Bio Activities, Bioactive Compounds and Chemical Constituents of Mangrove Plants | Mangrove | Polysaccharide

Wetlands Ecology and Management 10: 421–452, 2002. © 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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Bioactivities, bioactive compounds and chemical constituents of mangrove plants
W.M. Bandaranayake
Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville, MC, Q, 4810, Australia, E-mail: banda@aims.gov.au
Received 30 August 2001; accepted in revised form 18 March 2002

Key words: chemical classes, chemical structures, mangal associates, medicinal and traditional uses

Abstract This review article presents the traditional and medicinal uses, and examines recent investigations on the biological activities of extracts, and chemicals identified from mangroves and mangal associates. Metabolites identified from mangrove plants are classified according to ‘chemical classes’, and some of their structures are illustrated. The article also presents some of the functions of the chemicals present and attempt to emphasize and create an awareness of the great of potential mangroves and mangal associates possess as a source of novel agrochemicals, compounds of medicinal value, and a new source of many already known biologically active compounds.

Introduction Mangroves have long been a source of astonishment for the layman and of interest for scientist. For many people living in the Indo-West Pacific and AmericasEast Atlantic regions, the word mangrove will be a familiar one. For a selected few, long standing familiarity is based, perhaps on vague and romantic mental pictures of waterlogged woodlands in which tangled aerial root systems foil the would-be explorer. However, majority sees them as swamps, which are ridden with mosquitoes and sandflies, inhospitable, unhealthy and dangerous. There is another category of the population where their knowledge of mangroves is derived from recent publicity given by concerned conservationists to preserve the ever-dwindling mangrove areas of the world. Yet others living in these regions and rest of the world have little or no concept of what it is that constitutes the mangroves. The collective noun mangrove designates a intertidal wetland ecosystem formed by a very special association of animals and plants which proliferate luxuriantly in the coastal areas and river estuaries through out the low lying tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. These wetland ecosystems are among the most productive and diverse in the world and more

than 80% of marine catches are directly or indirectly dependent on mangrove and other coastal ecosystems worldwide. They occupy large tracts along sheltered coasts, estuaries and in deltas where they are influenced by tides and widely different conditions of salinity and rainfall regimes. They are also found around coastal lagoons, communicating with the sea and where the effect of tides may be weak and the salinity very low. The term mangrove is also used to designate halophytic (salt loving) and salt resistant marine tidal forests comprising of trees, shrubs, palms, epiphytes, ground ferns and grasses, which are associated in stands or groves (166). Mangroves are usually found only in tropical climates, as they need consistently warm conditions for development and survival. They occur approximately in 112 countries and territories (94) and are largely confined to the regions between 30’ north and south of the equator. Notably, extension beyond this are to the north in Bermuda (32’ 20’ N), Japan (31’ 22’ N), and to the south in Australia (38’ 45’ S), New Zealand (38’ 03’ S) and on the East Coast of South Africa (32’ 59’ S). Among recent methods used to assess the quantity of mangrove wealth in a country, remote sensing is now considered the most practical technique for mangrove inventory. Humans have been residents of mangrove wetlands for

422 centuries. As the coastal zone is home to approximately 65% of the global population, they are of great importance to many people who live along tropical shorelines. In countries such as Indonesia, mangroves provided protection for people, a function often invaluable in a region long renowned for its piracy and kidnapping forays. Mangroves have traditionally been important habitat for certain maritime people in Southeast Asia, such as Orang Laut of Malaysia and western Indonesia. Furthermore, mangroves typically border streams and river mouths sites, which were particularly favorable for settlement because of accessibility and availability of fresh water. Mangroves can be classified into three broad categories. True mangroves are mainly restricted to intertidal areas between the high water levels of neap and spring tides. Plant species from true mangroves belong to at least 20 different families. About 80 species of true mangrove trees/shrubs are recognized, of which 50–60 species make a significant contribution to the structure of mangrove forests. Minor species of mangroves are distinguished by their inability to form conspicuous elements of the vegetation and they rarely form pure communities. The mangal associates, are salinity tolerant plant species, which are not found exclusively in the proximity of mangroves and may occur only in transitional vegetation, landwards and seawards. However, they do interact with true mangroves (18, 207). Mangroves (mangroves, mangrove minors and mangal associates) are highly productive ecosystem with various important economic and environmental functions. The uses of mangroves are often quoted in scientific and popular articles (18, 210) and fall in two major categories: Firstly the indirect use of the mangrove ecosystem are in the form of vital ecological functions such as control of coastal erosion and protection of coastal land, stabilization of sediment, natural purification of coastal water from pollution. Secondly, the economic benefits which are many and varied. Apart from prawn fisheries, many other species of economic importance are associated with mangroves; these include crabs, shrimp, oysters, lobsters and fish. Traditionally, the mangroves have been exploited for firewood and charcoal and their uses include construction of dwellings, furniture, boats and fishing gear and production of tannins for dying and leather production. Mangroves provide food and a wide variety of traditional products and artifacts for mangrove dwellers. The mangrove leaves are useful contributors to the nutrient system of the mangrove environment. It is known that mangrove leaves contain sufficient amounts of minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which are essential for the growth, and nourishment of marine organisms and livestock. Mangrove foliage plays an important role in the formation of detritus, which is utilized by several estuarine and marine detritovorous organisms, and mangrove leaves make a superior fodder due to their high salt and iodine content (18, 173, 210). Two basic factors justify the study of the chemical constituents of mangrove plants. Firstly, mangroves are one of the easiest tropical forest types to generate. They have the ability to grow where no other vascular plants can. The mangroves exist under stressful conditions such as violent environments, high concentration of moisture, high and low tides of water, and abundant living microorganisms and insects. They thrive in a very peculiar environment and serve as a bridging ecosystem between freshwater and marine systems. These have imposed several modifications in these plants. They possess an unusual morphology and physiognomy and the path of photosynthesis in mangroves is different from other glycophytes. They possess modifications to establish water and salt economy. There are modifications or alterations in other physiological processes such as carbohydrate metabolism or polyphenol synthesis and due to these reasons, they may have chemical compounds, which protect them from these destructive elements. The second reason is that numerous mangrove plants are been used in folklore medicine, and recently, extracts from mangroves and mangrove-dependent species have proven activity against human, animal and plant pathogens but only limited investigations have been carried out to identify the metabolites responsible for their bioactivities.

Chemical classes identified from mangrove plants Metabolites, some with novel chemical structures, and belonging to a diversity of ‘chemical classes’, have been characterized from mangroves and mangal associates. Aliphatic alcohols and acids, amino acids and alkaloids, carbohydrates, carotenoids, hydrocarbons, free fatty acids including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), lipids, pheromones, phorbol esters, phenolics, and related compounds, steroids, triterpenes, and their glycosides, tannins, other terpenes and related compounds, are among these classes. Among the latest additions are an array of substances from

423 gums and glues to alkaloids and saponins and other substances of interest to modern industry and medicine. Chemicals such as amino acids, carbohydrates and proteins, are products of primary metabolism and are vital for the maintenance of life processes, while others like alkaloids, phenolics, steroids, terpenoids, are products of secondary metabolism and have toxicological, pharmacological and ecological importance. aldehydes or ketones. Glucose is by far the most common carbohydrate, and although it occurs free in a variety fruit juices, honey etc., it is more commonly encountered in polymers such as cellulose and starch which are termed polysaccharides. Lignins (ix) are non-carbohydrate polymers present in wood. The insoluble polysaccharide in plant is cellulose, while soluble polysaccharides serve as carbohydrate food storage: Starch in plants and glycogen in animals. Polysaccharides of plant origin have emerged as important class of bioactive natural products. Those isolated from fungi usually show anti-tumor activity, while polysaccharides of higher plants possess immunostimulatory, anti-complementary, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and anti-viral activities and algal polysaccharides, which often contain sulfate anions, are good anti-coagulants. Carbohydrates in general, are essential constituents of all living organisms and are associated with a variety of vital functions, which sustain life.

Heterocyclic compounds Heterocycles are those molecules having rings composed of both carbon and one or more heteroatoms, chiefly, nitrogen (i), oxygen (ii) and sulfur (iii). They can be unsaturated or ‘aromatic’ heterocycles (i, ii) or saturated heterocycles (iii, iv), and are usually be five or six membered. They exist either as ‘independent’ rings or fused normally to benzene rings (i, v). Alkaloids, chromenes, coumarins, flavonoids, xanthones etc. belong to this general class.

Fatty acids and lipids Alkaloids Alkaloids are nitrogenous bases (usually heterocyclic), and are structurally the most diverse class of secondary metabolites (60). They range from simple structures (i, iii, vi) to complex ones such as those of many neurotoxins. In very rare instances they contain sulfur (iii, vii, viii), as encountered in the diothiolanes isolated from species of Brugeira. Their manifold pharmacological activities have always excited man’s interest, and selected plant products containing alkaloids have been used as poison for hunting, murder and euthanasia, as euphoriants, psychedelics, stimulants and medicine. Basic nitrogen compounds from higher plants include many representatives that are potent inhibitors of various oxidative processes both in vivo and in vitro. Fatty acids are long chain alkanoic acids and refer principally to straight chain, saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acids with an even number of carbon atoms, usually 12 to 28 in number. The term also includes Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA’s) and such derived structures as unsaturated, hydroxylated, branched acids. These fatty acids are ubiquitous in nature. They are found only in trace amounts in living cells in their free, unesterified form, and are of greatest importance as components of lipids which, upon alkaline hydrolysis, afford the alkali metal salts of the fatty acids other components. These include the acylglycerols, the waxes and other species.

