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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2

7

= =

√

Problem 2.4

A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged, isolated, conducting sphere of radius R. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere, if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge, but still the same sign?

Let’s call the point charge q. The charged, isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. One image charge, of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d, is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. The second image charge, of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere, is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d−

R2 2 d

F

= =

+

qq2 d2

(4) (5)

q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4

As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes, so that term wins, and the overall force is attractive. As d → ∞, the denominator of both terms looks like d4 , so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5):

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

8

[d2

dR − R 2 ]2

=

d2 + dR d4

d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5

I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. The root is d/R=1.6178. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 +

a 2 R) a R)

R2 (1 +

q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4

− R2

2

+

a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4

a R)

The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. So we have F →− q2 . 16π 0 a2

Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The second image charge, the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image, makes no contribution in this limit. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge, then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1.43. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge, then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4

0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . The root of this one is d/R=1.88.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

9

Problem 2.5

(a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force, Eq. (2.6), of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . 8π 0 (r2 − a2 )

Relate this result to the electrostatic potential, Eq. (2.3), and the energy discussion of Section 1.11. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force, Eq. (2.9), of an isolated charged conducting sphere. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r

Relate the work to the electrostatic potential, Eq. (2.8), and the energy discussion of Section 1.11.

(a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y

∞

directed radially inward. The work is W = − = = = = =

F dy

r

(6)

q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0

**dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r
**

∞ r 2 −a2

∞

1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u

q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 )

(7)

To relate this to earlier results, note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. The potential energy between the point charge and

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

10

its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2

(8)

Result (7) is only half of (8). This would seem to violate energy conservation. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere, liberating a quantity of energy (8), which we could store in a battery or something. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity, at which point we would be back where we started, but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again, storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. I think the problem is with equation (8). The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge, and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge, and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere, and its charge increases. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration, and we should take (7) to be the correct result. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a, and another of charge Q − q at the origin. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge, plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. The second contribution is

∞

−

r

q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2

= −

1 4π 0

∞ r

qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y

∞ r

1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

11

**Review of Green’s Functions
**

Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. It’s useful to review this technique, and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . Then (

V

· A(x )) dV =

S

A(x ) · dA

(9)

where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions, (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n

V

( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x )

2

ψ(x ) dV =

S

φ(x )

dA

x

where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two, we come up with φ

V 2

ψ−ψ

2

φ dV =

S

φ

∂ψ ∂φ dA . −ψ ∂n ∂n

(10)

This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful, since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side, and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. However, suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter, we might write it as ψx0 (x).) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) =

V

ψx0 (x )

2

φ(x ) dV +

S

φ(x )

∂ψx0 ∂n

x

− ψx0 (x )

2

∂φ ∂n

dA .

x

**If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics, we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1
**

0 V

ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 , ∂φ ∂n dA .

x

ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV +

φ(x )

S

∂ψx0 ∂n

(11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. boundary. Usually we do know ρ within the volume, but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface, so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. More speciﬁcally,

x

− ψx0 (x )

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

12

• if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions), we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1

0 V

ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV +

S

φ(x )

∂ψx0 ∂n

dA .

x

(12)

• if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions), we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1

0 V

ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV +

S

φx0 (x )

∂φ ∂n

dA .

x

(13)

**Again, in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that
**

2

ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ).

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2: Problems 11-20

Problem 2.11

A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to, and a distance R away from, the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s); (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis), including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder; (c) the induced surface-charge density, and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2,4 in units of τ /2πb; (d) the force on the charge.

(a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere, we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder, i.e. on the x axis. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . Using the expression quoted in Problem 2.3 for the potential of a line charge, the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln

0

R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1

−

τ 4π

ln

0

R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . |x − Rˆ 2 i|

2

=

τ 4π

ln

0

We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder, the φ term must drop out, which requires R = γR. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . R

or

This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem, but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge, and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. (b) At a point (ρ, φ), we have Φ= For large ρ, this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln

0

τ 4π

ln

0

ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ

.

Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·), we have Φ → = (c) σ = −

0

τ 4π τ 2π

2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0

∂Φ ∂ρ

r=b

**2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b2 + b−
**

b2 R

cos φ

3

b4 R2

− 2 b cos φ R

−

b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π

R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ

3

R2 +

R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R

with C some constant. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. R 2 − b2

(d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge, we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i|

The original line charge is at x = R, y = 0, and the ﬁeld there is E=−

0

0

The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2

tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.

Problem 2.12

Starting with the series solution (2.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b, evaluate the coeﬃcients formally, substitute them into the series, and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ, φ) = 1 2π

2π

Φ(b, φ )

0

b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ)

What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Referring to equation (2.71), we know the bn are all zero, because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. We are left with

∞

Φ(ρ, φ) = a0 +

n=1

ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} .

