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Common & Encaustic

manufacture-Preparation of clay(pug mill,mixed in tank with water),
moulding,Drying,Burning(in kilns).
Characteristics-1)free from cracks,bends,flaws,2)regular shape & size,3)Sound hard &
durable,4)Well burnt,5)clear ringing sound,6)fit in properly,7)compact structure in broken
surface,8)Uniform color.
Types-Drain (porous),Floor(endless color-design,easy to lay,light,damp-scratch proof,ready
to use)
Encaustic-coloring materials+finer clay, body+face(6)+back.

Terracotta-earthenware,local baked earth,earthenware,porous pottery,glazed with

galena,soft to scratch by knife.
ManufacturePreparation of clay-higher % of iron oxide,less lime,clay with high alumina+sand+ground
grass+old pottery,free from impurity,crushed+pulverised,water,mixed,kept damp
condition,pressed+pug mill,coloring substance
Moulding-plaster of paris/zink mould,size with shrinkage allowance,sprinkle fine sand
Drying-proper control of temparature,gradual drying,
Burning-muffle furnace(heated without contact of fuel),1200C for 4 day,cooled for 5 day,
TypesPorous-saw dust+ground cork,fire & sound proof,can chiselled,sawn,nailed,light wt,strly
Polished-fine teracota,burnt in lower temp(650C),cooled down,coated glazing comp,burnt
1200C,ornamental,unaffected in industrial areas.
Advantage-1)strong-durable,2)diff colors,3)cheaper,4)easily cleaned,5)easy moulded,6)fire
proof,7)light wt,8)not affected by atmosphere.
Disadvantage-fixed in completion stage of work,twisted
Uses-Ornamental,replace stone

Earthenwarearticles prepared from clay,burnt low temp,slowly cooled,

soft,porous,become impervious if glazed,
drain pipes,cable conduits,partition blocks

Stonewarerefractory clay + stone + crushed pottery, burnt at high temp , slowly cooled
more compact & dense,impervious after glazing,clear ringing sound,strong,durable,resembles fire
brick,resistance to corrosive fluid
easily cleaned-sanitary articles,jars for chemicals

Porcelain(white ware)clay with purity-tenacity-plasticity used,clay+felsper+quarzt+minerals-finely ground,mixed

in lequid state,desire shape,burnt at high temp.
fine earthenware,white,thin,semi transparent,hard,brittle,non porous
sanitary ware,electric insulators,storage vessels,reactor chamber

Clay blocks
refractories-able to withstand thermal shock