Anthocyanins, flavonoids phenolics and quinones The expression ‘phenolic compounds’ embraces a vast range of organic substances, which are aromatic compounds with hydroxyl substituents and some possessing antibiotic properties. Most are polyphenolic and flavonoids (ii) form the largest group, which occur widely in the plant kingdom (60). However, phenolic quinones, lignans, xanthones, coumarins and other classes exist in considerable numbers. In addition to monomeric and dimeric structures, there are three important groups of phenolic polymers- lignins, black

Carbohydrates, lignins and polysaccharides The carbohydrates or saccharides (‘hydrate of carbon’) of general formula Cn (H2 O)n are mostly sweet compounds (hence the term sugar) are found abundantly in higher terrestrial plants, fungi, and seaweed and consist of compounds such as sugars, starch, and cellulose (60). The simple sugars or monosaccharides of known molecular weight are either polyhydroxy

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Figures (i)–(xvi). (i) n-Methyflindersine, an alkaloid from X. granatum; (ii) Tricin; (iii) Brugine, an alkaloid from B. sexangula; (iv) Xylomollin, a monoterpenoid from X. molluscensis; (v) Benzoxazolinone; (vi) Fagaronine, an alkaloid from F. zanthoxyloides; (vii) Gerradine; (viii) Cassipourine; (ix) Basic unit of lignin; (x) A chalcone from P. pinnata; (xi) Cyanidin, an anthocyanidin; (xii) Rotenone; (xiii) Basic unit of proanthocyanidin; (xiv) A phytoallexin, a naphthofuranone; (xv) Linalool, a monoterpene; (xvi) A diterpene from C. inerme.

425 melanin pigments of plants, and the tannins of woody plants. Plant polyphenols are economically important because they make major contributions to the taste and flavor (tea, and beer), and color (red wine) of our food and drink. In nature, phenolics protect plants from herbivores, and act as chemical signals in the flowering and pollination and in the process of plant symbiosis and parasitism. It has been recognized for some time that several classes of flavonoids play a significant role in many physiological processes and show antioxidant and fungicidal activity (110) and are natural antihistamines. Flavonoid, and flavonol-lignan derivatives inhibit lipid peroxidation and are potent quenchers of triplet oxygen. A variety of modifications of the flavonoid skeleton lead to a large class of compounds that includes isoflavones, isoflavonones and chalcones, Some isoflavones are now been marketed as therapeutic agents for menstrual disorders. Polyhydroxylated chalcones (x), such as those found in Pongamia pinnata, which are biosynthetic intermediates between cinnamic acids and flavonoids also show considerable antioxidant activity. Anthocyanins, are pigments, which occur as glycosides (often glucosides), hydrolysis of, which provides colored aglycones, known as anthocyanidins (xi). The isoflavone, rotenone (xii), is a natural insecticide. The term ‘proanthocyanidin’ (xiii) is not structurally explicit, but is based solely upon the experimental observation that these colorless compounds yield anthocyanidins upon treatment with strong acids (177, 190). They are astringent to the taste and have the ability to tan leather. Indeed, the so called ‘condensed tannins’ belong to this class of substances. ‘Oxidized’ phenolic compounds are commonly referred to as quinones. Phytoalexins A wide range of organic compounds, collectively called phytoalexins, many of them fungitoxic or fungistatic, appear in the sapwood of trees after wounding, injury or fungal attack. A diverse range of chemical classes including alcohols, alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, polyketides, polyacetylenes, quinones (xiv), stilbene-derived compounds and terpenes have been identified as phytoalexins. Tannins Tannins are polyphenolic substances widely distributed among higher plants. They differ from most other natural phenolic compounds in their ability to precipitate proteins such as gelatin from solution. This property, sometimes called astringency, is the reason for their past and present use in the tanning of animal skin. Tannins are distributed in two groups according to their structures: Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) and hydrolysable or water-soluble tannins (Scalbert, 1991; Stafford, 1988). The class of natural polymers variously referred to as condensed tannins, flavotannins, proanthocyanidins or flavolans have the general formula (xiii), with ‘n’ varying from 2 to ∼20. Upon heating with alcoholic hydrochloric acid, they yield anthocyanidin pigments. Proanthocyanidins are found in many food products such as tea, cocoa, sorghum or carob pods. Hydrolysable tannins are esters of phenolic acids (e.g. gallic acid and gallotannins) and a polyol, which is usually glucose. The leather tanning industry requires water-soluble tannins. Although tannins probably evolved in plants as a defense against microbial attack, they are also instrumental in regulating terrestrial herbivory from predation, either by increasing resistance against pathogens or by protecting essential tissues such as wood against decay. Increasing attention is also being paid to the use of tannins as antimicrobial agents (e.g. wood preservation) or prevention of dental caries. They impart flavor to wines. Recently, evidence has been obtained in support of their potential value as cytotoxic or antineoplastic agents. In addition, tannins are now being used in the manufacture of plastics, paints, ceramics and water softening agents. Members of the families Avicenniaceae, Rhizophoraceae, and Sonneratiaceae are rich source of tannins (17).

Limonoids, terpenes, steroids and saponins The diverse, widespread, and exceedingly numerous family of natural products constructed from five carbon building-units (isoprenyl carbon skeleton) and so comprising compounds with C5 , C10 , C15 , C20 , . . ., C40 skeletons, are synonymously termed terpenoids, terpenes, or isoprenoids, with the important subgroup of steroids sometimes singled out as a class in its own right. However, as more and more terpenoid compounds were discovered, their structures departed from, or ‘violated’ this ‘isoprene’ rule. These compounds are typically found in all parts of higher plants and also occur in mosses, liverworts, algae etc. Members of the class, as components of oil or in extracts, have been used since antiquity as ingredients of fla-

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Figures (xvii)–(xxix). (xvii) β -Amyrin, a triterpene; (xviii) β -Carotene, a carotenoid; (xix) Stigmasterol; (xx) A steroidal saponin; (xxi) A triterpenoidal saponin; (xxii) Xyloccensin, a limonoid from X. granatum; (xxiii) An anilide from A. donax; (xxiv) 1-Triacontanol, a long chain aliphatic alcohol; (xxv) A substituted cyclobutane diimine from A. donax; (xxvi) Rocaglamide, a benzofuran derivative from A. odorata; (xxvii) Brugierol, a 1,2-dithiolane from B. cylindrica; (xxviii) Hygroline; (xxix) Vallapin, a sesquiterpenoid piscicide from H. littoralis.

427 vors, preservatives, perfumes, medicines, narcotics, soaps and pigments. The number of isoprene units they contain in their structures subdivides terpenes into monoterpenes (C10 compounds) (xv) sesquiterpenes (C15 ) diterpenes (C20 ) (xvi), and triterpenes (C30 ). Triterpenes are the most common terpenes in plants, usually with pentacyclic structures like those of amyrin (xvii). The most common example of tetraterpenes (C40 ) are the carotenoids (xviii), which are pigments whose principal recognized role is to act as photoreceptive ‘antenna pigments’ for photosynthesis. Some of them also have a protective function against oxidative damage. Some of the terpenes were known from antiquity and were employed as medicines. Steroids (xix) are merely modified triterpenes and are widespread in both animal and plant kingdoms and many microorganisms. The saponins have attracted much attention in recent years because of their varied biological properties, some of which are deleterious, but many of which are beneficial to human health (120). They are plant glycosides, which have the property of forming a soapy lather when shaken with water. They are used in traditional and modern medicine and in food and agriculture and are classified as steroidal (xx) or triterpenoidal (xxi) saponins depending upon the nature of the aglycone: The sapogenin. A third groups of saponins, which are called basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones. The primitive people knew the use of saponins as natural detergents and the leaves containing them are used as natural soaps. Most molluscicides of plant origin are saponins and these compounds are toxic to fish. Triterpenoidal saponins exhibit divergent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, hemolytic analgesic, hypoglycemic, anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities. The use of plant saponins in a liposomal drug delivery system has been demonstrated. The interesting pharmacological properties associated with the Chinese drug ‘ginseng’, which is considered a panacea and a drug for longevity, is attributed to the various saponins present in it. Steroidal saponins are commercially sought after as starting materials for the synthesis of steroidal hormones. Limonoids (xxii) are modified triterpenes. They are the most distinctive secondary metabolites of the plant order Rutales. In particular, they characterize members of the family Meliaceae, where they are diverse and abundant and to a limited extent, in the family Rutaceae. Recently limonoids have attracted much attention because of the marked insect antifeedant, insecticidal, antifungal, bactericidal, and antiviral activity, growth regulating properties, and a variety of medicinal effects in animals and humans (33). The bitterness of fresh citrus juice is due to flavonones. The bitter taste gradually increases after expression and the causative factor was found to be due to limonoids.

