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# Ratio and Proportion

Exercise

Rule 1

1.

## * Find Compound Ratio

are compounded by multiplying together the antei for a new antecedent, and the consequents for a
< consequent.

1
1
1
b)
6
'5
Find the compound ratio of the following:
5:7,15:14 and 98:75.
a) 1:5
b) 1:1
c)2:l
d)5:l
a)

## ^"hen the ratio 4 : 3 is compounded with itself the result2 2

Tig ratio is 4 :3 . It is called the duplicate ratio of 4 :3.
Similarly, 4 3 is the triplicate ratio of 4:3.
^4
is called the subduplicate ratio of 4 : 3.
3 :

## V3 - ^1/3 is subtriplicate ratio of a and b.

The number of times one quantity contains another quanr?. of the same kind is called the ratio of the two quan-

5.

2
rties. The ratio 2 to 3 is written as 2:3 or . 2 and 3 are
:a:led terms of the ratio. 2 is the first term and 3 is the
econd term. The firstterm of the ratio is called the ante:*dent and the second the consequent. In the ratio 2:3,2
_ "_-e antecedent and 3 is the consequent.
;

1 1
If 2:3 be the given ratio, then : or 3:2 is called its
j i n erse or reciproral ratio.
the antecedent = the consequent, the ratio is called
r e ratio of equality; as 3:3.
If the antecedent > the consequent the ratio is called the
ratio of greater inequality, as 4:3
If the antecedent < the consequent, the ratio is called
the ratio of less inequality, as 3:4

trative Example
Find the ratio compounded of the four ratios:
4:3,9:13,26:5 and2:15
t: The required ratio

4x9x26x2

16

3x13x5x15

25

1:2,3:5 and 5:9

## Find the compound ratio of the following:

5:6,12:19,57:60 and 50:31
a) 13:25
b)31:25
c)25:31
d)25:13
Find the subduplicate ratio of 16:25.
a) 4:5
b)5:4
c)256:625
d) 625:256
Find the subtriplicate ratio of343:729.
a) 5:7
b)9:7
c)7:9
d)7:5
Find the duplicate ratio of 14:17.
a) 196:289
b) 169:256
c) 196:729
d)576:729
Find the triplicate ratio of 3:5.
1^

a)27:125

b)9:25

1^

c)3 :5
3

d) 125:27

l.a

2.b

3.c

4. a

5.c

6. a

7. a

Rule 2
Theorem: If four quantities be in proportion the product of
the extremes is equal to the product of the means.
Let the four quantities 3, 4, 9 and 12 be in proportion.
3
9
We have =
4 12
Multiply each ratio by 4 * 12
3
9
-x4xl2=x4xl2
" 4
12
.-.3x12 = 4 x 9
Note:
1.
The 4th term can be found by multiplying the 2nd and
3rd terms together and divide the product by the first

96

2.

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
term.
Consider the two ratios:
1st ratio
2nd ratio
6:18
8:24
Since 6 is one-third of 18, and 8 is one-third of 24, the
two ratios are equal. The equatity of ratios is called
proportion.
The numbers 6, 18,8 and 24 are said to be in proportion. The proportion may be written as 6:18::8:24 (6 is
to 18 as 8 is to 24)

500,70, and 69
43
a) 9
50

28 _ ?

## The numbers 6, 18, 8 and 24 are called trms. 6 is the

first term, 18 the second, 8 the third and 24 the fourth.
The first and fourth terms ie 6 and 24 are called the
extremes (end terms), and the second and the third
terms, ie, 18 and 8 are called the means (middle terms).
24 is called the fourth proportional.

a) 70

## Find the fourth proportional to the numbers 6, 8 and

15.
Soln: If x be the fourth proportional, then 6 : 8 = 15 : x

8 x 1 5

= on
20

Exercise
1.

## Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 6, 8, 9.

a) 12
b)7
c)5
d) 14
2. Find the value of the missing figure in the question given
below.
6:? :: 5:35
a) 30
b)36
c)42
d)48
3. Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 12,14,24.
a) 38
b)36
c)28
d)30
4. Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 5,7, 15.
a)21
b)35
c)20
d)30
5. Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 21,33,56.
a) 77
b)78
c)88
d)87
6. Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 45,60,72.
a) 120
b)96
c)72
d)84
7. Find the value of the missing figure in the following.
?: 13:: 35:65
a)7
b)9
c)6
d)5
8. Find the value of x in the following proportion.
5:15 = 2:x
a)6
b)3
c)12
d)9
9. Find the value of x in the following proportion.
75:3 = x : 9
a) 125
b) 120
c)225
d)220
10. Calculate a fourth proportional to the numbers.
1,2 and 3.
a)6
b) 1.5
c)0.6
d)5

33
d) 19
50

112
b)56

c)48

d)64

l.a
lO.a

2. c
8. a
11.c

3.c
9.c
12.a

4. a

5.c

6. b

7. a

Ex.:

:.x =

33
c) 9
50

## 12. Calculate a fourth proportional to the numbers.

2.5,1.5, and 1.5
a)0.9
b)0.89
c)0.91
d)0.09
13. What should come in place of the question mark (?) in
the following equation?

6 8
or, 6:18 = 8:24 o r :

Illustrative Example

33
b) 8
50

Rule 3
Theorem: Three quantities of the same kind are said to be
in continued proportion when the ratio of the first to the
second is equal to the ratio of the second to the third.
The second quantity is called the mean proportional between thefirst and the third; and the third quantity is called
the third proportional to the first and second.
Thus, 9,6 and 4 are in continued proportion for 9 :6 :: 6 :4.
Hence, 6 is the mean proportional between 9 and 4, and 4 is
the third proportional to 9 and 6.

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: Find the third proportional to 15 and 20.
Soln: Here, we have to find a fourth proportional to 15,20
and 20.
I f x be the fourth proportional, we have 15 :20 = 20 : x
:. x i

20x20
15

^ = 261
3
3

## Ex. 2: Find the mean proportional between 3 and 75.

Soln: I f x be the required mean proportional, we have
3 : x:: x: 75
..'*= V3x75 =15
Note: It is evident that the mean proportional between two
numbers is equal to the square root of their product.

Exercise
1.
2.
3.

## Find a third proportional to the numbers 3 and 6.

a)21
b) 1.5
c)18
d) 12
Find a third proportional to the numbers 1.2 and 1.8.
a)2.8
b)2.7
c)3.2
d)3.7
Find a third proportional to the numbers 225 and 75.
a)25
b) 15
c)35
d)30

Ex.2:

a) 24
b)26
c)22
d)28
14

21

363
lie
14
a)
88
i8

## I f 15 men can reap a field in 28 days, in how many

days will 5 men reap it?
Soln: Step I : . . . : . . . = . . . : Required number of days.
Step II: ...:... = 28 :x
Step III: The required number of days will be more,
since 5 men will take more time than 15 men. Therefore, 5 : 1 5 = 2 8 : x

C )

I
7.

## Calculate the mean proportional between 0.5 and 1922

a)39
b)29
c)31
d)41
Find the third proportional to the numbers 5 and 10
a) 20
b)2.5 .
c)25
d)30

Id

2.b

3. a

4. a

5. a

6.c

7. a

Rule 4
The Rule of Three: The method offinding the 4th term of a
proportion when the other three are given is called Simple
Proportion or the Rule of Three.
In every question of simple proportion, two of the given
terms are of the same kind, and the third term is of the same
kind as the requiredfourth term.
Sow we give the rule of arranging the terms in a question
of simple proportion.
Rule: I. Denote the quantity to be found by the letter'x',
and set it down as the 4th term.
II. Of the three given quantities, set down that for
the third term which is of the same kind as the
quantity to be found.
III. Now, consider carefully whether the quantity to
be found will be greater or less than the third term;
if greater, make the greater of the two remaining
quantities the 2nd term, and the other 1st term,
but if less, make the less quantity the second term,
and the greater the 1 st term.
IV. Now, the required value
Multiplication of means
1st term

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: I f 15 books cost Rs 3 5, what do 21 books cost?
Soln: This is an example of direct proportion. Because i f the
number of books is increased, their cost also increases.
By the Rule of Three:
Step I : . . . : . . . = . . . : Required cost.
Step II: ...:... = Rs 35 : Required cost
Step III: The required cost will be greater than the
given cost; so the greater quanity will come as the
2nd term. Therefore,
15 books: 21 books = Rs 35 : Required cost.
'21x35 \
Step IV: .-.the required cost = =Rs49

o,
Step IV: x = - = 84 days.
1

Ex. 3: A fort had provisions for 150 men for 45 days. After
10 days, 25 men left the fort. How long will the food
last at the same rate for the remaining men?
Soln: The remaining food would last for 150 men for (45 10 =) 35 days. But as 25 men have gone out, the remaining food would last for a longer period. Hence,
by the Rule of Three, we have the following
relationhip.
125 men: 150 men = 35 days: the required no. of days.
150x35
.-. the required no. of days = - 42 days.