(1)

**Multiplying both sides successively by 1, sin n φ, and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn
**

2π

Φ(b, φ)dφ

0 2π

(2) (3) (4)

Φ(b, φ) sin(nφ)dφ

0 2π

Φ(b, φ) cos(nφ)dφ.

0

**Plugging back into (1), we ﬁnd Φ(ρ, φ) = = 1 π 1 π
**

2π

Φ(b, φ )

0 2π

ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b

∞

∞

n

[sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . (5)

Φ(b, φ )

0

n

**The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1
**

∞

= = = = = =

1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . 1 + x2 − 2x cos α +

∞

Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

5

Problem 2.13

(a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side, and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ, φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2

where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. This problem is just like the previous one. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder, the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2), (3) and (4): 1 2π

2π

a0

= = =

Φ(b, φ)dφ

0

an

= = = =

bn

=

2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0.

π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 , n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) , n odd

**With these coeﬃcients, the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ, φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b
**

n

sin nφ.

(6)

n odd

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy)

n odd

n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7)

where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .

(I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.) With this, (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ, b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 .

n odd

(Evidently, Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

7

Problem 2.15

(a) Show that the Green function G(x, y; x , y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, has an expansion

∞

G(x, y; x , y ) = 2

n=1

gn (y, y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx )

where gn (y, y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y, y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y, 0) = gn (y, 1) = 0.

(b) Taking for gn (y, y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y, in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function, show that the explicit form of G is G(x, y; x , y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1

∞

where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G, in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions; see the Green’s functions review above.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. First, sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. Second, g(y, y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. So G(x, y; x , y ) vanishes for points (x , y ) on the boundary. The second condition on G is

2

G=

∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2

G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ).

(8)

With the suggested expansion, we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y, y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y, y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1

∞ ∞

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

8

**We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd
**

∞ 2

G = δ(y − y ) · 2

**sin(nπx) sin(nπx )
**

n=1

= δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y, y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ), An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ), y < y; y > y. (9)

The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i.e. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . First let’s consider the boundary conditions. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1, the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9), where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9), where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ .

(10)

and

Bn2 = sinh(nπ).

With this choice of coeﬃcients, the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y, y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). Actually, we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 ; we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. (12)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

70000

9

60000

50000

g(yprime)

40000

30000

20000

10000

0 0 0.2 0.4 yprime 0.6 0.8 1

Figure 1: gn (y, y ) from Problem 2.15 with n=5, y=.41

This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. In other words, we have gn (y, y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ), βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy), y < y; y > y. (13)

= βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< )

with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5, y = .41. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y, y ) = δ(y − y ). (14)

To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y, and • that its integral over any interval (y1 , y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y, and vanish otherwise. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous, which we have already done, but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

10

∂ gn (y, y ) ∂y

y =y +

= 1.

y =y −

Diﬀerentiating (13), we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y, y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . nπ sinh(nπ)

**and the composite Green’s function is
**

∞

G(x, y; x , y )

= 2 = −2

**gn (y, y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx )
**

n=1 ∞

sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . nπ sinh(nπ) n=1

Problem 2.16

A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). Using the Green function of Problem 2.15, show that the solution can be written as Φ(x, y) = 4 π3

0

sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0

∞

1−

cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2]

.

**Referring to my Green’s functions review above, the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1
**

0 V

G(x0 ; x )ρ(x )dV +

S

Φ(x )

∂G ∂n

(16) In this case the surface integral vanishes, because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary, and G vanishes there by construction. We’re also given that

x

− G(x0 ; x )

∂Φ ∂n

dA .

x

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

11

**ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1
**

∞ 1 0 0 1

sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . (17)

**The integrals can be done separately. The x integral is
**

1

sin(nπx0 )

0

sin(nπx )dx

= − =

sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ , n odd 0 , n even

(18)

The y integral is

y0 1

sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] = = =

**sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 )
**

0 y0

sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy

1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. (19) nπ

**Inserting (18) and (19) in (17), we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3
**

0

n odd

sin(nπx0 ) n3

1−

sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ)

.

The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has, but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

12

Problem 2.17

(a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x, y; x , y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z, where Z is taken to be very large. Show that apart from an inessential constant, the Green function can be written alternately as G(x, y; x , y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate, ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ, ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . ρ2 ρ

Note that gm (ρ, ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ, with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1

∞

ρ< ρ>

m

· cos[m(φ − φ )]

where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . (As in Problem 2.15, I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 , a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2

Z −Z

, u = (z − z ).

+Z −Z

Integrating, [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z

13

= ln = ln ≈ ln = ln

2+

(1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1

a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2

4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . Since Z is much bigger than a, the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates

= − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates.