Medicinal uses, bioactivity of extracts, and metabolites characterised from selected mangroves and mangal associates Acanthus illicifolius, a plant useful in the treatment of paralysis, asthma, rheumatic pains and possessing analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, leishmanicidal activities, is a rich source of long chain alcohols, triterpenes, steroids and triterpenoidal saponins. Stigmasterol (xix), a common plant steroid, abundantly present in A. illicifolius and many other mangrove plants, has been shown to have hypercholesterolemic effects. 2-Benzoxazoline (v), a synthetic compound used extensively as a central nervous system depressant, also exhibiting antipyretic, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant activity has been isolated from the plant. Benzoxazoline also showed resistance to fungi. Furthermore, the ribose derivatives of this compound are active as anticancer and anti-viral agents (88, 101, 140). Jongsuvat (1981) found that the extracts of the plant were not toxic to experimental mice but displayed significant anti-leukemic activity. A novel alkaloid, acanthicifolin, has been isolated from the plant (103). Benzoquinones have been identified from Aegicers corniculatum and Kandelia candel. Decoctions made from the rhizome of the reed grass Arundo donax has been used as emollients and diuretics and are said to stimulate menstrual discharge and diminish secretion of milk. Triterpenes, sterols, alkaloids, and the novel compound, N-(4’-bromophenyl)-2,2diphenylacetanilide (xxiii), hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, has been isolated from different parts of this plant. Bioassays indicated that while sterols showed limited anti-feedant activity, significant activity was shown by the isolates tricontanol (xxiv), tricin (ii), and tetramethyl-N, N-bis (2,6-dimethylphenyl) cyclobutane-1, 3-diimine (xxv) (138). Tricin (ii), a flavonoid, is the metabolite common to most mangroves showing anti-feedant activity. Known triterpenes, steroids, and a novel triterpenoid ester have been isolated from Acrostichum aureum and Rhizophora apiculata, a mangrove fern and tree respectively, The extracts of these plants are being used in folklore medicine (102, 103, 193). Rocaglamide

428 (xxvi), a substituted benzofuran, along with its congeners, has been identified as the active insecticidal constituent of the Chinese rice flower bush Aglaia odorata. Clopentabenzofuran, and aglaiastatin, two protein synthesis inhibitors, have also been identified (78, 80, 148, 175). Anti-plasmodial and cytotoxic activities of Alstonia macrophylla are due to an array of alkaloids present in the extracts. Avicennia alba is a rich source of naphthoquinones. Injection of the tissues of A.marina by a fungus belonging to the genus Phytophthora produced three chemically related phytoalexins (xiv). Naphthoquinone derivatives occurring in the Diospyros species have potent anti-tumor promoting activity. Novel sesquiterpenoid quinones and related compounds have been characterized from the mangal associates. Tannin from species of Diospyros has anti-hemorrhages (snakebite) effects. Plants of the family Rhizophoraceae may be generally divided into mangrove species and inland species. Either group of the plants contains organic sulfur containing compounds. The alkaloids brugine (iii) and gerradine (vii) are 1,2-dithiolane (sulfur containing) compounds, have been isolated from Bruguiera sexangula (mangrove species) and Cassipourea gerrardii (mangal associate) respectively. Extracts of B.sexangula bark were active against two tumors, Sarcoma 180 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma. The activity was partly associated with tannins and partly with tannin-free aqueous residue containing the alkaloid brugine (iii) as well as tropine and its acetic acid ester. The alkaloids were found to be toxic (118, 219). Kato and coworkers (96, 97) identified 1,2-dithiolane compounds, brugierol (xxvii), isobrugierol, and 4hydroxy-1, 2-dithiolane-1-oxide, from the mangrove species B. conjugata. Brugierol and several of its synthetic derivatives such as the carbamates, phosphates, and N, N-dialkylates of dithiolane or trithiane showed antibacterial and insecticidal activities. Kato and Hashimoto (97) established to a certain extent, the relationship between insecticidal activity and the chemical structures of the natural metabolites and their synthetic analogues. The bark of Gymnotroches axillaris has yielded hygroline (xxviii). Metabolites belonging to different ‘chemical classes’ have been identified as antifungal agents and in chemical narcosing of fish. Antifungal metabolites include alkaloids, flavonoids and related compounds, modified fatty acids, oxygen heterocyclics, proanthocyanidins, quinones, stilbenes, terpenoids and triterpenoid saponins. The extracts of the bark and root of the mollucidal and piscicidal plant Balanites aegyptiaca, are also used for the treatment of abdominal pains, as a purgative, and as an anthelmintic, while the bark is employed as a detergent, fish poison, and also as a remedy for malaria and syphilis (129). The leaf is edible and has been once regarded as an effective medicine for sleeping sickness. The effects of oral administration of crude saponin extract of the plant caused myositis or peritonitis among chicks. The piscicidal effect of B. aegyptaica to the Nile Tilapia and the molluscicidal activity is due the metabolites balanitin, 1,2, and 3 (116, 208). The saponins are the main constituent responsible for the piscicidal activity of Aegiceras majus, Derris trifoliata, D. elliptica, and D. urucu. Rotenone (xii), a well-known fish poison and a natural insecticide (141), is found among tropical plant species such as, Derris, Lonchocarpus, and Tephrosia. The sesquiterpenes heritianin, heritol, heritonin, vallapin (xxix) and vallapianin are the ichthyotoxins isolated from the mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis. Vallapin and vallapianin also showed activity against Boll Weevils (137). A triterpene ester isolated from H. littoralis showed significant anti-fungal and Boll Weevil anti-feedant activities (103). The piscicidal activity of the extracts of Aegiceras corniculatum is due the benzoquinones embelin (xxx) and 5-O-methyl embelin (xxxi). 5-O-Methyl embelin also inhibited the growth of the fungi Pythium ultimum. Fagaronine (2-hydroxy-3, 8, 9-trimethoxy-5-methylbenzo(c) phenanthridine) (vi), an antileukemic alkaloid, has been isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides. The alkaloid was found to be bactericidal but not mutagenic. Caesalpinia bonducella, extensively used in Jamaican folk medicine is a rich source of furanoditerpenes collectively referred to as caesalpins (xxxii) (155). The oleoresin from the bark of Callophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae) is used as a cicatrisant, whereas an infusion or decoction of the leaves has been traditionally used for the treatment of eye diseases and as an ingredient in aromatic powders and liniments. Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and phagocytosis stimulant activities have been reported for this plant. Guttiferaceous species are a rich source of xanthones (xxxiii), biflavonoids, benzophenones, neoflavonoids, and coumarin derivatives (156). Recently, various bioactivities such as cytotoxic, and antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, enhancement of choline acetyltransferase activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidase due to xanthones have been revealed. Two new xanthones, calaxanthones A (xxxiii) and B have been isolated from the root bark of C. inophyllum. The giant African snail, Achatina fulica,

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Figures (xxx)–(xlv). (xxx) Embelin; (xxxi) 5-O-Methyl embelin; (xxxii) A caesalpin from C. bonducella; (xxxiii) Calaxanthone A, a xanthone from C. inophyllum; (xxxiv) Callophillolide, a coumarin derivative from C. inophyllum; (xxxv) A neolignan from C. inerme; (xxxvi) Cleroinermin, a diterpenoid from C. inerme; (xxxvii) Ellagic acid; (xxxviii) A phorbol from H. mancinella; (xxxix) Excoecariatoxin, a piscicidal constituent of E. agallocha; (xl) A hibiscone from H. tiliaceus; (xli) Lapachol, a quinone from H. tileaceus; (xlii) β -Damascenone from I. pes-caprae; (xliii) Phytol; (xliv) A stilbene from M. leucadendron; (xlv) A eudesmane from P. indica.

430 feeds on the leaves of C. inophyllum. Fractionation of the extracts of the animal yielded inophyllums and calophyllolides (xxxiv) previously isolated from C. inophyllum. A xanthone derivative, subelliptenone, and related compounds showed intensively inhibitory effect against topoisomerases 1 and 11, in in vitro experiments. These xanthones are claimed to be prospective lead compounds for anticancer drugs and some compounds and their derivatives were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (62, 77, 156). The relationship between structures of the metabolites and activity has been investigated. Earlier phytochemical studies had revealed that C. inophyllum to be a rich source of benzopyrans, coumarins, steroids, triterpenes, and xanthones. Plants of the genus Clerodendron are well known for their pesticidal properties (119). They are used as armyworm antifeedants and to arrest bleeding from cuts and other wounds, as well as for stopping post-partum hemorrhage. Clerodendron inerme, a mangal associate, is a recognized medicinal plant having febrifugal properties as well as exhibiting larvicidal, antiviral and uterine stimulant activity. Extracts of C. inerme were effective as surface protectants for cowpea seeds against pulse beetle infestation. The anti-viral resistance-inducing protein isolated from the plant is a polyncleotide (51, 149). A number of flavonoids, a neolignan (xxxv), and novel complex iridoids, phenyl propanoids, sterols and known terpenes, a new diterpene acid have been characterized from the plant. The aerial parts of the plant yielded the diterpenoid cleroinermin (xxxvi), and the flavonoid, apigenin, while the seeds yielded two new neolignans, novel sterols and phenols (4, 9, 31). Cyprus rotundus is among the useful plants used in traditional control of insect pests. Novel sesquiterpene alkaloids were found to be the compounds with insecticidal properties (3, 45, 81, 168). Triterpenes, steroids, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids are responsible for the antifeedant activity of Eleocharis dulcis (139). Hippomane mancinella has enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most toxic and ill-famed plants in tropical America. The sap causes a reaction characteristic of a burn and contact with eye, produce severe conjunctivitis which, if complicated by secondary infection, could result in loss of sight (65). Surprisingly, the poisonous latex has been used as an ingredient in many native preparations. It is a very rich source of various metabolites. 2-Hydroxy-2, 6dimethoxyacetophenone, mono, di and trimethyl ethers of ellagic acid (xxxvii), and a novel alkaloid have been isolated from various parts of the plant. Fractionation of extracts of leaves and twigs, based on toxicity to mice, yielded ‘crystalline tannins.’ Hippomanin A and B were the toxic principles of the extracts. The irritant factor was assigned to esters of deoxyphorbol (xxxviii), resiniferonol, and 13-hexadeca-2, 4, 6-trienoic acid. Some aspects on structure- activity relations have been deduced (7). Apart from its folk medicinal utilization, Excoecaria agallocha contains toxic principles injurious particularly to the skin. The latex is well known for its biocidal effects on marine organisms and phytoplankton, causes metabolic depression of the rice field crab, Oziotelphusa senex and is used as an uterotonic, fish poison, dart poison, and contains novel chalcones and piperidine alkaloids. The latex showed no activity against bacteria and yeast but some activity against fungi. Soil bacteria and yeast actively degrade the latex, which probably helps in the detoxification of the latex in nature. The infusion of leaves posses antioxidant and anti-tumor promoting properties. Bioassay guided isolation led to the characterization of excoecarin, an irritant and a tumor promoter and excoecariatoxin (xxxix), the metabolite responsible for the piscicidal activity, and whose activity was very comparable with natural rotenone. The activity was associated with the aliphatic side chain in the molecule. A novel phorbol ester was isolated as the anti-HIV principle of the leaves and stems (55, 105, 106, 130, 169, 217). Sesquiterpenoid quinones, the hibiscones (xl), hibiscoquinones and benzoquinones (xli) are the major constituents of Hibiscus tileaceous. Ipomoea pes-caprae is a traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of headache and various types of inflammation including jellyfish sting dermatitis. The extracts from the leaves exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, reduce prostaglandin synthesis in vitro, and inhibit smooth muscle contraction. Bio-assay-guided fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of 2-Hydroxy-4, 4, 7-trimethyl-1 (4H)naphthalenone, mellein, eugenol, and 4-vinylguaicol, which inhibited prostaglandin synthesis. The isoprenoids β -damasscenone (xlii) and E-phytol (xliii) were responsible for the antispasmodic and antinociceptive activities (108, 159, 174). Melaleuca leucadendron exists in three chemotypoes, the volatile leaf oil of two of which are characterized by very high content of phenylpropanoids. In addition to small amounts of known mono-, di-, sesqui-, and tri- terpenes, stilbene glycosides, novel triterpenoid esters, and hydrolysable tannins, have been isolated from the plant, whose extracts posses antifungal properties. The leaves were a rich source of a different class of terpenoids and along

