paraeducator noted that Jane is extremely shy; she often is unable to even make eye contact
with people. She has realized that Jane is most vocal when they are working one-on-one. Lately, Jane has
started to relax around the paraeducator, and is even providing one, to two word, vocalized answers. To
address Janes refusal to speak, the paraeducator tries to engage her by making eye contact, and by
providing lots of encouragement and one-on-one attention. She feels as though academic difficulty is
partly to blame for Janes difficulty with vocalization; however, she also feels that Janes status as an ELL is
a huge contributing factor. And, the paraeducator feels as though Jane may have encountered a difficult
situation at home, when she was very young, that may have had a negative impact on her self-esteem.
Interview- Janes teacher
Janes classroom teacher noted that Jane has the most difficulty with vocalizing during whole-group
discussions; she is the most vocal when she is working one-on-one with an adult with whom she feels
comfortable. During small-group reading time, Jane reads to her group-member and the adult with
whom she is working; she reads in very low tones. When asked a comprehension question during this
time, she provides very accurate, short answers, in a loud whisper. When she answers, she smiles shyly.
To address the difficulty Jane has with vocalizing, the teacher has been spending more one-on-one time
with her, and has provided her with lots of encouragement. Janes teacher noted that over the semester,
Janes volume has increased; she feels this is due to the effort that she, and the para-educator, have put
into encouraging Jane, and making her feel safe and valued. Janes teacher feels as though a possible
reinforcer of her refusal to vocalize may be that she has never been forced to do so, and that people have
always just accepted her quietness. To help Jane feel more comfortable sharing her thoughts during class
discussions, she is going to present Jane with a specific question to answer beforehand. Having a
formulated answer might make it easier for Jane to vocalize her own thoughts in a larger group setting.
Incident Log
Janes teacher kept a log of Janes vocalizations, over a two week period. Jane was observed regularly
during English class, once during Math class, and regularly during the passing periods before and after
English class. The incident log indicates that Jane is most vocal when she is reading out loud. The teacher
feels that this may be due to the fact that they are not her own words, and are grammatically correct; she
may be afraid to share her own thoughts due to insecurity about her English Language abilities. The log
indicates that Jane was least vocal during whole-group discussions. Janes vocalization during one-on-one
conversations with her teacher has increased over time. This may be due to her increasing familiarity with
the teacher, and the large amount of positive feedback the teacher has been providing her.

Education 5306/5406
Dominican Student: XXXXX


FBA template, 2014


Describe and synthesize the following from the multiple sources of data (Provide data collection or record review):
Setting events
Consequences: What happens after the behavior occurs?
Consequences that maintain the behavior
What other consistent consequences were found?
Frequency, Intensity, and duration of behavior:
When does the behavior occur?
How long does the behavior continue?
How often does the behavior occur?
What setting events or antecedents identified are associated with low rates of target behavior?

Jane has difficulty vocalizing in all settings, both in the classroom and at home. However, her level of
vocalization varies, based on the situation. An antecedent to Janes remaining silent is a large group
activity. Jane will subvocalize and vocalize when interacting with one or two other people. Antecedents to
her most confident vocalizations are one-on-one conversations with her teacher, paraeducator, or parents.
There is no consequence for Janes refusal to vocalize during whole-group discussions. The teachers
failure to insist that Jane answer questions may be a reinforcer of her difficulty with vocalizing in large
group settings. While the teacher always tries to engage Jane during whole-group discussions, the same
pattern occurs each time: The teacher asks Jane a question, Jane shrugs her shoulders and smiles shyly,
and the teacher directs the question at another student. Perhaps Jane would answer the questions if she
knew there would be negative consequences for not doing so.
When Jane does subvocalize and vocalize, her teacher and paraeducator exuberantly praise her, and
provide her with much positive feedback. This has greatly increased Janes confidence with speaking,
especially during one-on-one and small group activities. Janes teacher and paraeducator make sure to
each day, spend one-on-one time with Jane. This increased familiarity has provided Jane with more
confidence, and has helped her feel more comfortable speaking with them.
Frequency, Intensity, and Duration
Jane has difficulty vocalizing at all times, and in all settings. However, her level of vocalization varies,
according to the situation. Jane always remains silent during whole-group discussions. Even when the

Education 5306/5406
Dominican Student: XXXXX

FBA template, 2014

teacher asks twice for her to answer a question, Jane fails to respond. Jane subvocalizes during smallgroup and one-on-one discussions with people with whom she feels comfortable. Jane vocalizes when she
reads the text during partner-reading times. And, she has started to vocalize when speaking one-on-one
with her teacher and paraeducator; this seems to be due to her increasing familiarity with them.



Identify function of behavior: obtain, avoid/protest, or self stimulation

Within the context of the hypothesis, describe the following:
Setting events

The purpose of Janes behavior is avoidance. She seems to refuse to vocalize regularly in order to avoid
being embarrassed by her accent and her low English language skills.
Jane remains completely silent in whole-group settings. This appears to be a function of her increased
self-consciousness when she feels on-display, especially around those she is not very familiar with. Jane is
not very familiar with most of her classmates her great discomfort speaking with those she does not know
has acted as a barrier to her interaction with them. Janes teachers failure to insist that she contribute to
discussions reinforces Janes failure to do so.
Janes vocalization in small group and one-on-one interactions has increased drastically over the semester.
The consequence of receiving positive reinforcement and excited encouragement from her paraeducator
and teacher, upon Janes engagement in conversation with them, has helped Jane feel comfortable
vocalizing her thoughts when in conversation with them.


What alterations in the environment, instruction or interactions could prevent the behavior from
Identify functionally equivalent replacement behaviors.
Describe current methods of reinforcement and recommend any changes of reinforcement.
What goals, services, etc. are you recommending?

Alterations to instruction, and types of interactions, could foster an increase in Janes vocalization. An
increase of small-group activities, and one-on-one interactions with the teacher or paraeducator, would
provide Jane with an opportunity to gain comfort speaking with others. As indicated by the incident log,

Education 5306/5406
Dominican Student: XXXXX

FBA template, 2014

Jane vocalizes while interacting one-on-one with her teacher or paraeducator. And, she subvocalizes while
interacting in small groups. Her subvocalizations and vocalizations have increased since she has received
more personal attention and positive feedback from her teacher and paraeducator.
Currently, Janes failure to vocalize, or even subvocalize, in large group interactions, is being reinforced by
her teachers failure to insist that she share her ideas. Janes increasing vocalization in small group and
one-on-one interactions with her teacher and paraeducator is being reinforced by their encouraging,
positive feedback. Her teacher and paraeducator are making sure to spend more time with Jane in order
to increase her familiarity with them. Seemingly, the more familiar Jane is with someone, the stronger her
vocalizations when interacting with them.
It is recommended that Jane be pushed towards vocalizing in larger group settings. Janes teacher needs
to make it clear that some interaction is required. Janes teacher can foster participation in group
discussions by helping Jane feel better prepared for them. The teacher could provide Jane with a question
to answer, previous to the discussion. The teacher would make sure to direct this question at Jane, during
the discussion. Being able to formulate an answer beforehand would enable Jane to ensure that her
answer was grammatically sound. This would help relieve Jane of insecurities regarding her English
language abilities. Continued encouragement and positive reinforcement is also recommended, to
continue building Janes confidence in her speaking. It is also recommended that Janes teacher and
paraeducator spend as much one-on-one time with her as possible. Confidence in smaller situations can
be a stepping stone to having confidence in speaking in larger groups.