**(b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by
**

2

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1

but

2

**G = 0 at points other than (ρ, φ). These conditions are met if
**

2

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =

1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ

(20)

You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is

2

=

1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ

ρ

∂ ∂ρ

−

1 ∂ . ρ 2 ∂φ 2

**Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives
**

2

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =

1 2π

∞

−∞

1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ

ρ

∂gm ∂ρ

−

m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . ρ2

If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem, the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum, leaving

2

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ )

= =

δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ

·

1 2π

∞

eim(φ−φ )

−∞

δ(φ − φ ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

14

(c) As in Problem 2.15, we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. For m ≥ 1, the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m , ρ <ρ , ρ > ρ. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0

In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin, and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity, we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m

ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m

B2m = ρm γm

ρ ρ ρ ρ

m m

, ,

ρ <ρ ρ >ρ

**The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − dgm dρ =
**

ρ =ρ−

ρ =ρ+

1 ρ

1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . 2m

=

1 ρ

, ρ <ρ , ρ >ρ

= −

ρ< ρ>

.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

15

**Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π
**

∞

−∞ ∞

1 m 1 m

ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ>

m

eim(φ−φ )

m

1

cos[m(φ − φ )].

Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this, which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation, but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞.

Problem 2.18

(a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2.17, ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ, ρ = b) = 0. See (1.40)]. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.17. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . b2 |ρ − ρ |2

(b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b, φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2.12. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞), for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞, no mistake is made in its use.]

(a) As before, we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ, ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m , ρ <ρ , ρ > ρ. (21)

The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. This requires that B1m = 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

16

and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . Next, gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ, ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b

m

= γm = γm ρm

ρ b ρ b

m

b ρ m b − ρ −

m

m

.

− −

b ρ b ρ

m

ρ ρ

m

m

, ,

ρ <ρ

m

ρ > ρ.

**Finally, dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − dgm dρ b
**

m

ρ =ρ+ m−1

ρ =ρ−

= mγm = 2mγm so

ρ

bm b ρ

+

m

ρm+1

− mγm

ρ b

m

−

b ρ

m

1 ρ

1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b

m m

γm = and gm (ρ, ρ ) = = or gm (ρ, ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m

−

m

− ρρ b2

ρ ρ ρ ρ

m

m

,

m

ρ <ρ ρ > ρ.

, ρ< ρ>

m

−

.

**Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ, φ, ρ , φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1
**

∞

ρρ b2

m

−

ρ< ρ>

m

cos m(φ − φ ).

(22)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

17

**Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 =
**

0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x

n=1 x

un−1 du cos m(φ − φ )

∞

**1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du
**

x 0

=

0

1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. 2 = −

(I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2.12. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition, although I cheated and looked it up on www.integrals.com). We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ))

(23)

This is Jackson’s result, with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer; he did include it in his answer to problem 2.17 (c). Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. If there is no charge inside the cylinder, the volume integral vanishes, and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ, φ) = Φ(b, φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA .

ρ =b

(24)

where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )

b4

.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

18

Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) .

ρ =b

In the surface integral, the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA , and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2.12. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent; the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0, while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm .

m

**From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b
**

m

−

b ρ

.

**The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b
**

m

−

b ρ

m

1 − mγm ρ 1 2m

m

ρ b

m

m

+

b ρ

m

1 1 = ρ ρ

b ρ

.

**Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ>
**

m

.

This is the same gm we came up with before, but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 1-10

Problem 3.1

Two concentric spheres have radii a, b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . The other hemispheres are at zero potential. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. Include terms at least up to l = 4. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ).

(1)

We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives

1

Φ(r, θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) =

−1

2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . 2l + 1

**At r = a this yields
**

1

V

0

Pl (x)dx =

2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) , 2l + 1 1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

2

and at r = b, V

0

Pl (x)dx =

−1

2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2l + 1

**The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even, and is given in the text for l odd:
**

1 0

(l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . 2 2 2 !

The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even, and is just the above result inverted for l odd. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2l + 1

1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1

The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl

The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r, θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 )

In the limit as b → ∞, the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2.7 of the text. In that limit, the above expression becomes Φ(r, θ) → 3 V 4 a r

2

P1 (cos θ) −

7 V 16

a r

4

P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

in agreement with (2.27) with half the potential spacing. When a → 0, the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem, as treated in section 3.3 of the text. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r, θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b

3

P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

This agrees with equation (3.36) in the text, with the sign of V ﬂipped, because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

3

Problem 3.2

A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 , except for a spherical cap at the north pole, deﬁned by the cone θ = α. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0

∞

l=0

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R

where, for l = 0, Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small, and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.

(a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere, the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r =

r=R

σ

0

ˆ r

σ

0

.