Ex.:

## I f 8 men can reap 80 hectares in 24 days, how many

hectares can 36 men reap in 30 days.
Soln: We can resolve this problem into two questions.
1st:
I f 8 men can reap 80 hectares, how many hectares can
36 men reap?
8 men : 36 men = 80 hectares : the required no. of
hectares

2nd:

36x80
.*. the required no. of hectares = - =360hecto
ares.
I f 360 hectares can be reaped in 24 days, how many
hectares can be reaped in 30 days?
By the Rule of Three
24 days : 30 days = 360 hectares : the required no. of
hectares.
30x360
.-. the required no. of hectares = = 450
A c n

## We observe that the original number of hectares,

namely 80, has been changed in the ratio formed by
36
30
compounding the ratio and .
The above question can be solved in a single step.
We arrange the figures in the following form:
8 men: 36 men
: 80 hect: the reed no. of hectares
24 days: 30 days_
The reqd no. of hectares
Multiplication of means
Multiplication of 1 st terms

80x36x30
:450
8 x 24

98

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## I f 30 men do a piece of work in 27 days, in what time can

18 men do another piece of work 3 times as great?
a) 145 days b) 135 days c) 130 days d) 134 days
When wheat is Rs 3.90 per kg. 60 men can be fed for 15
days at a certain cost, how many men can be fed for 45
days at the same cost, when wheat is Rs 3 per kg?
a) 25 men
b) 26 men
c) 28 men
d) 27 men
If a family of 7 persons can live on Rs 8400 for 36 days,
how long can a family of 9 persons live on Rs 8100?
a) 27 days
b) 37 days c) 36 days
d) 24 days
I f 1000 copies of a book of 13 sheets require 26 reams of
paper, how much paper is required for 5000 copies of a
book of 17 sheets?
a) 180 reams b) 170 reams c) 140 reams d) 270 reams
5 horses eat 18 quintals of oats in 9 days, how long at
the same rate will 66 quintals last for 15 horses?
a) 12 days
b ) 9 days
c) 13 days
d) 11 days
If the carriage of 810 kg for 70 km cost Rs 112.50, what
will be the cost of the carriage of 840 kg for a distance of
63 km at half the former rate?
c)Rs52d)Rs502
4
I f 300 men could do a piece o f work in 16 days, how

a) Rs 52
7.

b) Rs 53

## many men would do of the same work in 15 days?

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

a) 80 men
b) 85 men
c) 90 men
d) 75 men
If 27 men take 15 days to mow 225 hectares of grass, how
long will 33 men take to mow 165 hectares?
a) 9 days
b) 12 days
c) 15 days
d) 6 days
How many horses would be required to plough 117 hectares of land in 35 days, i f 10 horses can plough 13 hectares in 7 days?
a) 28 horses b) 18 horses c) 24 horses d) 16 horses
I f 6 men can do a piece of work in 30 days of 9 hours
each, how many men will it take to do 10 times the amount
of work if they work 25 days of 8 hours each?
a) 81 men
b) 80 men
c) 79 men
d) 82 men
I f I can walk a certain distance in 50 days when I rest 9
hours each day, how long will it take me to walk twice as
far if I walk twice as fast and rest twice as long each day?
a) 125
b)120
c)124
d) 130
A garrison of 2200 men is provisioned for 16 weeks at
the rate of 45 dag per diem per man. How many men must
leave so that the same provisions may last 24 weeks at
33 dag per diem per man?
a) 200
b) 2000
c)120
d)220
A gang of labourers promise to do a piece of work in 10
days, but five of them become absent. I f the rest of the
gang do the work in 12 days, find the original number of
men.

a) 30
b)35
c)40
d)25
14. A man can walk 600 kilometres in 35 days, resting 9 hours
each day. How long will he take to walk 375 kilometres if
he rests 10 hours each day and walks i times as fast
as before?"
5
a) 15 days b) 15 days
o

3
4
c) 5 days d) 15 days
o
5
1

15. Two gangs of 6 men and 9 men are set to reap two fields
of 35 and 45 hectares respectively. The first gang complete their work in 12 days; in how many days will the
second gang complete theirs?
70
a) days

72
79
b) days c) ~ days

82
d) days

## 16. I f 10 masons can build a wall 50 metres long in 25 days of

8 hours each, in how many days of 6 hours each will 15
masons build a wall 36 metres long?
a) 18 days
b) 15 days
c) 24 days
d) 16 days

I. b
2.b
3. a
4.b
5.d
6.c
7. a
8. a
9.b
lO.a
I I . a; Hint: In the first case I walk (24 - 9) or 15 hours each
day.
In the 2nd I walk (24 - 18) or 6 hours each day.
Now, we have the following proportion.
distance 1:2]
rate
2:1 >:: 50 days: reqd no. of days
hours
6:15
2x1x15x50

= 125
1x2x6
12. a; Hint: 'Per diem' means per day.
2200 men provisioned for 16 weeks at 45 dag per day
per man
? men provisioned for 24 weeks at 33 dag per day per
man
We have the following proportion
reqd. no. of days =

weeks
dag

24:16 i
33 45 [ *"

more weeks,
less men
men: men reqd. less dag,
more men
16x45x2200

2000
24x33
Hence (2200 - 2000) or 200 men must leave.
men required =

i
Original number
12
13. a; Hint: We have at once, . . ;
r
7
' Original number - 5 To
Here the difference of the last two terms 12 and 10 is
2, but the difference of the first two terms is 5.

99

## Ratio & Proportion

Now we have the proportion:
diff
diff
men
2 : 5
::
12
.-. original number of men = 30.
15.c
16. d

## lions, find the urban population of that country,

a) 360 millions
b) 260 millions
c) 240 millions
d) 200 millions

men
30

Lb

2. a

3rb-

Rule 5
Theorem: If two numbers are in the ratio of a : b and the
ax
mm of these numbers is x, then these numbers will be
a +b
bx

Sou

Rule 6
To find the number of coins.
Amount in rupees
Number of each type of coins =

V a l u e

c o i n s

i n

r u p e e s

Ex.1:

Illustrative Examples
Eil

5.d

Illustrative Examples

respectively.

a +b

4.d

## Two numbers are in the ratio of 3 : 1. I f sum of these

two numbers is 440, find the numbers.
By using the above rule, we have,
a = 3,b= l , x = 440
First number =

Second number =

ax

3 x 440

a +b

3+1

bx

1x440

a+b

3+1

## A bag contains an equal number of one rupee, 50

paise and 25 paise coins respectively. If the total value
is Rs 35, how many coins of each type are there?
Soln: Here number of each type of coins is same, hence we
may write,
Number of each type of coins
Total amount in Rs

= 330

## Sum of value of each coin

.-. Number of each type of coins

= 110
=

## Ex. 2: The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a school is

2 : 5. I f there are 350 students in the school, find the
number of girls in the school.
Here we can consider
a = number of boys = 2
b = Number of girls = 5
x = Total number of students = 350
We have to find number of girls ie b
bx
a+b

5x350
=>

35
~,71777
1 + 0.5 + 0.25

## 0 coins of each type.

J V

Ex. 2: A bag contains rupee, fifty paise and twenty five paise
coins whose values are in the proportion of 2 : 3 :4. I f
the total number of coins are 480 find the value of
each coin and the total amount in rupees.
Amount in rupees
Soln: Number of coins =

.,
= 250 girls.

## .-. Number of 1 rupee coin

2+5

2x
:

3x
Number of 50 paise coin

ercise
Two numbers are in the ratio of 8:7. I f sum of these two
numbers is 450- find the numbers.
a)210,240 b)240,210 c)235,215
d)215,235
Two numbers are in the ratio of 9:11. If sum of these two
numbers is 660, find the difference between the numbers.
a) 66
b)56
c)46
d)76
~ o numbers are in the ratio of 4:5. I f sum of these two
numbers is 27, find the product of the numbers,
a) 190
b) 180
c)225
d)240
The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a school is
7:13. I f there are 400 students in the school, find the
difference of the numbers of girls and boys,
a) 160
b)140
c)260
d)120
The ratio of the rural and urban population of a country
is 9:5. I f the total population of the country is 560 mil-

1/2
4x

1/4

## .. 2x + 6x + I6x- 480 (given)

:. x = 20
.-. Value of 1 rupee coin = 2x = Rs 40
Value of 50 paise coin = 3x = Rs 60
Value of 25 paise coin = 4x = Rs 80
Value of total amount = Rs 180 in the bag.

Exercise
1.

## A bag contains rupee, 50-paise and 25-paise coins in the

ratio 5:7:9. If the total amount in the bag is Rs 430, find
the number of coins of each kind.
3)200,280,360
b) 280,200,360
c) 360,280,200
d) 360,200,280

100
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

## In a bag there are coins of 25-paise, 10-paise and 5-paise

in the ratio 1:2:3. The value of the money in the bag is Rs
60. Then, the number of 25-paise coin is
a) 10
b)120
c)100
d)20
A bag contains rupee, fifty paise and twenty five paise
coins whose values are in the proportion of 4:5:6. If the
total number of coins are 760, find the number of 50paise coins.
a) 80
b)200
c)480
d)280
A bag contains rupee, 50-paise and 25-paise coins in the
ratio 3:4:5. I f the total amount in the bag is Rs 625, find
the no. of coins of 25-paise.
a) 125
b)1250
c)500
d)1000
A bag contains an equal number of one-rupee, 50-paise
and 25-paise coins respectively. I f the total value is Rs
43.75, how many coins of each type are there?
a) 40
b)25
c)35
d)30
A bag contains an equal number of 50-paise, 25-paise,
20 paise and 5-paise coins respectively. I f the total value
is Rs 40, how many coins of each type are there?
a) 40
b)25
c)30
d)20

12 _ 12
Strength of milk in the first mixture = ~ - ~
12 + 3 15
&

## The ratio of their strengths =

T 2' 4

1.

2.

3.

2)
5.

. . . 14
the value of 50-paise coins = 430 x = Rg 140
the value of 25-paise coins = ^ - ^ x

Rs 90

## .-. the number of one-rupee coins = 200 x 1 = 200

the number of 50-paise coins = 140 x 2 = 280
the number of 25-paise coins = 90 * 4 = 360
3.b
4.c
5.b
6.a
2.c

Rule 7
To And the strength to milk
Strength of milk in the mixture

12 10
15 ' 14

Exercise

4.

20
Thus, the value of one-rupee coins = 430 x = r

14

= 28:25

= 20:14:9

10

= 12x14:15x10

5 7 9

10
10 + 4

## One man adds 5 litres of water to 15 litres of milk and

another 6 litres of water to 12 litres of milk. What is the
ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
a) 9:8
b)8:9
c)7:6
d)6:7
One man adds 2 litres of water to 10 litres of milk and
another 3 litres of water to 12 litres of milk. What is the
ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
a) 10:9
. b) 12:11
c)25:24
d)26:25
One man adds 11 litres of water to 14 litres of milk and
another 12 litres of water to 13 litres of milk. What is the
ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
a) 13:14
b) 14:13
c) 11:13
d) 12:11
One man adds 5 litres of water to 8 litres of milk and
another 3 litres of water to 10 litres of milk. What is the
ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
a)5:4
b)7:5
c)4:5
d)9:10
One man adds 6 litres of water to 11 litres of milk and
another 9 litres of water to 8 litres of milk. What is the
ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
a)2:3
b)3:2
c) 11:8
d)8:ll

l.a

2.c

3.b

4.c

5.c

Rule 8
Ex.:

## Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of

milk and water in the ratio 5 : 2 and 6 : 1 respectively.
Both the mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the
ratio of milk to water in the new mixture so obtained.
Soln: Detail Method: Change the ratios into fractions
Milk
:
Water

Quantity of Milk
Total Quantity of Mixture

Vessel I

Illustrative Example
Ex:

## One man adds 3 litres of water to 12 litres of milk and

another 4 litres of water to 10 litres of milk. What is
the ratio of the strengths of milk in the two mixtures?
Soln: Strength of milk in the mixture
Quantity of Milk
Total Quanity of Mixture

Vessel I I

7
7
Now, both the mixtures are mixed thoroughly.
Therefore, the ratio of water to milk in the new vessel
- + 7 7
+

2 1 1 = 1 1 : 2 = 11:3
1 1 ) 1 1
+

Ratio 8t Proportion

101

Quicker Method: See carefully, i f the sum of the ratios of milk to water in two vessels is equal [as in the
above example (5 + 2 = 6 + 1)] then new ratio of milk to
water will be the sum of respective ratios of milk to
water in two vessels ie 5 + 6 = 11 and 2 + 1 = 3 respectively.
Note: This will not apply i f the sum of the ratios are not
same in two vessels.