431 with stilbenes (xliv), inhibited histamine release from rat mast cells and were active against Bacillus and Staphylococcus (46). Known glycosides, fatty acid esters, and a novel trisaccharide have been characterized from ripe fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to nematodes and Drosophila. Octanoic acid, toxic to many insect species, along with hexanoic and other carboxylic acids, are the main toxic compounds isolated from the extracts (214). Hirazuma and Furusawa (72) reported the presence of a ‘polysaccharide-rich substance’ with antitumor activity in the fruit juice of M. citrifolia, which also showed anticancer and analgesic activity. A polysaccharide extracted from the leaves of B. cylindrica, E. agallocha, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, Salicornia brachiata, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Sueda maritima and S. monica showed positive activity against human immunodeficiency viruses (151, 162). Antioxidative activity of extractives of Pandanus odoratissimus has been demonstrated as due to phenolic and lignan type compounds, and a benzofuran derivative (83). A number of Pluchea species are noted for their ethnomedical properties, of which the reputed viper venom neutralization activities of P.odorata and P. indica are probably the best known. Neuropharmacological actions (including viper venom neutralization) of the shrub P indica has been investigated (10, 179, 206). The leaves and roots of the shrub have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer, astringent and antipyretic properties and are used as a diaphoretic in fevers. Fresh leaves are used in the form of poultices against atonic and gangrenous ulcers and chemicals with novel structures have been isolated from the leaves (xlv). Cigarettes prepared from the chopped stem bark are smoked to relieve the pain of sinusitis, and in Indo-China, the leaves and young shoots are crushed, mixed with alcohol, and applied in the back, in cases of lumbago and are also used to relieve rheumatic pains and in baths to treat scabies. A number of known compounds and a new eudesmane derivative (xlvi) have been identified from the leaves (143). (Z)-5-Tetradecenyl acetate and tetradecyl acetate were identified as sex pheromone components of an unnamed Planotortrix leaf roller moth species found in Avicennia resinifera. All parts of the plant Pongamia pinnata, used as a crude drug for the treatment of tumors, piles, skin diseases, wounds, ulcers, is a rich source of flavonoid and related compounds (197, 198). Extracts of the plant showed positive activity against human and Simian immunodeficiency viruses (54, 164, 165). Porteresia coarctata and Carapa obovata are rich sources of steroids. The alkaloid rhizophorine (xlvi) is a major constituent of the leaves of Rhizophora mucronata and a novel type of natural water soluble polymer has been isolated from the leaves of R. stylosa (103). Triterpenoids from R. mangle possess insecticidal properties and has clinical use in the control of diabetes. Warm aqueous extract of the bark of R. apiculata is used as an astringent for diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting, and as an antiseptic. The extract is also used to stop bleeding in fresh wounds and for the treatment of chronic typhoid fever. The plant also has uses in the textile industry (102, 103). Using a new method of purification which involves high-speed centrifugal liquid chromatography followed by adsorption and partition chromatography, a nitrogen containing phorbol ester, sapintoxin A (xlvii), a piscicidal agent, has been isolated from the poisonous plant Sapium indicum. This is the first nitrogen containing phorbol derivative to be isolated and its biological activity has been demonstrated in vivo using an erythema skin test. Sapinine, a diterpine ester (a phorbol derivative), and a non-biologically active metabolite was isolated using traditional purification techniques (199). Skin irritant and tumor promoting diterpene ester, 12-deoxyphorbol, has been identified from Sapium sebiferum (178). Sesuvium portulacastrum, a salt marsh halophyte, is a rich source of an array of amino acids (85). An unusual secondary metabolite, 2-nitro-4- (2’nitroethenyl) phenol (xlviii) has been isolated from the fruits of Sonneratia acida. The fruits are used as poultice in swelling and sprains. Fermented juice of the fruit is useful for arresting hemorrhage. The wood has yielded three anthraquinones and the leaves contain plant growth regulators, the diterpenoid gibberellins (xlix) (25). Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Rhizophora mucranata and Sonneratia apetala were also found to contain gibberellins (58, 123). Terminalia catappa is used in folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis and is a rich source of tannins. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, anti-sickling potential, and the effects of the major tannin components, punicalagin and punicalin of T. catappa on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats, bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in rabbits, have been evaluated (37, 115, 130). Antibacterial activity of the leaves of Thespesia populnea is due to the known triterpene lupeol, and gossypol was the active ingredient in the flowers, which accounted for its antifertility activity (64). Naturally oc-

432
OH
OR1 O H 3C OR2 H3C CH3

NO2

CO2H N H
H 3C OH

xlvi

H
R1 = N-Methylaminobenzoyl R2 = Acetyl

H
CH2OH

xlvii
OSO 3
-

NO2

xlviii

O

OH

OC HO CH3 COOH

CH3

-

O3SO

O

xlix

OH

O

l

Figures (xlvi)–(l). (xlvi) Rhizophorine; (xlvii) Sapintoxin A, a nitrogen containing phorbol ester from S. indicum; (xlviii) A nitrophenol derivative from S. acida; (xlix) A gibberllin from S. apetala; (l) A flavonoid sulphate.

curring quinones, the mansonones, extracted from the heartwood of T. populnea showed cytotoxicity, antibacterial and anti-steroidogenic activities (70, 135). The limonoid ester, xyloccensins (xxii), the esters of alcohols, isobutyrates and alpha-methylbutyrates, methyl angolensate, gedunin, phragmalin were the novel constituents of X. moluccenis (43, 144). In Fiji, the bark pressings are used to treat fever including those caused by malaria. Alvi et al. (13) characterized two new liminoids, xyloccensin 1 and 2 from the Fijian species of X. granatum and X. moluccensis. These two compounds failed to show any positive biological activity. The fruit of X. molluscensis is used in folk medicine in East Africa. The fruits are used as aphrodisiacs and the young fruits tasted bitter. The bitter principle tested positive as an antifeedant and strongly inhibited the respiratory reactions of mitochondria from rat liver. The metabolite responsible for these activities were identified as xylomollin (iv), an unusual monoterpenoid having a nonglycosidic hemiactal function (109). Insect antifeedant bioassays employing African armyworms and Mexican bean beetle has led to the isolation and characterization of N-methylflindersine (i) and several benz [C] phenanthridone alkaloids from the extracts of X. granatum, The former metabolite has been identified as the principle responsible for insect antifeedant activity (40). Submerged magrove roots, trunks and branches are islands of habitat that attract rich epifaunal communities. The epifauna include a diverse array of invertebratate groups including anemones, bivalves,

barnacles, bryozoans, hydroids, mollusks, polychaetes and sponges. Epifaunal species that do occur in other habitats show distinctly different growth forms when they are attached to mangrove substrates and these organisms play important roles in the structure and function of mangal. ‘Reef’ sponges, for example, have anti-predatory defenses including siliceous or calcareous spicules and noxious or toxic chemicals. However, mangrove species are generally not as well defended chemically as sponges from reef habitats. Species here rely on faster growth or greater reproductive output to compensate for predation losses. Mangrove sponges are also limited in allelochemicals that protect them from overgrowth by other species in space-limited coral environments. In contrast to the sponges, some of the mangrove ascidians have unusual chemicals that are potent feeding deterrents. Despite a seeming lower level of anti-predatory and anti-competitor chemicals in mangal than in coral reef communities, epifaunal invertebrates inhabiting the mangroves and salt marshes are sources of metabolites with useful biologicall activities. Ecteinascidia turbinate, for instance, is a colonial ascidian that grows in the submerged prop roots of Rhizophora mangle in many areas of the Caribbean. E. turbinate produces compounds that show strong activity against a variety of carcinomas, melanomas, and lymphomas. Antifungal and cytotoxic effects of the methanol extracts of three mangrove dwelling mollusks have been evaluated. Sea stars are dominant predators in many marine habitats, and spongivory by sea stars has been documented from polar seas to the tropics. The extracts