(2)

The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin, so the Bl in (1) are zero. Diﬀerentiating that expansion, (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r, θ) = ∂r

∞

**lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ)
**

l=1

**Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1
**

0 1

σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) =

−1

2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx.

so Al =

2l + 1 · 2lRl−1

Q 4πR2

cos α 0 −1

To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. 3.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

r R

2n

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =± σ

0

.

(4)

θ=(π/2)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

cos θ=0

=±

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

−1 0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

7

but I can’t do this last integral.

Problem 3.4

The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes; their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple, or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V , alternately. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments, and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3.36) of Section 3.3.

**(a) The general potential expansion is
**

∞ l

Φ(r, θ, φ) =

l=0 m=−l

Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ, φ).

(8)

For the solution within the sphere, ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al

n ∗ Φ(a, θ, φ) Ylm (θ, φ) dΩ

(−1)k

k=1 0

π

2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ, φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n

V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)!

Plm (x) dx

k=1

(−1)k

e−imφ dφ .

2(k−1)π/n

**(9) The φ integral is easy:
**

2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n

e−imφ dφ = −

1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . im

This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . (10) im

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

8

Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n), the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = , 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n

Note that the numerator vanishes. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes, which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. This only happens if m/n = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, · · · . In that case, the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi, so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1, while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1, so all n terms add constructively, and (10) equates to 2n , m = n/2, 3n/2, 5n/2, · · · = im 0, otherwise. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)!

1/2 1 −1

Plm (x)dx,

m=

n 3n , , · · · = 0, otherwise. 2 2

(b) As shown above, the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2, m = 3n/2, et cetera. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. Then, with n = 2, up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1, m = ±1, and l = 3, m = ±1 or ±3. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. We have

1 −1 1 1 P3 (x) dx −1 1 −1 3 P3 (x) dx 1 P1 (x) dx 1

= − = −

−1 1 −1

(1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2

1

3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . 4

= −15

−1

(1 − x2 )3/2 dx = −

**Using these results in (??), we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6!
**

1/2

1/2

1/2

Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

9

coeﬃcient, which I have skipped here. Φ(r, θ, φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a

Problem 3.6

Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a, respectively. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant, take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. (a) First of all, for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z

2

···

**for z > a. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r, θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r
**

3

Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ)

P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

for r > a. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. (b) Φ(r, θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. 4π 0 r2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

10

(c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges, a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. To calculate Φs , we pretend there are no charges within the sphere, in which case we have the general expansion (1), with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r, θ) = p 4π 0 r2

∞

cos θ +

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures, by the orthogonality of the Pl , that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute, and that p . A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). 1− Φ(r, θ) = 2 4π 0 b b

Problem 3.7

Three point charges (q, −2q, q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b, as indicated in the ﬁgure. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0, but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. Show that in the limit a → 0, Q r5 Φ(r, θ, φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis, the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . 2π 0 z z z

2

···

+ 1−

a a + z z

2

+···

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

11

As before, from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r, θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3

(11)

(b) As in the previous problem, the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0), and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r, θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3

∞

Al rl Pl (cos θ)

l=0

From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b, we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes, and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r, θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b

5

Q . 2π 0 b5

P2 (cos θ).

Problem 3.9

A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. The potential on the end faces is zero, while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ, z). Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates, ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

12

with ν an integer. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . In this case, Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L, which means we have to take k imaginary, i.e. πn , n = 1, 2, 3, · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z, R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin, the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0, which requires F = 0. Then the potential expansion becomes

∞ ∞

Φ(ρ, φ, z) =

n=1 ν=0

[Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ).

(12)

**Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b, we ﬁnd
**

L 0 0 2π

**V (φ, z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly, Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b)
**

L 0 0 2π

πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13)

2 πLIν (kn b)

L 0 0

2π

V (φ, z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz.

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz.

(14)

Problem 3.10

For the cylinder in Problem 3.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders, one at potential V and the other at potential −V , so that V (φ, z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2

(a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. (b) Assuming L >> b, consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2.13. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). The relevant integrals are

L 0 0 2π

V (φ, z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

sin(νφ) dφ

π/2

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

cos(νφ) dφ

π/2

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

3π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), 16V π2 n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

2

(a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. (1)

**Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives
**

a

Jν (k ρ)

0

d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ

Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ)

dρ = 0.