Vessel I

Vessel I I

Water

Mifc

J_

_5

1
4
From Vessel I , is taken and from Vessel I I , is

Exercise
1.

## Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of milk

and water in the ratio 3:2 and 4:1 respectively. Both the
mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the ratio of milk
to water in the new mixture so obtained.
a)3:7
b)7:3
c) 1:1
d)4:3
Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of milk
and water in the ratio 2:7 and 5:4 respectively. Both the
mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the ratio of milk
to water in the new mixture so obtained.
a) 1:2
b) 1:1
c) 11:7
d)7:ll
Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of milk
and water in the ratio 8:5 and 3:10 respectively. Both the
mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the ratio of milk
to water in the new mixture so obtained.
a) 11:15
b) 15:11
c) 1:1
d)4:9
Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of milk
and water in the ratio 8:9 and 12:5 respectively. Both the
mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the ratio of milk
to water in the new mixture so obtained. a) 7:10
b) 13:21
c)21:13
d)10:7
Two vessels contain equal quantity of mixtures of milk
and water in the ratio 9:5 and 4:3 respectively. Both the
mixtures are now mixed thoroughly. Find the ratio of milk
to water in the new mixture so obtained.
a) 17:11
b) 11:17
c)8:13
d) 13:8

2.

3.

4.

5.

taken.
Therefore, the ratio of water to milk in the new vessel
1 1 2
X

15

1.

2.

3.

4.

x

:y

## are mixed in the

ratio x:y. The resulting mixture will have water and milk in
the ratio of

5.

## xx (x +y )+ yx fa + v, )xy (x + y ) + y v (x, + >>,).

x

Illustrative Example
The contents of two vessels containing water and
milk are in the ratio 1:2 and 2:5 are mixed in the ratio
1:4. The resulting mixture will have water and milk in
the ratio
.
Soln: Detail Method: Change the ratios into fractions.

35

1 5

xIx

_2_

3 5 7 5
20
31 _ 74

15

35

= 31:74

105'105

Exercise

Lb
2.d
3.a
4.d
5. a; Hint: 4:3 = 8:6 and 9 + 5 = 14,8 + 6 = 14.

## Quicker Method: Applying the above theorem, we

have,
the required answer = 1 x l x (2 + 5) + 4 x 2 (1 + 2 ) :
1 x2(2 + 5) + 4 x 5 ( l + 2 )
= 1 x 7 + 8 x 3 : 2 x 7 + 20x3 = 31:74

Rule 9

Ex.:

## The contents of two vessels containing water and milk

are in the ratio 2:3 and 4:5 are mixed in the ratio 1:2. The
resulting mixture will have water and milk in the ratio
a) 77:58
b) 58:77
c) 68:77
d) 77:68
The contents of two vessels containing water and milk
are in the ratio 3:4 and 5:4 are mixed in the ratio 1:4. The
resulting mixture will have water and milk in the ratio
a) 184:176
b) 167:184
c) 167:148
d) 148:167
The contents of two vessels containing water and milk
are in the ratio 1:2 and 2:3 are mixed in the ratio 3:4. The
resulting mixture will have water and milk in the ratio
a) 13:22
b) 31:22
c)22:31
d)22:13
The contents of two vessels containing water and milk
are in the ratio 2:5 and 4:7 are mixed in the ratio 1:3. The
resulting mixture will have water and milk in the ratio
a)53:101
b) 101:53
c)35:101
d) 101:35
The contents of two vessels containing water and milk
are in the ratio 1:3 and 1:6 are mixed in the ratio 1:5. The
resulting mixture will have water and milk in the ratio
a) 47:9

b)74:9

c)9:141

l.b

2.c

3.a

4. a

5.d

d)9:47

102

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
5.

Rule 10
Theorem: If two numbers are in the ratio of a : b and the
difference between these numbers is x, then these numbers
will be
(i)

ax

and

bx
~a~^b

6.

## respectively, (where, a>b)

ax
bx
(ii) - and ~ respectively (where a < b)
b-a

7.

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: Two numbers are in the ratio of 9 : 14. I f the larger
number is 55 more than the smaller number, find the
numbers.
Soln: Here rule (ii) will apply because (a < b).
Smaller number

ax

9x55

b-a

14-9

bx

14x55

99

= 154
b-a
5
Hence, numbers are 99 and 154.
Ex.2: I f income of A, B and C is in the ratio of 3 : 7 : 9 and
income of B is Rs 240 more than that of A, find the
income of C.
Soln: Here, this rule will also apply.
Ratio of the income of A, B and C = 3 : 7 :9
.-. Ratio of the income of A and B = 3 : 7
And difference between income of A and B = Rs 240
Larger number =

## I f income of A, B and C is in the ratio of 2:9:11 and

income of B is Rs 280 more than that of A, find the income of C.
a)Rs480
b)Rs440
c)Rs540
d)Rs450
The prices of a scooter and a television set are in the
ratio 3:2. I f a scooter costs Rs 6000 more than the television set, the price of the television set is:
a) Rs 18000 b)Rs 12000 c)Rs 10000 d)Rs6000
(Bank PO Exam 1989)
The monthly salary of A, B and C is in the proportion 2
: 3 : 5. I f C's monthly salary is Rs 1200 more than A's
monthly salary, B's annual salary is:
a) Rs 14400 b)Rs 24000 c)Rsl200
d)Rs2000
(BankPO Exam 1990)

l.a
2. a
3.c
4.a
5.b
6.b
7. a; Hint: Let the salaries of A, B, C be 2x, 3x and 5x respectively.
Now, 5 x - 2 x = 1200 => x = 400.
.-. B'smonthly salary = 3x = Rs 1200.
.-. B's annual salary = 120 s 12 = Rs 14400

Rule 11
Theorem: If three numbers are in the ratio ofa: b: c and
the sum of these numbers is x, then these numbers will be
ax
a+b+c

bx
a+b+c

cx
and

a + b + c respectively.

Illustrative Example
Income of C

cx

9x240

= Rs540
b-a
7-3
[. a = 3,b = 7,andc = 9;andx = Rs240]
.-. Income of C = Rs 540
:

Ex.:

## An amount of Rs 750 is distributed among A, B and C

in the ratio of 4 : 5 : 6. What is the share of B.
bx
5x750
Soln: Share of B =
a +b +c
4 + 5 + 6 = Rs250

Exercise

Exercise

1.

1.

2.

3.

4.

## Two numbers are in the ratio of 8 : 5. I f the larger number

is 27 more than the smaller number, find the sum of the
numbers.
a) 117
b) 118
c)115
d) 116
Two numbers are in the ratio of 4 : 7. I f the larger number
is 9 more than the smaller number, find the remainder
when larger number is divided by the smaller number.
a)9
b)8
c)6
d)7
Two numbers are in the ratio of 4: 5. I f the larger number
is 15 more than the smaller number, find the product of
the numbers.
a) 3500
b)3000
c)4500
d)4550
Two numbers are in the ratio of 3 : 1. I f the larger number
is 12 more than the smaller number. Find the smallest
number that should be subtracted from the product of
the numbers so that remainder is divisible by sum of the
numbers.
a) 12
b) 18
c)8
d) 15

2.

## An amount of Rs 950 is distributed among A, B and C in

the ratio of 5 : 11 : 3, what is the difference between the
share of B and A?
a) 550
b>250
c)200
d)300
An amount of Rs 1250 is distributed among A, B and C
in the ratio of 4 : 7 : 14. What is the ratio between the
difference of shares of B and A and the difference of
shares of C and B?
a)7:3
b)2:7
c)3:7
d)7:2
An amount of Rs 360 is distributed among A, B and C in
the ratio of 1 :2 : 3. Find the HCF of the shares obtained
by A, Band C.
a) 120
b)60
c)15
d)20
An amount of Rs 975 is distributed among A, B and C in
the ratio of 5 : 7 : 13. What is the share of C?
a)Rs509
b)Rs507
c)Rs273
d)Rs237
An amount of Rs 1170 is distributed among A, B and C
in the ratio of 3 : 5 : 7. What is the share of C?
1

3.

4.

Ratio 8s Proportion
a)Rs546
b)Rs456
c)Rs576
d)Rs586
An amount of Rs 975 is distributed among A, B and C in
the ratio of 3 :4 : 8. What is the share of C?
a)Rs520
b)Rs500
c)Rs575
d)Rs530

6.

6x + 5y

## or, 18x + 15v = 16x + 16y

l.d

2.c

3.b

4.b

5. a

x 1
or, 2x = y or, ~ ~ ^

6. a

Rule 12
Theorem: If two alloys A and B contain gold and silver in
the ratio of a: b and c: d respectively then a third alloy C
formed by mixing A and Bin the ratio ofx: y will contain

## Hence the two alloys should be mixed in the ratio of

1:2.

Exercise
1.

ax
a+b

c+d

x l 0 0 % gold and

x+ y

## Two alloys A and B contain gold and silver in the ratio

of 1:2 and 1: 3 respectively. A third alloy C is formed by
mixing A and B in the ratio of 2:3. Find the percentage of
silver in the alloy C.
a) 7 l | %

ax

cy

2.

a+b
c+d
x+y

100%

bx

xl00%

dy
+ -

or

a+b
c+d
x+ y

3.

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

3x

5y

+
4
8
x+ y

6x + 5y
8(x+y)

5.

xl00%

x l 0 0 % ....(i)

## V Ratio of silver to copper in the mixd alloy is 2 : 1 .

,-. Percentage quantity of silver in the mixed alloy

6.