433 from the same sponges but from different habitats responded differently to the predation by the same sea star. Epiphytic red algae of the order Ceramiales from mangrove and salt marshes produces varying levels of different UV-absorbing compounds, the mycosporinelike amino acids, which are considered to be biochemical photoprotectants against exposure to UVradiation (18). Mangals are home to a group of fungi called ‘manglicolous fungi’ which are vitally important to nutrient cylcing in these habitats and many of the species produce interesting compounds. For example, most of the soil fungi produce lignocellulosemodifying exoenzymes like lactase. Preussia aurantiaca synthesizes two new depsidones (Auranticins A and B) that display antimicrobial activity. Cirrenalia pygmea produces melanin pigments that appear to protect the hyphae from sudden changes in osmotic pressure; when melanin synthesis in cultures is inhibited with tricyclazole, the fungus becomes sensitive to osmotic shock. High salinities also increase the number and types of amino acids this species produces. The ethyl acetate extract of a mangrove endophytic fungus from the South China Sea Shows inhibition effect on yeast and mold. The studies on the secondary metabolites of the fungus revealed that the fungus could produce a series of antibiotics, including griseofulvin, which was originally found in Penicillium griseofulvum. Plants growing in or near the sea or in salt water marshes are subjected to influx of other ions besides sodium and chloride and it is conceivable that adaptation to other inorganic salts present in brackish waters may be necessary for survival of plants in such habitats. One such ion present in sea-water in some quantity is inorganic sulfate; one possible route for inactivation or storage is through conjugation with naturally occurring phenolic compounds, and particularly with flavonoids and remarkably enough, such compound occur principally in plants which are subject to water stress, and especially in halophytes. Flavonoid sulfates (l) have been identified in land halophytes such as Armeria maritima, Halophila ovalis, Limonium vulgare, Nypa frutican, Suaeda maritima and species of Atriplex, Frankenia and Tamarix. They also occur abundantly in sea-grasses such as Thalassia, Zannichellia and Zostera. Arsenic is accumulated in the leaves of some mangroves (68). Monocotyledonous salt marsh plants accumulated potassium, the amino acid proline, glycinebetaine and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (68, 132). Cations such as Na+ K+ , Ca++ , Mg++ , and NH4 + and anions Cl − , Br − , NO2 − , NO3 − , SO4 −− etc. have been found in various parts of species of Avecennia Bruguiera and Rhizophora, K. candel, H. litoralis, E. agallocha and A. corniculatum. Organic acids such as citric, malic, oxalic and tartaric and carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose is abundant in the roots and seeds of many mangrove plants. Most mangrove species directly regulate salts. They may also accumulate or synthesize other solutes to regulate and maintain osmotic balance. For example, Aegiceras corniculatum, Aegialitis annulata and Laguncularia racemosa and the halophytes Aster tripolium and Armeria maritima accumulate mannitol and two nitrogen compounds, the protein imino acid proline and the quaternary nitrogen compound glycine betaine. Avicennia marina accumulates glycine, betaine, asparagine and Sonneratia alba synthesizes purine nucleotides (68). It is proposed that the high levels of proline actually provide the basis of resistance to salt accumulation. Evidence that the accumulation of aliphatic quaternary ammonium compounds provide with relief from NaCl stress has been obtained. Most attention has been given to choline Me3 N+ CH2 CH2 OH and the related acid betaine Me3 N+ CH2 CO2 − both of which are wide spread. It is believed that the concentration of acid betaine increases with salt stress (68, 94).

Conclusion Drugs of ‘natural’ origin, either the ‘original’ natural product, products derived ‘Semi-synthetically’ from natural products or synthetic products based on natural products models, play an invaluable role in the drug discovery process. Marine organisms and plants produce novel metabolites unique to the environment. Mangroves and mangal associates living in yet another different environment to that of marine and terrestrial plants, can produce metabolites, which may in turn, are unique to these plants and are of interest to the ‘curious’ chemist. Although the chemistry of the natural products of mangrove plants is little known, there have been some examples in recent years to support the need to study the chemistry of the mangroves. This belief is well supported by the illustrated examples. The chemistry of mangrove plants tends to establish that they may be a source of novel compounds along with providing a new source for many already known biologically active compounds.

434 They may have great potential as a source of novel agrochemical compounds (Table 1). They are also a rich source of toxic compounds. Rotenoids, alkaloids, terpenoids are among the classes of natural products which provide numerous toxins. Toxin in plants often has the role of feeding repellents. A remarkable number of insecticidal plants seem to have been recognized first as fish poisons. Knowledge of the toxins in higher plants has led to a variety of useful drugs. Metabolites though toxic, are still used clinically for the treatment of diseases. The physiological activity of an alkaloid manifests in an extreme toxicity; yet many alkaloids have therapeutically useful pharmacological properties at sublethal dosage and have become established as valuable drugs in general medicine. A typical example is that of the toxic drug sodium stiboggluconate and pentamidine, used in the treatment of leishmania donovani infection (88). Though numerous mangroves and mangal associates are recommended in traditional medicine as active against various diseases (Table 1), very little attempts have been made to investigate the veracity of these assertions in controlled experiments. Few workers have investigated the reputation of such plants by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments in order to demonstrate whether there are any protective effects, using drugs or mixtures of drugs prepared using traditional formulae. Different methods have been employed to test these effects: 1. Extracts were administered to mice, insect larvae, worms, fish, etc. 2. Bioassays were carried to test their capacity to inhibit enzyme activities. 3. Effects on various viruses and bacteria, and 4. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical properties (such as effects on uterine tone or protection of mitichondrial membranes). Even though there are few recent investigations of the chemical constituents describing several novel compounds, very little research has been carried out to identify the chemical or chemicals directly responsible for the specific biological activity. A knowledge of the chemical constituents of these plants is desirable, not only for the discovery of new therapeutic agents, but because such information may be of further value to those interested in ‘deciphering" the actual value of folklore remedies. The world of plants, and indeed all-natural sources, represents a virtually untapped reservoir of novel drugs awaiting imaginative and progressive organizations. Further more, infectious diseases are potentially the largest threat to human security. Coupled with continuing threat to biodiversity through the destruction of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and proven record of natural products in drug discovery, there is a compelling argument for expanding the exploration of nature as source of novel active agents.

Acknowledgements My thanks are due Wendy and Stan Sparkes for assistance in formulating the Table in the text and Ms Mary Anne Tenby and Helen Crosby for assistance with the Bibliography. Assistance from Dr B. Bowden and Mr J. Doyle in editing and critical comments and suggestions from Dr E. Wolanski is gratefully acknowledged.

435
Table 1. Traditional uses, chemical constituents and activities of mangroves and mangal associates. Botanical name Acanthus ebracteatus∗∗ Traditional uses/Properties as an antiseptic, blood purifier, diuretic, cure for colds, diabetes, gangrenous wounds, rheumatism, skin allergies, snake bites, (B, Fr, L). as an aphrodisiac, blood purifier, diuretic, treatment of asthma, diabetes, dyspepsia, hepatitis, leprosy, neuralgia, paralysis, ringworms, rheumatism, skin diseases, snake bites, stomach pains, leukemia, (B, Fr, L, R) to treat wounds boils andrheumatism, (L, Rhizome). Tested for analgesic, antiviral activity, (B,L) Chemical constituents alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, saponins, steroids, tannins, (L,W) alkaloids, long chain alcohols, steroids and triterpenes, triterpenoidal saponins, and sulphur, (S8 ), (B, L, R, S) References 42, 73, 121, 151, 152, 163, 164, 165, 166, 173, 176

Acanthus ilicifolius∗∗∗

Acrostichum aureum∗∗

analgesic, antiinflammatory, leishmanicidal and antiviral activity, activity towards leukemia virus and erythroleukemic Swiss mice, biotoxicity on fingerlings of fish, and mosquito larvae, (B, Fr, L, S, Fl, W, R) biotoxicity on fingerlings of fish, (Fr, L, S, Sd, R)

19, 61, 84, 88, 101, 103, 119, 140

Acrostichum speciosum∗∗ Aegialitis annulata∗∗∗ Aegiceras corniculatum∗∗∗

amino acids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, diterpenes, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene, steroids, sugars, triterpenes, (B, L, P, R, S) inorganic salts, sugars, (L) aminoacids, inorganic salts, sugars, (L) aminoacids, benzoquinones, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, minerals; polyphenols, proteins, sugars, saponins, triterpenes, triterpenes glycosides, (B,L,R,S) alkaloids, benzofurans, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, (B, Fr, W) chlorophyll a, b, a + b, carotenoids, proteins, polyphenols, tannins, (L) benzofurans, nitrogen heterocycles, triterpenes, (L)