(2)

**The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts:
**

a

Jν (k ρ)

0

d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ

a

= ρJν (k ρ)

d Jν (kρ) dρ

a 0

−

ρ

0

d Jν (k ρ) dρ

d Jν (kρ) dρ. dρ

(3)

One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ =

ρ=a

1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ

ρ=a

=−

λ a

**d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). dρ Plugging this into (3), we have
**

a

Jν (k ρ)

0

d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ

a

= −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) −

ρ

0

d Jν (k ρ) dρ

d Jν (kρ) . dρ

(4)

This is clearly symmetric in k and k , so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2), the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes, and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate, we ﬁnd

a 0 a

ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0

0

ρJν (kρ)

d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν

a 0

ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2

a 0

Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (5)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

3

The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ), g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts:

a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a

−2

0

2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0

a 0

ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ

→

0

ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ =

1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2

a 0

2 ρJν (kρ)dρ.

**Using this in (5), a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so
**

a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ −

ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν

= =

ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1−

2 Jν (ka) +

a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka)

2

ν2 (ka)2

2 Jν (ka) +

This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm .

Problem 3.12

An inﬁnite, thin, plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. A thin, ﬂat, disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane, ﬁlling the hole, but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V , whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates, ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 , and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

(a) As before, we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). In this problem there is no φ dependence, so Q = 1. Also, the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0, whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. Then the potential expansion becomes

∞

Φ(ρ, z) =

0

A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk.

(6)

**To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k), we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0:
**

∞ ∞ ∞

ρΦ(ρ, 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ

0

=

0

A(k)

0

ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk

= so

A(k ) k

∞

A(k)

= k

0

ρΦ(ρ, 0)J0 (kρ) dρ

a

= kV

0

ρJ0 (kρ)dρ.

**Plugging this back into (6),
**

∞ a

Φ(ρ, z) = V

0 0

kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk.

(7)

**The ρ integral can be done right away. To do it, I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so
**

x 0 x x

uJ0 (u) du = −

0

uJ0 du −

x 0

0 x

J0 (u) du

x

= − |uJ0 (u)|0 +

x

J0 (u) du −

0

J0 (u) du

**= − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). (In going from the ﬁrst to second line, I integrated by parts.) Then (7) becomes
**

∞

Φ(ρ, z) = aV

0

J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk.

(8)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

(b) At ρ = 0, (7) becomes

a ∞

Φ(0, z) = V J0 (0)

0 a

ρ

0

ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ

∞

= V

0 a

ρ ρ

0 a

− −

∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z

e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ

0

= V = V

0 2

1 ρ + z2

2

dρ

zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2

**Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 , du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0, z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2
**

a2 +z 2

u−3/2 du

z2 a2 +z 2 z2

= −V z = Vz

1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a, (8) becomes

∞

Φ(a, z) = aV

0

J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk

Problem 3.13

Solve for the potential in Problem 3.1, using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text, and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. For Dirichlet boundary value problems, the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1

0 V

G(x; x )ρ(x ) dV +

S

Φ(x )

∂G(x; x ) ∂n

dA .

x

(9)

Here there is no charge in the region of interest, so only the surface integral contributes. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is

∞ l

G(x; x ) = −

l=0 m=−l

∗ Ylm (θ , φ ) Ylm (θ, φ) Rl (r; r ) 2l + 1

(10)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

with Rl (r; r ) = 1−

1

a b 2l+1

l r< −

a2l+1 l+1 r<

1

l+1 r>

−

l r>

b2l+1

.

(11)

Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence, so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish, and we have G(x; x ) = − 1 4π

∞

**Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r; r ).
**

l=0

In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical, which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x; x ) = − ∂n 4π

∞

**Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )
**

l=0

∂ Rl (r; r ). ∂n

The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere, and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π

∞

Pl (cos θ)

l=0 ∞

∂Rl ∂n

π r =a 0 1 0

2π

Φ(a, θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ

V = − 2 = − where V 2

a2 Pl (cos θ)

l=0 ∞

∂Rl ∂n

Pl (x) dx

r =a 0

l=0

a2 γl Pl (cos θ) ·

1

∂Rl ∂n

r =a

γl

=

0

Pl (x) dx l odd l even.

**(l − 2)!! 1 , = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0, A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2
**

∞

b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ)

l=0 ∞ 2

∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n

0

Pl (x) dx

r =b −1

l=0

r =b

because Pl is odd for l odd, so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r, θ) = V 2

∞

γl Pl (cos θ) r 2

l=0

∂Rl ∂n

r =b

(12)

r =a

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

7

Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres, to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< , and at r = b with respect to r> . Also, at r = a the normal is in the +r direction, while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r; r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r; r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2

r =a

al−1 1− b 1−

a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1

1 rl+1 rl −

−

rl b2l+1

= (2l + 1)b2

r =b

a2l+1 rl+1

**Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r, θ) = V 2
**

∞

(2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ)

l=0

(ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1

in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.1.

Problem 3.14

A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ), where z is the distance from the midpoint. A grounded, conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b.