.(ii)

g^xl00Vi = ^ %
3

63

3650
b)
%
' 63
0 /

2470
c)
%
' 63

/ o

2740
%
63
0 /

d)

## Two alloys contain silver and copper in the ratio of 2 : 1

and 4 : 1. In what ratio the two alloys should be added
together to get a new alloy having silver and copper in
the ratio of 3 :1?
a)5:3
b)3:5
c)2:5
d)5:2
Two alloys contain silver and copper in the ratio of 2 : 1
and 4 : 1. In what ratio the two alloys should be added
together to get a new alloy having silver and copper in
the ratio of 3 :2?
a)3:5
b)5:2
c) 1:2
d) Can't be determined
A and B are two alloys of gold and copper prepared by
mixing metals in proportions 7 :2 and 7:11 respectively.
I f equal quantities of alloys are melted to form a third
alloy C, the proportion of gold and copper in C will be:
a)5:9
b)5:7
c)7:5
d)9:5
(CDS Exam, 1989)

l.a

d) 2 9 i %

19
^13
_ 5
.-,16
d) 6 7 - o
a) 4 1 % b) 6 7 - o
'
21
Two alloys contain silver and copper in the ratio of 4 : 5
and 3 : 4. In what ratio the two alloys should be added
together to get a new alloy having silver and copper in
the ratio of 2 :3? Find the percentage of gold in the alloy
C.
3560

4.

c) 7 0 | %

## Two alloys contain silver and copper in the ratio of 2 : 3

and 3 : 4. In what ratio the two alloys should be added
together to get a new alloy having silver and copper in
the ratio of 1 :2? Find the percentage of gold in the alloy
C.

a)

y
Now, applying the above rule,
Percentage quantity of silver in the mixed alloy

8(*+v)

b) 2 8 j %

/ o

x l 0 0 % silver.

## Two alloys contain silver and copper in the ratio of 3

: 1 and 5 : 3. In what ratio the two alloys should be
added together to get a new alloy having silver and
copper in the ratio of 2 : 1?
Soln: Suppose that the two alloys are mixed in the ratio ofx

or, x : y = 1 :2

2. a

"3.d

4.b

## PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

104
( 2x
+
3
5. d; Hint:
x+

4y ^
3
10x + 12y
5_
x l 0 0 = - x l 0 0 or, T 7 T T
5
' I5(x + y)
y

Rule 14

3
7
5

## Theorem: If an alloy contains A and B metals in the ratio a

: b then percentage of A and B metals in the alloy will be
xl00%

or, x + 3y = 0
For any positive value of x and y, this equation will not
be satisfied.
6. c; Hint: In alloy C (when one unit each of A and B is
mixed),
S

2 11
21
1 8 j " l 8 and copper = [ +
9

21 15
.-. Ratio of gold and copper = :

1 O

l g

10

15
18

100%-

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

## I f an alloy contains copper and zinc in the ratio of 7 :

13, what is the percentage quantity of copper in the
alloy?
Soln: Applying the above rule, we have,
the percentage quantity of copper in the alloy
xl00% =

## Theorem: If in a mixture ofx litres, milk and water are in

the ratio ofa:b then the quantities of milk and water in the

1.

bx
- litres and litres respectively.
a +b
a+b

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

## In a mixture of 65 litres milk and water are in the ratio

of 3 : 2. What are the quantities of milk and water in
the mixture?
Soln: Applying the above rule, we have,

## quantity of water in the mixture

bx
:

a+b

a) 6 2 1 %

4.

b) 3 7 - %
c) 4 7 - %
d) 5 2 - %
2
2
2
I f an alloy contains zinc and silver in the ratio 2 1 : 4 ,
what is the percentage quantity of silver in the alloy?
a) 84%
b) 16%
c)26%
d)64%
I f an alloy contains zinc and silver in the ratio 7 : 9, what
is the percentage quantity of zinc?

2x65
= 26

a) 4 3 - %

1.

l.d

3.

4.

5.

## In a mixture of 64 litres, milk and water are in the ratio of

1:3. What is the quantity of milk in the mixture?
a) 16
b)48
c)15
d)21
In a mixture of 99 litres, milk and water are in the ratio of
5 : 6. What is the quantity of water in the mixture?
a) 54
b)45
c)48
d)44
In a mixture of 80 litres, milk and water are in the ratio of
11:9. What is the quantity of milk in the mixture?
a) 54
b)45
c)44
d)36
In a mixture of625 litres, milk and water are in the ratio of
13 : 12. What is the quantity of water in the mixture?
a) 300
b)180
c)350
d)325
In a mixture of 85 litres, milk and water are in the ratio of
14 : 3. What is the quantity of milk in the mixture?
a)80
b) 15
c)70
d)65

la
2. a

3.c

4. a

5.c

x 100 = 35%

## I f an alloy contains zinc and silver in the ratio 4 : 1 , what

is the percentage quantity of silver in the alloy?
a) 80%
b)30%
c)70%
d)20%
If ap alloy contains copper and silver in the ratio 3:5,
what is the percentage quantity of copper in the alloy?

Exercise

2.

7 + 13

Exercise

ax

ax
3x65
quantity of milk in the mixture = a + br = : = 39

-xl00%
a+b

respectively.

5 .

Rule 13

or

a+b

a + b*

a + b)

mixture will be

ax 100% '

2.b

b) 4 4 - %

c) 4 5 - %

d) 4 8 - %

4. a

3.b

Rule 15
Theorem: If the ratio between thefirst and the second quantities is a: b and the ratio between the second and the third
quantities is c : d, then the ratio among first, second and
third quantities is given by ac: be : bd.
The above ratio can be represented diagrammatically as

ac

be

bd

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: The sum of three numbers is 98. If the ratio between
the first and second be 2 : 3 and that between the
second and third be 5 : 8, then find the second number.

105

## Ratio & Proportion

Soln: The theorem does not give the direct value of the
second number, but we can find the combined ratio of
all the three numbers by using the above theorem.
The ratio among the three numbers is
2 : 3
5 : 8
10 : 15 : 24
98
The second number = 77 x 15 = 30
10 + 15 + 24
Ex. 2: The ratio of the money with Rita and Sita is 7 :15 and
that with Sita and Kavita is 7 : 16. I f Rita has Rs 490,
how much money does Kavita have?
Soln: Rita: Sita: Kavita
7 : 15
7 : 16
49 : 105 : 240
The ratio of money with Rita, Sita and Kavita is 49 :
105:240
We see that 49 P Rs 490 .-. 240 Rs 2400

Exercise
1.

3.

4.

5.

## The sum of three numbers is 105. If the ratio between the

first and second be
2 : 3 and that between the second
and third be 4 : 5, then find the second number,
a) 35
b)24
c)36
d)45
The sum of three numbers is 275. I f the ratio between the
first and second be
3 : 7 and that between the second
and third be 2 : 5, then find the second number,
a) 30
b) 175
c)70
d)80
The sum of three numbers is 124. I f the ratio between the
first and second be
4 : 9 and that between the second
and third be 1 : 2. Find the difference between the third
number and the sum of first and second number.
a) 20
b)72
c)52
d)36
The sum of three numbers is 230. If the ratio between the
first and second be
1:3 and that between the second
and third be 2 : 5, find the sum of the first and second
numbers.
a)60
b)210
c)170
d)80
The ratio of the money with Sita and Geeta is 3 : 4 and
that with Geeta and Guddu is 4 : 5 . If Sita has Rs 300, how
much money does Guddu have?
a) 300
b)400
c)500
d) Can't be determined

## ond, third andfourth quantities is given by

1 s t : 2nd =

2.c

3. a

4.d

5.c

b>^

3rd : 4th
1st: 2nd : 3rd : 4th = ace : bee : bde : bdf

Illustrative Examples
Ex.1: I f A : B = 3 : 4 , B : C = 8 : 1 0 a n d C : D = 1 5 : 17
Then find A : B : C : D.
Soln: A : B
=
3:4
B:C
=
8:10
C:D
=
15:17
A:B:C:D = 3x8xl5:4x8><15:4xl0xl5:4xl0
x 17
= 9:12:15:17
Ex. 2: I f A : B = 1: z, B : C = 3 :4, C : D = 2 : 3 and
D : E = 3 :4
ThenfindA:B:C:D:E.
Soln:
A :B =

B :C =
C :D =
D :E =

A : B : C : D : E = l x 3 x 2 x 3 : 2 x 3 x 2 x 3
2x4x2x3:2x4x3x3
:

:2 x4 x 3 x4
=3:6:8:12:16

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

Rule 16
Theorem: If the ratio between thefirst and the second quantities is a : b; the ratio between the second and the third
quantities is c : d and the ratio between the third and the
fourth quantities is e :f then the ratio among thefirst, sec-

2 n d : 3rd =

l.c

4.

I f A : B = l : 2 , B : C = 2 : 3 a n d C : D = 3:4.
Find A : B : C: D.
b) 1: 3 :4:5
a) 1:2 :3 :4
d) 1 :2 : 3:5
c)1:3 :5 :6
5 a n d C : D = 9:11
IfA:B = 2:3,B:C = 3
Find A : B : C: D.
b)54:81:135:165
a)54:81:135:156
c)54:18:135:165
I f A : B = 2 : 3 , B : C = 4 : 5 a n d C : D = 3:7
Find A's share of property of Rs 2100.
a)Rs240
b)Rs340
c)Rs260
d)Rs420
I f A : B = 2 : 3 , B : C = 4 : 5 , C : D = 6:7andD:E = 8:9,then
find E's share of property of Rs 34650.
a)Rs9450
b)Rs8400
c) Rs 7200

106
5.

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
I f A : B = 3 : 4 , B : C = 5 : 7 a n d C : D = 3:5,thenfindA:
B:C:D.
a)9:21:12:28
b)45:60:84:140
c)9:12:28:21
d)9:12:21:82

5.

l.a
4. a;

2.b
3.a
Hint: A : B : C: D : E = 384:576:720:840:945

4 +

6 +

0 +

0 +

a) 15:14

b) 15 :13

45

l.a

2. a

3.c

Rule 17
A hound pursues a hare 3nd t3kes 5 leaps for every 6
leaps of the hare, but 4 leaps of the hound are equal
to 5 leaps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound
snd the hare.
Soln: Method I:
4 leaps of hound = 5 leaps of hare
5 leaps of hound

25

12
the number of days taken by B = 5
x

leaps of hare

Exercise

4.