16, 119, 193, 196

160, 161 160 16, 20, 63, 69, 160, 161, 212

cure for asthma, diabetes, rheumatism, and as a fish poison, (B, L, S)

antiviral activity, toxicity to fish and influence on the growth of fungi, (B, Fr, Fl, L, S, R, W)

Aegiceras majus∗∗∗ Aglaia cucullata∗ Aglaia odorata∗

treatment of haemataria, leprosy, ulcers, and as a fish poison, (B, L)

74, 78, 176, 212

20

insecticide, (L)

Alstonia macrophylla∗ Ardesia elliptica∗∗

inhibition of larval growth and protein synthesis, insecticidal effects, (L, B, S) cytotoxic activity towards human lung cancer cells, antiplasmodial and antineoplastic activity, (L, St)

78, 80, 148, 175

carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a+b, alkaloids, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, (B, L, R, S, W) quinones, (B)

1, 20, 98

40, 41

436
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Arundo donax∗ Traditional uses/Properties as an emollients and diuretic, stimulation of menstrual discharge; diminishes secretion of milk, (W) treatment of leukemia, (B). cure for cancer, gangrenous wounds, lice, mange, ring worms, skin parasites, thrush, tumors, ulcers, (B) treatment of antifertililty, skin diseases, tumors, ulcers, (Resin) Tested for antifeedant and agrochemical activity, (W) Chemical constituents aliphatic amines and anilides, aromatic anilides, flavonoids, steroids, (W) References 138

Atriplex vesicaria∗ Avicennia africana∗∗∗

173 naphthoquinones, (St, B) 79

Avicennia alba∗∗∗

lipids, hydrocarbons, naphthoquinones, phytoallexins (Naphthofurans), triterpenoids, (B,L,S)

79

Avicennia ebracteatus∗∗∗ Avicennia germinans∗∗∗ Avicennia marina∗∗∗

as a blood purifier, treatment of boils, snake bites, (Fr). treatment of rheumatism, throat pains, ulcers of the mouth, (B, L). treatment of rheumatism, small pox, ulcers, fodder for livestock; (S)

173

glycosides, (B,L)

56, 173, 183

analgesic and antiviral activity, (B, Fl, Fr, L, R, S,W)

Avicennia marina (fungus phytophthora) Avicennia nitida∗∗∗ Avicennia officinalis∗∗∗

alcohols, amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, minerals, phytoalexins, carboxylic acids, steroids, tannins, triterpenes, vitamins, (B, L, R, S, Sd) phytoalexins, (B)

21, 73, 12, 151, 152, 194

194

cure for thrush, tumors, ulcers, (B, L, Resin, Sd) as an aphrodisiac, diuretic, cure for hepatitis, leprosy, (B, Fr, L).

119, 183 antiviral activity, biotoxicity on fingerlings of fish, (B, Fl, Fr, L, R, S, Sd, W) alkaloids, arsenic, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, flavonoids, glycosides, lipids, polyphenols, proteins, saponins, tannins triterpenoids, (B, L, S, W) triterpenoids, (B,L,S) 16, 20, 56, 61, 119, 176, 183

Avicennia tomentosa∗∗∗ Bacopa monniera∗∗∗ Balanites aegyptiaca∗

treatment of rheumatism, (B,S). as a nerve tonic, (L). to reduce abdominal pain, as an anthelmintic, detergent, as a purgative, treatment of malaria, intestinal disorders, sleeping sickness, syphilis, as a fish poison, (B,L,R).

123 185

rat poison, (L) molluscicidal and poisonous activity, fish poison, (B, Fr, L, R, St) balanitins, saponins, (B, Fr, L, R, St)

116, 173, 208

Barringtonia racemosa∗∗ Batis maritima∗∗

tannins, (B) flavonoids, (B, L)

16 87

437

Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Traditional uses/Properties treatment of ulcers, (B, L) sulphur containing alkaloids, (B,S) minerals, ( Ca, Na, Mg, K ), sulphur containing alkaloids, tannins, (B, S) Tested for Chemical constituents References

Bruguiera caryophylloides∗∗∗ Bruguiera conjugata∗∗∗ Bruguiera cylindrica∗∗∗

15, 150, 173 96, 97, 119, 150, 151, 162, 184, 204 89, 96, 119, 150, 151, 173

treatment of hepatitis, (Fr, L, R).

antiviral and larvicidal activity, biotoxicity on tobacco mosaic virus and fingerlings of fish, (B, Fr, L, W)

Bruguiera exaristata∗∗∗ Bruguiera gymnorrhiza∗∗∗

as an antitumor agent, (B). treatment of eye diseases, (Fr). growth hormone tests on plants, (B, R)

Bruguiera parviflora∗∗∗

as an antitumor agent, (B).

alkaloids, inositols, (B, L, S) anthocyanins, carbohydrates, carotenoids, catechins, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, diterpenes, gibberellins, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, lipids, flavans and flavan polymers, minerals, phenolic compounds, procyanidins, proteins, steroids, carboxylic acids, triterpenes, (B, Fr, L, R, S) carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, lipids, minerals, phenolic compounds, procyanidins, proteins, tannins, (B, L, S)

118, 172, 173 6, 16, 58, 61, 73, 171, 173, 180, 184

20, 23, 173, 180, 184

Bruguiera rumphii∗∗∗ Bruguiera sexangula∗∗∗

treatment of diabetes, (B, L). as an antitumor agent, (B)

173 anthocyanins, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, lipids, minerals, phenolic compounds, procyanidins, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, triterpenes, (B, L, S) diterpenes, fatty acids, isoflavones, lipids, phenolic compounds, (B, L) flavonoids, inophyllums, lipids, proanthocyanidin polymers, xanthones, (R, S) 20, 73, 96, 118, 173

Caesalpinia bonducella, (bonduc)∗∗ Calophyllum inophyllum∗

as an antitumor agent, cure for rheumatism, (B, L). as a cicatrisant, anticancer agent, disinfectant, treatment of bone fracture, and eye diseases, (B, Fr, L).

59, 155, 173

anticancer, antitumour, antifungal, transferase and lipid peroxidase activity, cytotoxicity, inhibitory effect against DNA, (B, L)

62, 77, 156, 170, 173, 202

438

Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Traditional uses/Properties Tested for Chemical constituents References

Calophyllum inophyllum (African snail Achatina fulica)

antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiviral and phagocytosis stimulant activity, inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, (B, L, S)

benzopyrans, coumarins, steroids, triterpenes, xanthones (B, L, S)

156, 170

Camposperma auriculata∗ Carapa guianensis∗∗ Carapa moluccensis∗∗ Carapa obovata∗∗ Carapa procera∗ Cassia fistula∗

alkaloids, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (L, Fl, S, W) steroids, triterpenes, (B) treatment of diarrhoea, and as a febrifuge, (Fr) treatment of diarrhoea, and as a febrifuge, (Fr) antibacterial activity (W) antiviral activity, toxicity to fish

32

122 173

steroids, triterpenes, (B)

61, 122, 173 61, 122 122, 186

Cassipourea gerradii∗∗ Cassipourea gummiflua∗∗ Casuarina equisetifolia∗∗ activity towards soil arthropods, immunochemical properties, agrochemical trials (B, L) as a purgative, treatment of rheumatism, (B, Fr, Sd)

alkaloids, gibberellic acid, organic acids; steroids, triterpenes, (B, Fl, L, R, W) carbohydrates, organic acids; alkaloids (B, L, S) carbohydrates, minerals, organic acids; alkaloids (L, S) triterpenes glucosides

16, 44, 53, 82, 97, 219 44, 160, 161, 219

29, 195, 218

Cerbera manghas∗∗ Cerbera odollam∗ Ceriops candolleana∗∗ Ceriops decandra∗∗∗

cure for diabetes, (B) cure for hepatitis, ulcers, (B, Fr, L) antiviral activity, (B, Fl, Fr, L, R, S, W)

Ceriops roxburghiana∗∗∗

cardenolides glycosides, (L) cardenolide glycosides, (L) anthocyanidins, procyanidins, tannins (B) carotenoids, flavonoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, lipids and waxes, polyphenols, proteins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes, (L) alkaloids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, gibberellins, minerals, procyanidins, saponins, steroids tannins, trace metals; triterpenes, (B, W)

173, 220 220 160, 161, 173, 181 20, 61, 91, 122, 162, 163, 173

35, 122, 176, 180, 181, 213

439
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Ceriops tagal∗∗∗ Traditional uses/Properties treatment of haemorrhages, (B). Tested for Chemical constituents condensed and hydrolysable tannins, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, inositols, aliphatic carboxylic acids, steroids, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a+b, indole alkaloids, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, (B, L, R, Sd) carboxylic acids, diterpenes, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, iridoid bigylcoside, neolignans, phenols, protein, steroids, triglycerols, triterpenes, (L, S, Sd) aliphatic long chain hydrocarbons and acids, aromatic aldehydes, ketones, phenols, (B) References 16, 20, 73, 160, 161, 172, 173, 184

Clerodendron inerme∗

Cocos nucifera∗

as a febrifugal and uterine stimulant, a pest control agent and antiseptic, to arrest bleeding, treatment of asthma, hepatitis, ringworm, stomach pains, (B, L, S) as a pest control, (Husk)

surface protectants of seeds against insects, biotoxicity on fingerlings of fish, toxicity against mosquito larvae, antiviral activity, (Fr, L, S, Sd, R, W) pheromones