First of all, we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ), and that the total charge is Q, whence

d

Q = 2λ

0

(d2 − z 2 )dz = λ=

4 3 d λ 3

**3Q . 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry, so the Green’s function is → G(x; x ) = − 1 4π
**

∞

**Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r; r )
**

l=0

(13)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

8

with

l Rl (r; r ) = r<

1

l+1 r>

−

l r>

b2l+1

.

**Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface, the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r, θ) = − 1
**

0 V

G(r, θ; r , θ )ρ(r , θ )dV.

In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis, where r = z. Also, Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0, and (−1)l for z < 0. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l, and add constructively for even l: Φ(r, θ) = We have

d d

1 4π 0

∞

d

Pl (cos θ) 2

l=0,2,4,... 0

Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz

Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz = λ

0 0

l r<

1

l+1 r>

−

l r>

b2l+1

(d2 − z 2 ) dz

**This is best split up into two separate integrals:
**

d

=λ

0

l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r>

d 0

l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz

**The second integral is symmetric between r and r , so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1
**

0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz

= −

d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3

= −

λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1

(14)

**The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two:
**

d

λ

0

l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r>

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

r 0 d r

9

= λ = λ = λ = λ

1 rl+1 1 rl+1

z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl

l+3

d2 − z 2 dz z l+1

d r

r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2)

d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2

2 l+1

Combining this with (14), we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here, because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ), which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz = λ

l d

r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d

d2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

10

Problem 3.15

Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers; its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . In the steady state, electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ

Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. Using the lumped circuit relations, P = I 2 Re = IVe , ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3, as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force.

(a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere, but the current density must be constant there, which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity, there has to be some surface charge on the sphere, and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere, the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation, and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

11

∞

for r < a, for r > a,

Φ(r, θ) = Φin (r, θ) = Φ(r, θ) = Φout (r, θ) =

Al rl Pl (cos θ)

l=0 ∞

Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ)

l=0

**Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r, θ) = Φin (r, θ) = Φout (r, θ) =
**

∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ), ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ), l=0 Al a

→

Bl = a2l+1 Al

r<a r > a.

(16)

Now, in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density, because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it, which means charge would pile up in that region, which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld, which would mean we aren’t in steady state. So the current density is continuous everywhere. In particular, the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere, i.e. Jr (r = a− , θ) = Jr (r = a+ , θ). (17) Outside of the sphere, Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout .

Inside the sphere, there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). Applying (17) to these expressions, we have σ Using (16), this is

∞

−

∂ Φ ∂r in

+ F cos θ

r=a

= −σ

∂ Φ ∂r out

r=a

F P1 (cos θ) −

**lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) =
**

l=0

σ σ

∞

(l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ).

l=0

Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π, we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

12

for l=1, and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. Since the conductivity ratio is positive, the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r, θ) =

σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ

F r cos θ, F a3 r−2 cos θ,

r<a r>a

(21)

The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r, θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. (22)

The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r, θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3

**and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r, θ) =
**

σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k, σ σ+2σ

r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ), r > a r

F

a 3 r

**The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = =
**

0 [Er (r

3 0σ F cos θ. σ + 2σ

= a+ ) − Er (r = a− )]

**(b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ
**

π/2 2π 0

=σ 1−

F

0

cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23)

σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

13

The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24)

To see this, suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx, dy, and dz. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz, so I = σEx dydz. Also, the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier:

∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π

Pout = σ

E 2 (r, θ, φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr

a

= 2πσ 8π = σ 3

σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ

F 2 a6

a 2 0

π

1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4

F 2 a3

Dividing by (23), we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ

16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2

Since we’re in steady state, the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere, so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . 3πaσ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

(c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3

(Vi + Ve ) =

4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3

Problem 3.17

The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x, x ) = −

∞ ∞

1 πL

× Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . L L

**eim(φ−φ ) sin
**

n=1 m=−∞

nπz sin L

nπz L

**(b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x, x ) = −
**

∞ 0 ∞

1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . sinh(kL)

**dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ )
**

m=−∞

In cylindrical coordinates, the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ, φ, z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). (25)

There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ), both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. (27) (26)

The Green’s function G(x; x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation, and must thus take one of the above forms, at all points x = x. At x = x, G must be continuous, but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

15

Furthermore, G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions, one on either side of the source point x, and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. The question is, in which dimension (i.e., ρ, z, or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ, i.e. at the radius of the source point, and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i.e., ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. Then, within each region, the entire range of z must be handled by one function, which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26), so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27), with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27), we see that, to keep G ﬁnite everywhere, for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term, while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. Then G(x; x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x; x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ), imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ), mn Bmn (x)e

mn

ρ <ρ ρ > ρ.

Clearly, to establish continuity at ρ = ρ, we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z, φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z, φ)Im (kρ), where γmk is any function of z and φ. Then we can write G as G(x; x ) =

mk

γmk (z, φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ).