5.d

## A can do a piece of work in 12 days. B is 60% more

efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to
do the same piece of work.
Soln: Method I:
A
B
Efficiency
100
160
Days
160
100
8
or
5

## A hound pursues a hare and takes 6 leaps for every 7

leaps of the hare, but 5 leaps of the hound are equal to 6
leaps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound 3nd
the hare.
a)36:35
b)35:34
c)34:33
d)33:32
A hound pursues a hare and takes 3 leaps for every 4
leaps of the hare, but 2 leaps of the hound 3re equal to 3
leaps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound 3nd
the hare.
a)9:8
b)7:6
c)5:6
d)8:9
A hound pursues a hare and takes 7 leaps for every 8
leaps of the hare, but 5 leaps of the hound 3re equal to 6
lesps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound and
the hare.
a)20:19
b)18:17
c)21:20
d)20:21
A hound pursues a hare and takes 6 leaps for every 9
leaps of the hare, but 3 leaps of the hound are equal to 5
leaps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound and

days.
Method II:
By the rule of fraction: As B is more efficient, it is
clear that B will complete the work in less days. So,
the number of days (12) should be multiplied by a

25
the rate of hound rate of hare = : 6 = 25:24
4
Method II:
or, Ratio of
Hound
Hare
leap
frequency
5
*-6
leap length
4 *
'
*5
Then the required ratio of speed is the ratio of the
cross-product.
That is, speed of hound : speed of hare
= 5 x 5 : 6 x 4 = 25:24.

3.

4.c

Ex.:

Ex.

2.

d)5:4

Rule 18

= Rs9450.
5.b

1.

c) 13 :12

945x34650
.-. shareofE

the hare.
a)30:29
b)6:5
c)10:9
d) 11:10
A hound pursues a hare and takes 5 leaps for every 12
leaps of the hare, but 1 leaps of the hound are equal to 3
leaps of the hare. Compare the rates of the hound and
the hare.

## less-than-one fraction and that fraction is

100
: 00 + 60

100
i.e., 160 . Therefore, our required answer is
100

12x5

160

=
4 days.
2
2
Note: You are advised to solve such kind of questions by
the "rule of fraction".

12x

Exercise
1.

## A can do a piece of work in 25 days. B is 25% more

efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to do
the same piece of work.
a) 20 days

2.

a y s c

) 3 3 1 days d) 24 days

## A can do a piece of work in 18 days. B is 20% more

efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to do
the same piece of work.
a) 16 days

3.

b) 31-1 d

## b) 2 2 1 days c) 15 days d) 24 days

A can do a piece of work in 16 days. B is 20% less efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to do

107

## mentioned theorem. Here, we see that the first ratio is

reversed in the second case. That is, a : b becomes b
: a in the new mixture. Moreover the total quantin of

## the same piece of work.

a) 20 days

b) 12 j days c)15days

d) 24 days

## A can do a piece of work in 26 days. B is 30% more

efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to do
the same piece of work.
a) 25 days b) 15 days c) 16 days d) 20 days
A can do a piece of work in 15 days. B is 25% more
efficient than A. Find the number of days it takes B to do
the same piece of work.
a) 25 days b) 20 days c) 18 days d) 24 days

## initial mixture equals the denominator [c(a + &)]. In

this case, the water to be added = a

100

- x l 6 =20 days
100-20

1.

## In 44 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and

water is 6 : 5. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 2 : 3?
a) 61 litres
b) 16 litres c) 8 litres
d) 18 litres
In 60 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and
water is 4 : 1. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 3:1?
a) 4 litres
b) 15 litres c) 16 litres d) 20 litres
In 24 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and
water is 9 : 4. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 4 : 9?
a) 25 litres
b) 20 litres
c) 3 0 litres
d) Cann' t be determ ined
In 153 litresmixtureofmilkandwatertheratioofmilkand
water is 11 : 6. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 3 :2?
a) 26 litres
b) 13 litres c) 24 litres d) 12 litres
In 80 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and
water is 13 : 3. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 5 :4?
a) 37 litres
b) 40 litres c) 36 litres
d) 24 litres
In 60 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and
water is 7 : 5. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 5 : 7?
a) 42 litres
b) 30 litres c) 24 litres
d) 36 litres
In 28 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and
water is 5 : 2. How much water should be added in the
mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 2:5?
a) 42 litres
b) 32 litres c) 24 litres
d) 39 litres
In a mixture of 601 itres, the ratio of mi lk and water is 2 : 1 .
If the ratio o f milk and water is to be 1 : 2, then the
amount of water to be further added is:
(NDA Exam 1990)
a) 42 litres
b) 56 litres c) 60 litres
d) 77 litres

2.

3.

5.b

Rule 19

4.

## Theorem: If in x litres mixture of milk and water, the ratio

r milk and water is a: b, the quantity of water to be added
order to make this ratio c: dis

5.

:(a + b)

Illustrative Examples

LLI:

## In 40 litres mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk

and water is 3 : 1 . How much water should be added in
the mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes
2:1?
v m: Solving the above question by the direct formula
given in the above theorem:
The quantity of water to be added to get
_ 40(3x1-1x2) _ 40
the required ratio 5 litres.
(3 + l)2
~8
jte: The above solution can be verified as follows
40
In 40 litres of mixture, milk

3+1

6.

7.

8.

x 3 = 3 0 litres

## and water = 40 - 30 = 10 litres.

5 litres water is added; so in the new mixture, milk is 30
litres and water is 10 + 5 = 15 litres.
Thus, the new ratio is 30 : 15 = 2 : 1. This ratio is the
same as given in the question.
Ex.2: In 30 litres mixture of milk and water, the ratio of milk
and water is 7 : 3. Find the quantity of water to be
added in the mixture in order to make this ratio 3 :7.
sMn: Following the same theorem, we have,
30(7x7-3x3)
3(7 + 3)

l.b

2. a.

3.c

5. a

6.c

7. a

8.c

Rule 20

n t r e s

bx
Note: The above question is the special case of the above

4.d

## Theorem:^ mixture contains milk and water in the ratio a

: b. If x litres of water is added to the mixture, milk and
water become in the ratio a: c. Then the quantity of milk in
the mixture is given by

Exercise

Amswers

La:

-b .

c-b'

ax
b

## and that of water is given by

108

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

Illustrative Examples

## Ex. 1: A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 3 :2.

I f 4 litres of water is added to the mixture, milk and
water in the mixture become equal. Find the quantities of milk and water in the mixture.
Soln: If we want to solve the above question by the theorem stated above, we will have to change the form of
ratios to a : b and a : c. In the above question, the
initial ratio is 3 :2. Thus, to equate the antecedents of
the ratio, we write the second ratio as 3 : 3. Then by
the above direct formula:

l.a

3x4
The quantity of milk = - - = 12 litres.
2x4
and the quantity of water = - - = 8 litres.
Ex.2: A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 8:3.
On adding 3 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water
becomes 2 : 1 . Find the quantities of milk and water in
the mixture.
Soln: To follow the above theorem, we change the ratios in
the form a: b and a: c. Then the ratios can be written
as 8 : 3 and 8 : 4. Thus, the quantity of milk in the
8x3
mixture = ~ - = 24 litres
4-3

2.d

3.a

4.c

5.a

Rule 21
Theorem : If two quantities X and Y are in the ratio x: y.
Then X+Y: X-Y:: x+y
:x-y

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: A sum of money is divided between two persons in
the ratio of 3 : 5. I f the share of one person is Rs 20
less than that of the other, find the sum.
Sum

3+5

## Soln : By the above theorem :

g
.-.Sum= - x 2 0 = Rs80
2
Note: The above question can also be solved as follows
(this method is similar to the above theorem):
20
5-3=Rs20
.-. 5 + 3
x(5 + 3)=Rs80
Ex. 2: The prices of a scooter and a moped are in the ratio of
9 : 5. I f a scooter costs Rs 4200 more than a moped,
find the price of the moped.
Soln: Following the method mentioned in the above note,
we have,
4200

3x3
and the quantity of water in the mixture = - - = 9

9-5=Rs4200

.-. 5 = - ^ y x 5 =Rs5250

litres.

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

## A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 9:4. On

adding 4 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water becomes 3 : 2. Find the total quantity of the original mixture.
a) 26 litres b) 18 litres c) 10 litres d) 30 litres
A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 4:3. On
adding 2 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water becomes 8 : 7. Find the total quantity of the final mixture,
a) 16 litres b) 12 litres c) 28 litres d) 30 litres
A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 12 : 5.
On adding 8 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water
becomes 4 : 3 . Find the quantity of milk in the mixture,
a) 24 litres b) 10 litres c) 14 litres d) 16 litres
A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 6 : 1 . On
adding 4 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water becomes 6:5. Find the quantity of water in the mixture,
a) 6 litres
b) 4 litres
c) 1 litre
d) 2 litres
A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 2 : 1 . On
adding 3 litres of water, the ratio of milk to water becomes 4 : 3 . Find the quantity of water in the mixture,
a) 6 litres
b) 12 litres c) 8 litres
d) 10 litres

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

## A sum of money is divided between two persons in the

ratio of 2 :9. I f the share of one person is Rs 21 less than
that of the other, find the sum.
a)Rs32
b)Rs44
c)Rs33
d)Rs36
A sum of money is divided between two persons in the
ratio of 4 : 7. I f the share of one person is Rs 12 less than
that of the other, find the sum.
a)Rs44
b)Rs36
c)Rs40
d)Rs42
A sum of money is divided between two persons in the
ratio of 5 :2. I f the share of one person is Rs 15 less than
that of the other, find the sum.
a)Rs25
b)Rs30
c)Rs45
d)Rs35
The prices of a pen and a pencil are in the ratio of 5 :2.
I f a pen costs Rs 3 more than a pencil, find the price of a
pencil.
a)Rs5
b)Rs2
c)Rs3
d)Rs4
The prices of a scooter and a moped are in the ratio of 11
: 7. I f a scooter costs Rs 4400 more than a moped, find
the price of the moped.
a)Rs7700

b)Rs6700

c)Rs7600

l.c

2. a

3.d

4.b

5.a

d)Rs5500

9.

## The ratio of the perimeters of two hexagons is 2 : 1. Find

the ratio of their areas.
Tfceo rem: In any two two-dimensionalfigure, if the correa)4:l
b)l:4
c)9:4
d)4:9
mmmding sides are in the ratio a: b, then their areas are in
10. The ratio of diagonals of two squares is 4 : 3. Find the
me rmtw a ;b .
ratio of their areas.