4, 9, 31, 51, 119, 149, 173

66

Concocarpus erecta (erectus)∗∗

treatment of catarrh, gonorrhoea, malaria, to stop bleeding, as a febrifuge, (B, L, R) carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, (L) phytotoxins, sesquiterpene alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, starch, (Rhizome) chalcones, flavonoids and isoflavonoids, steroids, (B) rotenones (isoflavonoids), (B, St) alkaloids, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (L, Fl, S, W) rotenones (isoflavonoids) (B, L) rotenones (isoflavonoids) (B, L) alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids and flavonol glycosides, lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, rotenone, steroids and triterpenes, (L, R) alkaloids, long chain nalkanes, (hydrocarbons), lipids, (L)

173

Cynometra iripa∗∗∗ Cyprus rotundus∗ to control insect pests fungitoxicity, effect on spore germination, cytoprotective effects, insecticidal properties, (Rhizome, L)

20

3, 45, 75, 81, 86, 147, 168, 173, 209, 222

Dalbergia ecastophyllum∗∗∗ Derris araripensis∗ Derris elliptica∗ Derris heterophylla∗∗ Derris nicou∗ Derris sericeae∗ Derris trifoliata∗∗∗ as a stimulant, spasmodic and counter irritant, laxative, fish poison, pesticide (L, R, T, W) toxicity to fish, (B) fish poison, (L, B) piscicidal activity, (B, Fr) toxicity against mosquito larvae (L) toxicity to fish, (B, L) toxicity to fish, (B, L) toxicity to fish, (B, L, Fr)

2, 52, 131

128 173 32, 51

128 128 61, 141, 173, 221

Derris uliginosa∗∗∗

as an antispasmodic and stimulant, to arrest haemorrhages, (B, Fr)

133, 173

440
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Derris urucu∗ Traditional uses/Properties fish poison insecticide (B, R) Tested for activity against fly larvae, toxicity to fish, (R) piscicidal and antifungal activity, (Fr) Chemical constituents alkaloids, rotenones (isoflavonoids), saponins, triterpenes, (B) alkaloids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones, saponins, tannins, (W) alkaloids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (L, Fl, S, W) triterpenes, (B) long chain acids, steroids, triterpenes, (W) alkaloids, carotenoids, chalcones, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, cyclitol, diterpenes, excoecariatoxins, fluratoxin, glycerides of fatty acids, lipids and waxes; phorbol esters, polyphenols, polysaccharides, proteins, saponins, steroids, sugars, tannins, triterpenes, (B, Fl, L, Lt, S, W) phorbol esters, excoecariatoxin, (B, L, S) References 128, 154, 173

Diospyros cordifolia∗ Diospyros lancifolia∗

176, 203

32, 203

Diospyros melanoxylon∗ Eleocharis dulcis∗ Excoecaria agallocha∗∗∗ as an uterotonic, purgative, treatment of epilepsy, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, haematuria, leprosy, toothache, as a piscicide, dart poison, and a skin irritant, (B, Fr, Fl, L, Lt, S, Sd, R, W)

126 139 14, 20, 32, 55, 90, 92, 93, 94, 105, 106, 107, 119, 130, 150, 151, 160, 161, 162, 163, 169, 173, 217

antifeedant activity, (W) antiviral, antioxidant, analgesic, piscicidal activity, antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and fungi, activity against tumour growth, human immonodeficiency, biotoxicity towards fish, and field crabs, pest control, (B, L, Lt, S, W)

Excoecaria bicolor∗∗ Excoecaria oppositifolia∗∗ Fagara zanthoxyloides∗ Ficus bengalensis∗ Ficus microcarpa∗

as an uterotonic, skin irritant, toxic, (L, Lt) skin irritant (L, Lt) in dental hygiene, (S)

piscicidal and tumour promoting activity, (L)

173, 217 173, 217

bactericidal and antileukemic activity, (R, W)

alkaloids, (R) lipids, waxes, fatty acids, (L) monoterpenes, isoflavones, phenols, triterpenes, (B, R, S) alkaloids, (B)

158, 173 15 38, 112

Gymnotroches axillaris∗ Halophila ovalis∗∗ Heritiera formes∗∗

82 51, 132 20

Toxicity to mosquito larvae (L)

sulphated flavonoids, (L) carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a + b, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, (L) alkaloids, aminoacida, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a & b, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, fatty acids; flavonoids, lipids and waxes; polyphenols, polysaccharides, proteins, saponins, sesquiterpenes, aliphatic carboxylic acids, sugars (gum), (B, L, R, W)

Heritiera littoralis∗∗∗

control mosquitos and diarrhoea, as a fish toxicant, (S)

ichthytoxicity to fish, antifungal, antifeedant activity, (B, Fr, L)

15, 16, 20, 49, 59, 103, 136, 137, 160, 161, 173, 176

441
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Heritiera macrophylla∗∗∗ Heritiera minor∗∗∗ Hibiscus tiliaceus∗∗ cure for ear infections, (Fl). Traditional uses/Properties Tested for Chemical constituents carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a & b, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, (L) alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes (L, W) alkaloids, amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, fatty acids, saponins, sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoid quinones, steroids, triterpenes, (Fl, L, S, W) alcohols alkaloids, aromatic ketones, carotenoid like substances, diterpene long chain hydrocarbons, hippomanins, long chain (C29 -C35 ) hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds and their oxygen analogs, phorbols, sesquiterpenes, sugars, tannins, (Fr, L, Sap) Lipids (B, L) leucocyanidins, polyphenols; stilbenes, polysaccharides, water soluble polymers, (B) leucocyanidins, polyphenols; stilbenes, polysaccharides, water soluble polymers (B) alkaloids, aminoacids, monoterpenes, quinones, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (Fl, L, S, W) glucosides, glycosides, steroids, (B, L) alkaloids, benzoquinones, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a & b, flavonoids, inorganic salts, polyphenols, proteins, tannins, saponins, short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, sugars, (Gum, L, R, S, Sd, W) anthocyanins, steroids and triterpenes References 20

176

12, 16, 32, 160, 161, 173

Hippomane mancinella∗

causes dermatitis, severe conjunctivitis and blindness, to poison arrows, toxic poison, irritant to the skin, (Fr, L, Lt)

poisonous constituents, skin irritant activity, cocarcinogenicity and cryptic cocarcinogenicity (L, Sap)

7, 65, 142, 173

Inocarpus fagifer (fagiferus)∗∗ Intsia bijuga∗∗∗

188 71, 173

dye

Intsia palembanica∗∗

dye

71, 173

Ipomoea pes-caprae∗

treat headache, jelly fish sting, causes dermatitis (L)

anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic activity, antinociceptive action, inhibition of platelet aggrgation (L, S)

5, 32, 50, 108, 159, 173, 174, 211, 215

Juncus roemerianus∗ Kandelia candel∗∗∗

34

20, 63, 113, 160, 161, 176

Kandelia rheedii∗∗∗

treatment of diabetes, (B, Fr, L)

122, 173

442
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Laguncularia racemosa∗∗ Lumnitzera coccinea∗∗ Lumnitzera littorea∗∗ Lumnitzera racemosa∗∗ Melaleuca leucadendron∗ Traditional uses/Properties Herbicide, (B) Tested for antihypertensive, herbicide toxicity, (B) Chemical constituents amino acds; polysaccharides, sugars; tannins triterpenes, (B) sugars, (L) sugars, (L) antifertility, treatment of asthma, diabetes, snake bite, (Fr) fungicide (L) antiviral activity, (B, Fr, Fl, L, S, R, W) antifungal, anti HSV-1, herpes simplex virus activity, antigenic and allergenic cross-reactivity, inhibitors of induced histamine release, activity towards microorganisms, (Fr, L) cyclitols, sugars, tannins, (B, L) hydrolysable tannins, mono- and di- terpenes, sesquiterpenes, polyphenols, proteins, triterpenoids, stilbenes and stilbene glycosides, (B, Fr, L, Oil, Pollens) flavones and isoflavones, (W) aliphatic long chain carboxylic acids, anthraquinones, carotenoids, fatty acid esters, glycosides, mineral potassium, polysaccharides, steroids, trisaccharides, vitamins, (Fr) References 111, 173

treatment of thrush, (L)

160, 173 160 16, 114, 125, 160, 162, 173 27, 48, 173

Millettia auriculata∗ Morinda citrifolia∗

167, 191 72, 173, 189, 214

treatment of chronic renal diseases, (Fr,R)

anti-tumour, anticancer, analgesic, antineoplastic, and antinematodal activity, toxicity to mosquito larvae, (Fr, R)

Murrayella periclados∗ Nypa fruiticans∗∗∗

antibiotic, (B) treatment of asthma, diabetes, leprosy, rheumatism, snake bite, and as a beverage, (Fr, L) added to rice as seasoning, (Fl) acetic acid, ethanol, sugars, (W)

173 153, 173

Oncosperma tigillarium∗∗∗ Osbornia octodonta Pandanus odoratissimus∗ Pandanus odoratissimus (Botryo-diplodia parasite) Pandanus recurvatus∗ Pandanus spiralis∗ Pemphis acidula∗∗ Phoenix dactylifera∗ Phoenix paludosa∗

organic acids, sterols, (Fr) amino acids, carbohydrates, essential oils, organic acids, (L) benzofurans, lignans, phenolic compounds, (R) phytotoxic metabolites

173, 210 28, 160, 161

anti-oxidant activity causes post-harvest rot of vegetables

83 83, 173

Food, (Fr) purposes relating to human reproduction, (W)

alkaloids, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (L, Fl, S, W) Vitamins, (Fr) oestrogenic and spasmolytic activity, (W) carotenoids, triterpenes and steroids, (W) alcohol, carotenoids, fatty acids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, (W)