The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). Then we have G(x; x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ).

mk

What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ, even though I never explicitly required this. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x, that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry, and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ , and yet it does. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z, and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. In other words, the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z, and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. In this case, within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. This requirement excludes terms of the form

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

16

(27), because Km is singular at the origin, while Im is singular at inﬁnity, and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . Hence we must use terms of the form (26). To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term, so D = 0. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B, so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL , so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. With these restrictions, the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral, not a sum, over these terms: G(x ; x) =

∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0

Am (k, ρ, φ, z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk, Bm (k, ρ, φ, z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk,

0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L

Problem 3.18

The conﬁguration of Problem 3.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z, ρ, φ) as

∞

Φ(z, ρ) = V

0

dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a)

sinh(λz/a) . sinh(λL/a)

(b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z, ρ, L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 , consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L, but not inﬁnite. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z), a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3.12 are recovered. What about corrections for L a, but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is

∞

Φ(ρ, z) =

0

A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk.

(28)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

17

**Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields
**

∞ ∞ ∞

ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ, L) dρ =

0 0 ∞

A(k) sinh(kL)

0

ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk

dk

=

0

A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k

∞

= so A(k) =

**k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL)
**

x

ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ, L) dρ

0 a

ρJ0 (kρ) dρ

0 ka

=

uJ0 (u) du.

0

(29)

**I worked out this integral earlier, in Problem 3.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x).
**

0

**Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ, z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1,
**

∞

V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL)

(30)

(b) For x

1,

and for x

1 and y

**x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a
**

2 2

z L

1+

1 6

λ a

2

(x2 − y 2 ) +···

(31) (32)

z 1− L

1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

18

**Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ, z) = Vz L
**

∞ 0

J1 (λ) dλ −

1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4

∞ 0

λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · ·

The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1, so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets, one grounded and the other at potential V. The second integral, unfortunately, has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small, but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞, so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. Calling the ﬁxed distance z , the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz )

(33)

Now, coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1, in which region kz z/L 1, so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant, coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1, so the two terms in (33) add directly. The result is that, for all k, (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). Then (30) becomes

∞

Φ(ρ, z) = aV

0

J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk

as we found in Problem 3.12.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid August 6, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 19-27

Problem 3.19

Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system, with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 , 0 < z0 < L. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1.12 with Problem 3.18 as the comparison problem. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 , 0) V

**(b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π
**

∞

dk

0

sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL)

(c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L

**(a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV +
**

V S

σ Φ dA =

V

ρΦ dV +

S

σΦ dA.

(1)

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

2

We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3.18, and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.19. Then ρ(r, z) = 0 σ(r, z) =? Φ(r, z) = 0, = 0, = V,

∞

**z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk)
**

0

=V

sinh(kz) sinh(kL)

0<z<L

ρ (r, z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r, z) =? Φ (r, z) = 0, =?, Plugging into (1),

∞

**z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL)
**

∞

qV

0

dk aJ1 (ak)

σ (r, z) dA = 0

z=L,r<a

so σ (r, z) dA = −q dk aJ1 (ak)

0

z=L,r<a

sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 , 0) sinh(kL) V

(2)

The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ, so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give

a ∞

2π

0

σ (r, L)r dr = −q

dk aJ1 (ak)

0

sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL)

**Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a, we have
**

∞

2πaσ (a, L) = −q

dk

0

sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL)

(3)

where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x

x=ak

= |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

3

**so (3) becomes σ (a, L) = − (c) At a = 0, (4) becomes σ (0, L) = −q 2π
**

∞

q 2π

∞

dk kJ0 (ak)

0

sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL)

(4)

k

0

sinh(kz0 ) . sinh(kL)

I have no idea how to do this integral.

Problem 3.22

The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0, φ = β, and ρ = a, as indicated in the sketch. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates, show the the Green function can be written as

∞

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =

m=1

−

1 mπ/β ρ mπ <

1

mπ/β ρ>

−

ρ> a2mπ/β

mπ/β

sin

mπφ β

sin

mπφ β

Problem 2.25 may be of use. As before, the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point), ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region, and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. Suppose the observation point is (ρ, φ). Let’s break the region into two subregions, deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ , φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ +

n

ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ].

The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0, which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. However, these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. In both regions, the solution must vanish at φ = 0, which excludes the cos terms (i.e. Bn = Dn = 0). The solution must also vanish at φ = β, which requires that n = mπ/β, m = 1, 2, · · · . With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ )

∞

=

m=1 ∞

Am ρ mπ/β sin

mπφ β

, mπφ β ,

0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a

(5) (6)

=

m=1

Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin

The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ , i.e. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β a ρ

mπ/β

**where γm can be anything. Then (6) becomes
**

∞

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =

m=1

γm

ρ a

mπ/β

−

sin

mπφ β

ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.