Rule 22

ative Examples

a)9:16

b) 16:25

c)16:9

d)25:16

## 1: The sides of a hexagon are enlarged by three times.

Find the ratio of the areas of the new and old hexagons.
%mm: Following the above theorem, we see that the ratio of
the corresponding sides of the two hexagons is a : b
= 1:3.
Therefore, the ratio of their areas is given by

a :6 =l :3 =l:9
i x . 2: The ratio of the diagonals of two squares is 2 : 1. Find
the ratio of their areas.
5mm: We should follow the same rule when the ratio of
diagonals is given instead of the ratio of sides. Thus,
the ratio of their areas = 2 : l = 4 : 1.
E L 3: The ratio of the radius (or diameter or circumference)
of two circles is 3 :4. Find the ratio of their areas.
3mm: Following the rule, we have,
ratio of their areas = 3 : 4 = 9 16.
Wmmz The above mentioned theorem is true for any twodimensional figure and for any measuring length related to that figure.

Theorem: In any two 3-dimensional figure, if the corresponding sides or other measuring lengths are in the ratio

Exercise
The ra!i& &fthe sides of tiro squares is 3 : 4. Find the
ratio of their areas.
a) 16:9
b)9:16
c)4:3
d)12:16
~he areas of the two hexagons are in the ratio of 25 : 16.
Find the ratio of their sides.
a)625:256 b)5:3
c)5:6
d)5:4
~he ratio of circumference of the two circles is 2:9. Find
*e ratio of their areas.
a)4:9
b)9:4
c)4:81
d)81:4
Die ratio of diagonals of two squares is 13 : 1 1 . Find the
ratio of their areas.
a) 169:121 b) 121:169 c) 112:196 d) 169:112
The sides of a hexagon are enlarged by 5 times. Find the
ratio of the areas of the old and new hexagons.
a) 1:25
b)25:l
c) 2:25
d) Can't be determined
4 The ratio of the radius of two circles is 5 :4. Find the ratio
of their areas.
a) 16:25
b)9:25
c)25:9
d)25:16
The ratio of the perimeters of two squares is 3 : 1. Find
the ratio of their areas.
a)l:9
b)9:l
c) 16:1
d) 1:16
& The ratio of the diameters of two circles is 5 : 8. Find the
ratio of their areas.
a)25:64
b)25:46
c)25:81
d)36:81

l.b
2.d
3.c
4. a
5.b
6.d
7.b
8. a
9. a; Hint: See the 'note' in the above mentioned rule.
10. c

Rule 23

## a: b, then their volumes are in the ratio a : & .

3

Illustrative Example
Ex. (a) The sides of two cubes are in the ratio 2 : 1 . Find the
ratio of their volumes,
(b) Each side of a parallelopipe is doubled find the ratio
of volume of old to new parallelopipe.
Soln : (a) The required ratio = (2) : (l) = 8:1
3

3

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

## The diagonals of two cubes are in the ratio of 3 :4. Find

the ratio of their volumes.
a)64:27
b)27:64
c)81:216
d)216:81
The radii of two spheres are in the ratio of 1 : 7. Find the
ratio of their volumes.
a) 1:343
b) 343 :1
c) 1:243
d) Can't be determined
The diameters of two sphere are in the ratio of 3 : 8. Find
the ratio of their volumes.
a)27:216
b)27:512
c)512:27
d)216:27
Each side of a parallelopipe is increased 4 times. Find the
ratio of volume of new to old parallelopipe.
a) 16:1
b)64:l
c)l:64
d) 1:16
The sides of two cubes are in the ratio 5:2. Find the ratio
of their volumes.
a)4:25

b) 8:125

c)125;8

d)25:4

l.b

2.a

3.b

4.b

5.c

Rule 24
Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a : b. If each
number be increased by x, the ratio becomes c: d. Then, the
xa{c-d)
xb(c~d)
two numbers are given as :; and ::, where
c-a ^ d-b
s

110

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATH

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 4. I f each number be increased by 2, the ratio becomes 7:9. Find the
numbers.
Soln: Following the above theorem, the numbers are
-

2x3(7-9)
3x9-4x7

2x4(7-9)
a

3x9-4x7

## or, 12 and 16.

Note: The above question may be rewritten as "the ratio
between two numbers is 7 : 9. I f each number be decreased by 2 the ratio becomes 3 : 4 . Find the numbers."

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## The ratio between two numbers is 4 : 5. I f each number

be increased by 3, the ratio becomes 7 : 8. Find the numbers.
a) 4,5
b)8,10
c) 12,15
d) 16,20
The ratio between two numbers is 5 : 7. I f each number
be increased by 11, the ratio becomes 13:16. Find the
numbers.
a) 5,7
b) 15,21
c) 10,14
d) 75,105
The ratio between two numbers is 15 : 7. I f each number
be decreased by 2, the ratio becomes 7 : 3 . Find the
numbers.
a) 15,7
b)30,14
c)45,21
d)60,28
The ratio between two numbers is 15 :11. I f each number
be decreased by 6, the ratio becomes 3 : 2. Find the
numbers.
a) 30,22
b) 15,11
c)45,33
d)60,44
The ratio between two numbers is 2 : 1. I f each number
be decreased by 7, the ratio becomes 5 : 2. Find the
numbers.
a)30,15
b)24,12
c)42,21
d)62,31
Two numbers are such that the ratio between them is 3 :
5 but if each is increased by 10, the ratio between them
becomes 5 : 7. The numbers are:
[RRB Exam, 1989]
a) 3,5
b)7,9
c) 13,22
d) 15,25

## = d-b, then the numbers are given as

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: The ratio between two numbers is 3 :4. If each rfu
ber be increased by 6, the ratio becomes 4:5. Find |
two numbers.
Soln: The above question may be considered as a spei
case of the above theorem where c - a = d - b
It is easy to distinguish this type of question. In si
a question, there should be a uniform increase in
tio, i.e., the antecedent and consequent is increa
by the same value.
In the above question, we see that both the antec
ent and the consequent are increased by 1 each,
the numbers are increased by 6. Therefore, we i
say that
1 =6
or,3 = 3 x 6 = 18and4 = 4 x 6 = 24
Thus the numbers are 18 and 24.
Note: The above question may be rewritten as :
The ratio of two numbers is 4 : 5. I f each of thei
decreased by 6, the ratio becomes 3 : 4 . Find the
numbers.
Apply the same rule in this case also.
Ex. 2: The students in three classes are in the ratio 2 : 3
I f 20 students are increased in each class, the i
changes to 4 : 5 : 7. What was the total numbc
students in the three classes before the increase
Soln : In the above question also, we see that each I
increases by the same value. That is,
4 - 2 = 5 - 3 = 7 - 5 = 2. Thus, we have
2 = 20
.-. (2 + 3 + 5 ) = xlO = 100 students.
2

Exercise
1.

l.a
2.b
3. b; Hint: The given question may be rewritten as "the ratio
between two numbers is 7:3. If each number be increased
(because we have direct formula for 'increase') by 2 the
ratio becomes 15:7. Find the numbers."
Herex = 2,a:b = 7 : 3 a n d c : d = 1 5 :7.
4. a
5.c
6.d

2.

3.

Rule 25
Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a : b. If each
number be increased by x, the ratio becomes c: d and c-a

' ax \ bx
\and\
c-a )
\

4.

## The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 4. I f each nui

be increased by 4, the ratio becomes 5 : 6. Find the
numbers.
a) 6,8
b) 12,16
c) 18,24
d)24,32
The ratio between two numbers is 7 : 11. I f each nui
be increased by 6, the ratio becomes 5 : 7. Find tht
numbers.
a) 14,22
b) 7,11
c)21,33
d)28,44
The ratio of two numbers is 8 : 13. I f each of the
decreased by 15, the ratio becomes 3 : 8 . Find the 1
bers.
a) 24,39
b) 16,26
c)32,52
d)40,65
The ratio between two numbers is 4 : 3. I f each nu*
be decreased by 9, the ratio becomes 3 :2. Find thi
numbers.

o & Proportion
1)27,18
b)36:27
c)44:33
d)48:36
The students in three classes are in the ratio 4 : 6 : 9 . I f 12
students are increased in each class, the ratio changes
to 7 :9:12. What was the total number of students in the
three classes before the increase?
i)76
b)95
c)100
d) 114
The students in three classes are in the ratio 5 : 9 : 13. I f
100 students are increased in each class, the ratio
changes to 9 : 13 : 17. What was the total number of
students in the three classes before the increase?
a) 765
b)576
c)675
d)657
The students in three classes are in the ratio of 2 :4 : 5. I f
15 students are taken out from each class, the ratio
changes to 1 : 3 :4. What is the total number of students
in the three classes, now?
a) 165
b)105
c)120
d) 115

111
a: b = 3 :2 (Income)
c: d = 5 :3 (Expenditure)
X = 2000 (Savings)
Therefore, A's income =

(2 + 4 + 5)xl5

165 students.

3x3-2x5

## Theorem: The incomes of two persons are in the ratio a:b

md their expenditures are in the ratio c: d. If each of them
Xa(d-c)
mtves Rs X, then their incomes are given by
^ and
JLbjd-c)

Dlustrative Example
Eu

## The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 3 :2 and their

expenditures are in the ratio 5 : 3. I f each saves Rs
2000, what is their i xome?
Soln: According to the above theorem,

Rs 12,000

Xb{d-c)

2000x2x(3-5)

3x3-2x5

## and B's income =

= Rs 8,000

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1
According to the question, total no. of students now =
165-3 x 15 = 120students.