32

157, 173 26, 173 124 76, 124, 173

Food (Fr)

443
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Planotortaix excessana (leafroller moth found on Avicennia resinifera) Pluchea indica∗∗ Traditional uses/Properties bait to catch moths Tested for sex pheromone Chemical constituents long chain fatty acid esters References 57, 173

cure for rheumatism, scabies, sinusitis, used as a antipyretic, diaphoretic in fevers, as an astringent, to treat ulcers, (L, R, B, S)

Pongamia pinnata∗∗

Porteresia coarctata∗

in febrile and inflammatory diseases, treatment of tumours, piles, skin diseases, wounds, ulcers, fever, piles, rheumatism, scabies, sinus, stomach pain and intestinal disorders, causes clinical lesions of skin and genitalia, (B, L, S, W) animal food, (L)

neutralisation of snake venom (neuropharmacological action), hepatoprotective, locomotory activity, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, abortifacient and enimenagogue, and anti-implantation, uterine relaxation activity, inhibitor of gastric damage, (L, R) antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus, fungitoxicity, (L, S, Sd)

sesquiterpenes, (L)

10, 36, 143, 173, 179, 206

amino acids, chalcones and chromones, fatty acids; flavones and flavone glycosides, indole-3-acetic acid, lipids, monoglycerides, phenyl propanoids, proteins, sugars, tannins, (B, R) fatty acids, hydrocarbons, steroids and sterol ester, triacylglycerols, triterpenes, waxes, (B, W)

8, 16, 54, 99, 100, 168, 173, 187, 192

173

Preussia aurantiaca (fungus) Raphia sp∗∗

antibacterial

173

Beverage (Fr)

alcohol, sugar and vitamin contents, (Fr) antiviral, larvicidal, antifungal, antifeedant, antimicrobial activity, antiviral properties against human immunodeficiency, (B, Fr, Fl, L, S, R, W)

Rhizophora apiculata∗∗∗

astringent for diarrhoea, treatment of nausea, vomiting, typhoid, hepatitis, an antiseptic, insecticide, (B, Fl, Fr, L).

Rhizophora conjugata∗∗∗ Rhizophora gymnorrhiza∗∗∗

alcohol, fatty acids, lipids, polysaccharides, sterols, sugars, vitamins, (Fr) aliphatic alcohols aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, carotenoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, benzoquinones, lipids, n-alkanes, minerals, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, steroids, triterpenes, (B, L, R, S) Anthocyanins and, procyanidins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes, (B) anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, procyanidins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes, (B)

39, 173

16, 95, 104, 164, 173, 184, 204, 205

122, 181

122

Rhizophora lamarckii∗∗∗

hepatitis, (Fl, L).

antiviral activity (B, Fr, Fl, L, S, R, W)

122, 173

444
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Traditional uses/Properties Tested for Chemical constituents References

Rhizophora mangle (ascidian, Ecteinascidia turbinata) Rhizophora mangle∗∗∗

Rhizophora mucronata∗∗∗

treatment of diabetes, angina, boils, minor bruises, and fungal infections, diarrhoea, dysentery, elephantiasis, fever, malaria, leprosy, plaster for fractured bones, tuberculosis, antiseptic, (B, L) treatment of elephantiasis, haematoma, hepatitis, ulcers, and a febrifuge, ((B, Fl, Fr, L, R)

activity against variety of cancer cells (carcinimas, melanomas, and lymphomas), (B) anti-hyperglycemic effects, (W)

Sulphur containing nitrogenous compounds, (B)

219

11, 173, 216

Antiviral, anti-HIV activity, growth hormone tests on plants, biotoxicity on fingerlings of fish, (B, Fr, L, S, Fl, W, R)

alkaloids, anthocyanidins, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, b, a & b, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, gibberellins, flavonoids, inositols, lipids, minerals, polysaccharides, polyphenols, procyanidins, proteins, saponins, steroid, triterpenes, (B, L, R, S)

16, 20, 58, 61, 82, 119, 151, 172, 173, 176, 181, 184

Rhizophora racemosa∗∗∗ Rhizophora sp∗∗∗

to stop bleeding, (Fl, L). aminoacids, carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, sugars, tannins, triterpenes, waxes (gum, L) aliphatic carboxylic acids, fatty acids, flavoglycans, hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, inositols, steroids, (L,R, Sd) treat hepatitis, (L, S). antiviral activity, (B, L) toxicity against mosquito larvae, (L) poisonous constituents, (B) skin irritant and tumour promoting activity, (B) antiinflammatory, activity, (B, L)

151, 173 160, 161

Rhizophora stylosa∗∗∗

73, 146, 171, 172

Salicornia brachiata∗∗∗ Salvadora persica∗∗ Sapium indicum∗

151, 173 51 diterpenes, nitrogen containing phorbol esters, phorbol, (B, Fr, L) diterpenes, nitrogen containing phorbol esters, phorbol, (Sd) 127, 134, 199, 200 75, 173, 178 173,

as a piscicidal agent toxic, irritant, (B) relieve stress, (B).

Sapium sebiferum∗ Scaevola sericea (plumieri)∗

Treat coughs, diabetes, eye infections, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, stings and bites, antiseptic, (B, L)

173, 188

Scyphiphora hydrophylacea∗∗

cyclitol, polyol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, (L)

160

445
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Serjania lethalis∗ Sesuvium portulacastrum∗ Traditional uses/Properties fish poison, (L) treat hepatitis, (L). Tested for ichthyocid activity, (L) antiviral activity, (B, Fl, Fr, L, S, R, W) Chemical constituents References 173, 201 32, 85, 151, 162, 173

Sonneratia acida∗∗∗

as poultice in swellings and sprains, to arrest haemorrhage, treat asthma, febrifuge, ulcers, (B,L)

plant-growth regulators, (B,L)

Sonneratia alba∗∗∗

poultice in swellings and sprains, (Fr)

Sonneratia apetala∗∗∗

treat hepatitis, (L)

plant growth regulators, growth hormone tests on plants, antiviral activity, (B, Fl, Fr, L, S, R, W) toxicity against mosquito larvae, (Fr)

Sonneratia caseolaris∗∗∗

Sonneratia ovata∗∗∗ Spinifex longifolius∗ Sueda fruticosa∗ Sueda maritima∗ Tamarix gallica∗∗ Terminalia catappa∗

stop bleeding, check hemorrhages, treatment of piles, sprain poultices, (Fr) checks hemorrhages, (juice) reduce internal pains, as an antiseptic, (W)

alkaloids, aminoacids, minerals, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, (L, Fl, S, W) anthraquinones, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and lactones, gibberellins, lipids and waxes, phenols, proteins, steroids, triterpenes, (B, L, S) cyclitol, polyol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, minerals, nucleotides (B, L, R, S) anthroquinoids, triterpenes and steroids, gibberellins, carboxylic acids and lactones, polyphenols, (B, L, S) fatty acids, hydrocarbons, steroids, (L)

15, 25, 173

16, 160, 161, 173, 184

58, 162, 173, 199

51, 73, 173

24, 173 173 hypercholesterolaemic activity antiviral activity, (B, Fl, Fr, L, S, R, W) 22 Steroid, triterpenes, (L) condensed and hydrolysable tannins, (B, L, R) lipids, sterols, tannins tocopherols, fats and fatty acids, proteins, (Fr) 61, 151, 162, 173, 192 16 37, 115, 117, 130, 173, 188

cure hepatitis, (L)

treatment of hepatitis and prevent hepatoma, food, (Fr)

Terminalia oblongata∗ Thespesia populnea (populneoides)∗∗∗

poisonous to cattle, (L) antifertility agent, causes dermatitis, (B, S)

antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, genotoxicity, activity against inflammation, anti-sickling potential, (L) toxicity to mice antibacterial, antisteroidogenic, cytotoxic, antifertility activity, (B, Fl, S, W)

condensed tannins amino acids, carbohydrates, glycerides and glycosides, gossypol, fatty acids, mansonones, phenolic sesquiterpenes, phytolectins, organic acids, triterpenes, quinones, sterols, (B, S) cycloartane derivatives, (W)

188 16, 47, 60, 64, 67, 70, 135, 145, 173, 182

Tillandsia usneoides∗

antidiabetic activity, (W)

30

446
Table 1. Continued. Botanical name Xylocarpus granatum∗∗∗ Traditional uses/Properties treat fevers, malaria, cholera, (B) Tested for antifungal activity, insect antifeedant activity Chemical constituents alkaloids, amino acids; carbohydrates; carotenoids, chlorophyll a,b, a & b, fatty acids, flavonoids, hydrocarbons; limonoids, minerals, organic acids; polyphenols, proteins, tannins, triterpenes, saponins, steroids, sugars, (B, Fr, L, R, S, W) limonoids and limonoid esters, monoterpenoids; xyloccensins, limonoids, (Fr, S, St) References 13, 20, 40, 43, 73, 109, 122, 160, 161, 173, 176, 184, 200

Xylocarpus moluccensis∗∗∗

treat fevers, malaria, as a naphrodisiac, (B, Fr).

antifeedant activity and inhibition of respiratory reactions, (B)

43, 109, 173, 192, 200

∗∗∗ mangroves; ∗∗ mangrove minors; ∗ mangrove associates.

B = bark; L = leaves; Fr = fruits; R = roots; St = stems; Fl = flower; Sd = seed; W = whole plant; Lt = latex.

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