Rule 26

2000x3x(3-5)

ers
^ H i n t : a : b = 7 : l l , x = 6,c:d = 5:7 = 5 x 2 : 7 x 2 = 10 14
c-a=10-7 = d - b = 1 4 - l l = 3
i . Hint: The given question may be rewritten as "the ratio
between two numbers is 3 : 8. I f each number be increased by 15, the ratio becomes 8 : 13. Find the numbers."
Here,a:b = 3 :8,x = 15andc:d = 8:b
b
5. a
6. c
:. Hint: The given question may be rewritten as "the students in three classes are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. I f 15 students are increased in each class, the ratio changes to 2
: 4 : 5. What is the total number of students in the three
classes, now?"
Here, total no. of students in the three classes before the
15 students from each class are taken out =

Xajd-c)

## The incomes of Ram and Shyam are in the ratio 4 : 3 and

their expenditures are in the ratio 3 : 2. I f each saves Rs
2500, what are their incomes?
a) Rs 10000, Rs 7500
b) Rs 12000, Rs 9000
c) Rs 8000, Rs 6000
d) None of these
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 7 : 2 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 4 : 1. I f each saves Rs 1000,
what are their incomes?
a) Rs 6000, Rs 21000
b)Rs21000,Rs6000
c) Rs 42000, Rs 12000
d) Rs 12000, Rs 42000
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 4 : 3 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 5 :2. I f each saves Rs 4900,
what are their incomes?
a) Rs 8400, Rs 6300
b) Rs 10000 Rs 7500
c)Rs 9200, Rs 6900
d) Rs 9600, Rs 7200
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 7 : 5 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 5:3. I f each saves Rs 1600,
what are their incomes?
a)Rs5600,Rs4000
b) Rs 7000, Rs 5000
c)Rs 14000, Rs 10000
d) Rs 21000, Rs 15000
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 9 : 4 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 7 : 3. I f each saves Rs 2000,
what are their incomes?
a) Rs 90000, Rs 4000
b) Rs 27000, Rs 12000
c) Rs 72000, Rs 16000
d) Rs 72000, Rs 32000

l.a

2.b

3. a

4.a

5.d

Rule 27
Theorem: The incomes of two persons are in the ratio a: b
and their expenditures are in the ratio c: d. If each of them
Xc(b-a)
saves Rs X, then their expenditures are given by ~f^ZZ
and

Xd(b-a)
::.

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

## The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 3 :2 and their

expenditures are in the ratio 5 : 3. I f each saves Rs

112

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATH

## 2000, what are their expenditures?

Soln: According to the above theorem,
a: b = 3 2 (income)
c: d = 5 :3 (expenditure)
X = 2000 (savings)
Therefore,

## the sum of the numbers.

Soln: Applying the above rule, we have,
sum of two numbers

Xd{b-a)

3x23-4x18

_ 2000x3(3-2)
3x3-2x5

= Rs6000

2.

Exercise
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

## The incomes of Ram and Shyam are in the ratio 4 : 3 and

their expenditures are in the ratio 3 : 2. I f each saves Rs
2500, what are their expenditures?
a)Rs7500,Rs5000
b) Rs 6300, Rs 4200
c)Rs 6000, Rs 2000
d) Rs 7200 Rs 4800
The incomes o f A and B are in the ratio 7 : 2 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 4 : 1. I f each saves Rs 1000,
what are their expenditures?
a) Rs 20000, Rs 5000
b)Rs 16000, Rs 4000
c) Rs 12000, Rs 3000
d) Rs 24000, Rs 6000
The incomes of A. and B are in the ratio 4 : 3 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 5 :2. I f each saves Rs 4900,
what are their expenditures?
a)Rs3500,Rs 1400
b) Rs 4000 Rs 1600
c) Rs 4500, Rs 1800
d) Rs 5000, Rs 2000
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 7 : 5 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 5 : 3 . I f each saves Rs 1600,
what are their expenditures?
a)Rs3500,Rs2100
b) Rs 4000, Rs 2400
c)Rs 4500, Rs 2700
d) Rs 5000, Rs 3000
The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 9 : 4 and their
expenditures are in the ratio 7 : 3. I f each saves Rs 2000,
what are their expenditures?
a) Rs 56000, Rs 24000
b)Rs 63000, Rs 27000
c)Rs 49000, Rs 21000
d)Rs 70000, Rs 30000

l.a

2.a

3.a

4.b

5.d

Rule 28

5.

l.a

2.c

c)31

d)34

3.b

4.d

5.b

Rule 29
Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a : b. If each
number be increased by x, the ratio becomes c : d. Then.
difference of the two numbers =

x{a-b^c-d)

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 4. I f each number be increased by 2, the ratio becomes 7:9. Find the
difference of the two numbers.
Soln: Applying the above rule, we have
difference of the two numbers

x(a - b\c - d)
:

2(3-4X7-9)

x{a + bfc- d)

9x3-4x7

The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 4. I f each number be increased by 9, the ratio becomes 18 :23. Find

b)33

## ie difference of the two numbers = 4.

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

105

## The ratio between two numbers is 5 : 4. I f each num

be increased by 7, the ratio becomes 22 : 19. Find
sum of the numbers.
a)27
b)31
c)41
d)72
The ratio between two numbers is 7 :15. If each num
be increased by 5, the ratio becomes 19 : 35. Find t
sum of the numbers.
a) 64
b)54
c)44
d)34
The ratio between two numbers is 4 : 9. If each num
be increased by 8, the ratio becomes 6:11. Find the s
of the numbers.
a) 42
b)52
c)62
d)72
The ratio between two numbers is 11 :15. If each num
be increased by 22, the ratio becomes 11 : 13. Find the
sum of the numbers.
a) 44
b)77
c)65
d)52
The ratio between two numbers is 9 : 2 . I f each number
be increased by 9, the ratio becomes 12:5. Find the sura
of the numbers.
a)32

## Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a : b. if each

number be increased by x, the ratio becomes c : d. Then,
sum of two numbers

-3

Exercise
1.

= Rs 10000
B's expenditure

b\c-d)

9(3 + 4X18-23) _ 9 x 7 ( - 5 )

Xc(b-a)_
2000x5(3-2)
A's expenditure = 7 ^ 7 ^ ) =
_
3

x{a +

Exercise
1.

## The ratio between two numbers is 9 : 4. If each number

Ratio 8B Proportion

4.

:"

113

be increased by 3, the ratio becomes 2 : 1 . Find the difference of the two numbers.
a)4
b)2
c)15
d)3
The ratio between two numbers is 9 : 5. I f each number
be increased by 7, the ratio becomes 17 : 11. Find the
difference of the two numbers,
a) 10
b) 11
c)12
d)14
The ratio between two numbers is 4 : 3. If each number
be increased by 5, the ratio becomes 5 :4. Find the difference of the two numbers.
a)5
b) 13
c)12
d)ll
The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 5. I f each number
be increased by 10, the ratio becomes 5 : 7. Find the
difference of the two numbers.
a)9
b) 10
c)12
d) 15
The ratio between two numbers is 9 : 4. I f each number
be increased by 16, the ratio becomes 1 3 : 8 . Find the
difference of the two numbers.
a)9
b) 10
c)18
d)20
The ratio between two numbers is 7 : 4. I f each number
be increased by 2, the ratio becomes 5:3. Find the difference of the two numbers,
a) 10
b) 12
c)14
d) 16
The ratio between two numbers is 9 : 7. I f each number
be increased by 6, the ratio becomes 21 : 17. Find the
difference of the two numbers,
a) 8
b)14
c)16
d) 18

l.c

2.c

3.

4.

5.

6.

## the two numbers.

a) 32
b)36
c)42
d)46
The ratio of two numbers is 13 : 7. I f each number is
decreased by 6, the ratio becomes 5 : 2. Find the sum o f
the two numbers.
a) 38
b)35
c)45
d)40
The ratio of two numbers is 9 : 19. I f each number is
decreased by 2, the ratio becomes 4 : 9. Find the sum of
the two numbers.
a) 52
b)56
c)62
d)65
The ratio of two numbers is 3 : 2. I f each number is decreased by 12, the ratio becomes 2 : 1 . Find the sum of
the two numbers.
a) 50
b)60
c)48
d)56
The ratio of two numbers is 11 : 12. I f each number is
decreased by 3, the ratio becomes 19 : 21. Find the sum
of the two numbers.
a) 46

b)40

d)64

l.a

2.c

3.d

4.b

5.b

6. a

Rule 31
Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a: b. If each
number be decreased by x, the ratio becomes c: d. Then,the
difference of the two numbers =

xja - b\d - c)

Illustrative Example
3. a

4.b

5.d

6.b

7. a

Rule 30
Theorem: The ratio between two numbers is a: b. If each
number be decreased by x, the ratio becomes c : d. Then,

Ex.:

## The ratio of two numbers is 7 : 9. If each number is

decreased by 2 the ratio becomes 3:4. Find the difference of the numbers.
Soln: From the above rule, we have, the
difference of the numbers

x(a + b\d - c)
aun of the two numbers

Eu

## The ratio of two numbers is 7 : 9. I f each number is

decreased by 2, the ratio becomes 3 : 4 . Find the sum
of the two numbers.
Soln: From the above rule, we have,
sum of the two numbers
x{a + b\d-c)

7x4-9x3

-4

## difference of the numbers = 4

Illustrative Example

_ 2(7 + 9X4-3)
28-27

:32

Exercise
1.

2.

Exercise

c)44

The ratio of two numbers is 7 : 8. I f each number is decreased by 2, the ratio becomes 6 : 7 . Find the sum of the
two numbers.
a) 30
b)32
c)28
d)36
The ratio of two numbers is 5 : 9. I f each number is decreased by 5, the ratio becomes 5 : 1 1 . Find the sum of

3.

4.

The ratio of two numbers is 2 : 3. I f each number is decreased by 3 the ratio becomes 3 : 5. Find the difference
of the numbers.
d)4
a)5
b)7
c)6
The ratio of two numbers is 14 : 9. I f each number is
decreased by 8 the ratio becomes 2 : 1 . Find the difference of the numbers.
d) 12
a)9
b)10
c)8
The ratio of two numbers is 17 : 14. I f each number is
decreased by 4 the ratio becomes 5 : 4. Find the difference o f the numbers.
a)6
b)7
c)8
d)9
The ratio of two numbers is 5 : 9. If each number is decreased by 5 the ratio becomes 1 :2. Find the difference

114

5.

6.

## PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

of the numbers.
a) 12
b) 18
c)10
d)20
The ratio of two numbers is 5 : 8. I f each number is decreased by 6 the ratio becomes 1 :2. Find the difference
of the numbers.
a) 9
b)10
c)12
d)8
The ratio of two numbers is 16 : 5. I f each number is
decreased by 2 the ratio becomes 15:4. Find the difference of the numbers.
a) 15

b) 17

c)19

2.

3.

4.

d)22

2.b

a)15:5:3
b) 15:3:5
c)3:5:15
d)5:3:l
The speed of three cars are in the ratio 4 : 6 : 9 . What is
the ratio among the times taken by these cars to travel
the same distance?
a)16:36:81 b ) 6 : 4 : 9
c)9:6:4
d)81:36:16
The speed of three cars are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. What is
the ratio among the times taken by these cars to travel
the same distance?
a)3:2:l
b)6:3:2
c)6:5:2
d) 6:3 :1
A person distributes his pens among four friends A, B.

'1

l 1 1 1 =
C and D in the ratio ' ' ~ . What is the minimum
3 4 5 6

l.c

Ratio &

3. a

4.d

5. a

6.d

Rule 32
Theorem : If the ratio of any quantities be a: b :c: d, then
the ratio of other quantities which are inversely proportional to that is given by

2.

5.

i j_

b'c'd'
6.

Illustrative Examples
Ex. 1: The speed of three cars are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4 . What
is the ratio among the times taken by these cars to
travel the same distance?
Soln: We know that speed and time taken are inversely proportional to each other. That is, i f speed is more the
time taken is less and vice versa. So, we can apply the
above theorem in this case.
Hence, ratio of time taken by the three cars =

3 4

Now, multiply each fraction by the LCM of denominators i.e., the LCM of 2,3,4, i.e., 12. So, the required
ratio is given by

7.

l.a
2.c
3.b
4. a; Hint: LCM of 3,4,5 and 6 = 60
So, the pens are distributed among A, B, C and D in the
ratio 1 x 6 0 : 1 x 6 0 : 1 x 6 0 : 1 x 6 0 ie20:15:12:10.
3
4
5
6

12 .12 .12
2 ' 3 ' 4

=6:4:3

Ex. 2:

## The same type of work is assigned to three groups of

men. The ratio of persons in the groups is 3 : 4 : 5.
Find the ratio of days in which they will complete the
work.
Soln: We see that in this case also, man and days are inversely proportional to each other. So, the above rule
can be applied in this case also. Therefore, the re-

## number of pens that the person should have?

a) 57
b)75
c)67
d)76
The same type of work is assigned to three groups of
men. The ratio of persons in the groups is 5 : 4 : 6. Find
the ratio of days in which they will complete the work,
a) 15:18:10 b) 12:15 :10 c) 12:18:21 d ) 6 : 4 : 5
The same type of work is assigned to three groups of
men. The ratio of persons in the groups is 6 : 7 : 8. Find
th atio of days in which they will complete the work.
a)28:24:21 b)28:26:21 c)21:24:28 d ) 8 : 7 : 6
The same type of work is assigned to three groups of
men. The ratio of persons in the groups is 2 : 4 : 9. Find
the ratio of days in which they will complete the work.
a)18:9:4
b) 18:8 :5 c ) 4 : 9 : 1 8
d)9:4:2

## .-. total number of pens == 20x + 15x + 12x + 1 Ox = 57x j

For minimum number of pens, x = 1
.-. the person should have at least 57 pens.
5. b
6. a
7. a

Rule 33
Theorem: If the sum of two numbers is A and their difference is a, then the ratio of numbers is given
byA+a:A-a.

Illustrative Example
quired ratio is

Ex:

3 4 5
Multiplying the above fractions by the LCM of 3, 4
60 60 60

## The sum of two numbers is 40 and their difference is

4. What is the ratio of the two numbers?
Soln: Following the above theorem,
the required ratio of numbers = 40 + 4 :40 - 4
= 44:36 = 11:9

=20:15:12

Exercise
1.

## The speed of three cars are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5 . What is

the ratio among the times taken by these cars to travel
the same distance?

Exercise
1.

## The sum of two numbers is 36 and their difference is 6

What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)5:7
b)7:5
c)6:5
d)5:6

4.

Ratio 8B Proportion

4.

5.
6.

7.

115

## The sum of two numbers is 45 and their difference

What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)4:5
b)5:4
c)5:3
d)5:2
The sum of two numbers is 55 and their difference
What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)32:23
b)23:32
c)31:13
d)32:13
The sum of two numbers is 20 and their difference
What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)ll:8
b) 11:7
c) 11:6
d) 11:9
The sum of two numbers is 44 and their difference
What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)6:7
b)5:6
c)6:5
d)7:9

is 9.

3.a

4.d

5.c

6.c

is 4.

7. a

Rule 34
Theorem: A number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio a: b makes it equal to the ratio c: d is
.
c-d

Illustrative Example
Ex.:

## Find the number which, when added to the terms of

the ratio 11 :23 makes it equal to the ratio 4 : 7 .
Soln: Following the above rule, we have,
a: b = 11 :23
c:d=4:7
.-. the required number
11x7-23x4
c-d

4-7

(-)3

Exercise

2.
3
4.
5.
6.

## Find the number which, when added to the terms of the

ratio 13:28 makes it equal to the ratio 1:2.
Find the number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio 9:17 makes it equal to the ratio 3 : 5 .
Find the number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio 7:15 makes it equal to the ratio 3:5.
Find the number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio 11:29 makes it equal to the ratio 11 :20.
Find the number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio 13 :25 makes it equal to the ratio 3 : 5.
Find the number which, when added to the terms of the
ratio 17:31 makes it equal to the ratio 13 :20.

1.2

2.3

3.5

4.11

5.5

6.9

Illustrative Example
is 2.

## The sum of two numbers is 64 and their difference is 8.

What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)9:5
b)9:8
c)9:7
d)9:11
difference
is 7.
The sum of two numbers is 77 and their
What is the ratio of the two numbers?
a)6:5
b)6:7
c)6:l
d)5:6
2.b

## Theorem : A number which, when subtractedfrom the terms

of the ratio a: b makes ii equal to the ratio c: dis

l.b

Rule 35

is 5.

Ex.:

## Find the number which, when subtracted from the

terms of the ratio 11 : 23 makes it equal to the ratio 3 :

7.
I
m
n
Soln: Here, a: b = 11 :23
c : d = 3:7
.-. the required number
bc-ad _ 2 3 x 3 - 1 1 x 7 _ 8 _
~ c-d
3-7
~4 ~
2

Exercise
1. . Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 15:17 makes it equal to the ratio 6 :7.
2. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 11:25 makes it equal to the ratio 4 : 1 1 .
3. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 13:27 makes it equal to the ratio 4 : 1 1 .
4. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 23 :33 makes it equal to the ratio 3:5.
5. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 12:17 makes it equal to the ratio 2 : 3.
6. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 5:13 makes it equal to the ratio 1:5.
7. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms
of the ratio 13:37 makes it equal to the ratio 1:13.

1.3

2.3

3.5

4.8

5.2

6.3

7.11

Rule 36
Ex.:

## A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in

the proportion 7:5. If 9 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 9 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 7 : 9 . How much of the liquid A was there in
the bucket?
Soln: Detailed Method:
Suppose the two liquids A and B are 7x litres and 5x
litres respectively.
Now, when 9 litres of mixture are taken out,
9x7
A remains 7x - 9

7+5

, X

litres and

f=

= 7JC12

21
'

jL

= 5x - l^ll. - [ 5x -
1 + 5)
12
4.
litres. Now, when 9 litres of liquid B are added,

B remains 5x - 9

Ix
V

5x-H
4;

+9 =

7:9

116

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
4.

21

Ixor,

15
+9
4

Sx-

189

or, 63x

35x

105

'
+ 63

4
28* =

or

189

105

84
3
28

5.

+ 63 = 21 + 63 = 84

7x = 7x3 = 21 litres

## Quicker Method: I f we ignore the intermediate steps,

we find a formula which is fast-working as well as
easier to remember.
1 st ratio = 7 : 5,2nd ratio = 7:9
D = Difference of cross-products of ratios
=7x9-7x5
= 63-35=28
Now, the formula is:
Common factor of first ratio
Quantity Replaced
Sum of terms in 1st ratio

a) 50 litres
l.b

3.c

4b

5.b

## A vessel contains liquids A and B in ratio 5 : 3. I f 16

litres of the mixture are removed and the same quantity of liquid B is added, the ratio becomes 3 : 5. What
quantity does the vessel hold?
Soln: Detailed Method:
Suppose the vessel contains 5x litres and 3x litres of
liquids A and B respectively.
The removed quantity contains

16
5+3

x5 = 10 litres

## of A and 16 -10 = 6 litres of B. Now,

( 5 x - 1 0 ) : ( 3 x - 6 + 1 6 ) = 3:5

9x7

_9_

9_ 36

28

~ 12

4 ~ 12

5x-10
3
> ,
777 7
or,25x-50 = 9x + 30
3x + 10 5
or,16x=80
.-. x = 5
.-. The vessel contains Sx = 8 x 5 = 40 litres.
Quicker Method: When the ratio is reversed (i.e. 5 :3
becomes 3 : 5), we can use the formula:
or

Exercise

3.

2.a

Ex:

## .-. QuantityofA = 7 x 3 = 21 litres.

Similarly, quantity of B = 5 x 3 = 15 litres.

2.

d) 100 litres

Rule 37

1.

7+5

## A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in

the proportion 4 : 1. I f 45 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 45 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 2 : 5 . How much of the liquid B was there in the
bucket? What quantity does the bucket hold?
a) 56 litres, 70 litres
b) 14 litres, 70 litres
c) 65 litres, 72 litres
d) 18 litres, 90 litres
A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in
the proportion 5 :2. I f 28 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 28 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 3:2. How much of the liquid A was there in the
bucket?

## A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in

the proportion 5 :3. I f 16 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 16 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 3:5. How much of the liquid B was there in the
bucket?
a) 25 litres
b) 15 litres c) 18 litres
d) 24 litres
A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in
the proportion 6: 5. I f 33 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 33 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 3:4. How much of the liquid A was there in the
bucket?
a) 84 litres
b) 48 litres c) 70 litres
d) 64 litres
A bucket contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in
the proportion 8 : 3. I f 11 litres of the mixture is replaced
by 11 litres of liquid B, then the ratio of the two liquids
becomes 5:2. How much of the liquid B was there in the
bucket?
a) 448 litres b) 484 litres c) 168 litres d) 178 litres

-r ,
(S + 3)
Total quantity = - _ j - ^ x Quantity of A in the
2

removed mixture
64
16

x l 0 = 4 0 litres.

## Note: Since, the liquid B is used as a filler, the quantity of A

is used in the formula. I f liquid A be the filler the
quantity of B is used in the formula.

Exercise
1.

2.

## A vessel contains liquids A and B in ratio 9:5. I f 14 litres

of the mixture are removed and the same quantity of
liquid B is added, the ratio becomes 5 : 9. What quantity
does the vessel hold?
a) 32 litres
b) 31 litres c) 31.5 litres d) 33 litres
A vessel contains liquids A and B in ratio 5 :4. I f 18 litres