The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions, i.e. at ρ = ρ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a

mπ/β

−

a ρ

mπ/β

γm = λm ρmπ/β

**where λm can be anything. Using these expressions for Am , Bm , and Cm we can write G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ )
**

∞

=

m=1 ∞

λm λm

m=1

ρ a ρ a

mπ/β

− −

a ρ a ρ

mπ/β

ρ mπ/β sin

mπ/β

mπφ β mπφ β

0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.

mπ/β

=

ρmπ/β sin

**This may be more succintly written as G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =
**

m

λm fm (ρ; ρ ) sin

mπφ β

(7)

where fm (ρ; ρ ) = ρ> a

mπ/β

−

a ρ>

mπ/β

ρ<

mπ/β

.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

**The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make
**

2

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =

1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). ρ

2

(8)

The Laplacian of (7) is

2

G=

1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2

λm

m

d2 fm (ρ; ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ; ρ ) =

mπ ρβ

fm (ρ; ρ ) sin

mπφ β

**This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ; ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β
**

2

(9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). ρ

At all points ρ = ρ, the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. At ρ = ρ, the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . κm fm (ρ; ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7), we have d fm dρ d fm dρ =

ρ +ρ+

mπ β mπ β

ρ a ρ a

mπ/β

+ −

a ρ a ρ

mπ/β

ρmπ/β−1

mπ/β

(11) (12)

=

ρ +ρ−

mπ/β

ρmπ/β−1 .

Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ

ρ =ρ+

=

ρ =ρ−

2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . β ρ

**Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =
**

m

1 2mπ

ρ< ρ> a2

mπ/β

−

ρ< ρ>

mπ/β

sin

mπφ β

sin

mπφ β

I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here, but I can’t ﬁnd where.

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**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid October 8, 2000

Chapter 4: Problems 8-13

Problem 4.8

A very long, right circular, cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions, neglecting end eﬀects. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld, and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. told to neglect end eﬀects, we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r, ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)]

For the region inside the shell (r < a), the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. Also, in the region outside the shell 1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

2

(r > b), the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld, i.e. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ], rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ], −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ], r<a a<r<b r>b

Φ(r, ϕ) =

**The normal boundary condition at r = a is
**

0

∂Φ ∂r

=

x=a−

∂Φ ∂r

x=a+

or

0

nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]

**From this we obtain two equations:
**

0 0

An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n

(1) (2)

Next, the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] =

x=a+

∂Φ ∂ϕ

x=a−

**from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a
**

−2n

(3) (4)

**Similarly, from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain −
**

0

E0 cos ϕ −

0

nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ]

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

3

which leads to − −

0 2 0 0

Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn

(5) (6)

b E0 δn1 −

Finally, we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b

2 2n

(7) (8)

+ Fn .

The four equations (1), (3), (5), and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations, which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. Next, for n = 1, the system of equations (2), (4), (6), and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations, so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. However, for n = 1, we have

0

B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2

D1 =

1 1+ 2

0

B1

F1 =

1 2 a 1− 2

0

B1 .

and −H1 = b2 E0 +

0

D1 b 2 −

0

F1

H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 +

0

D1 + 1 −

0

F1

**Substituting from above, −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1
**

0

b2 ( +

0)

2

− a2 ( −

0)

2

B1

−4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( −

0)

2

E0 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

4

Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ, a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r, ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ, ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ, 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As

r<a a<r<b b < r.

(b) In Figure 4.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a, = 5 0 . Also, as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld, we would have a → 0. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i, E(r, ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ], r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand, a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to

→ 0 , Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions, which is reassuring. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] , r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r, ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ , ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] , r ˆ b < r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

5

Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.8 for b = 2a,

= 5 0.

b → ∞, in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i, 0 E(r, ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r

r<a

2

E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ], r ˆ

r > a.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

6

Problem 4.9

A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. (c) Verify that, in the limit / conducting sphere.

0

→ ∞, your result is the same as that for the

We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere, and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere, ·D = 0 there. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere, we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere, so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation, whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). Φ(r, θ) =

l

Now, in the region r > a, the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 , where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere, while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a, we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r, θ) =

l

Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ)

(r > a).

Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ), r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ), a<r<d Φ(r, θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ), r > d. 4π 0

On the other hand, Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ), r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r, θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ), r > d. 4π 0 rl+1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

7

**The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r →
**

0

=

r=a−

0

∂Φ ∂r

r=a+

lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al =

0

lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10)

→

−(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1

**The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → =
**

r=a−

∂Φ ∂θ

r=a+

Al al = Bl a−(l+1) +

q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1

(11)

**Combining (10) and (11), we obtain Al =
**

0

1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l

2l + 1 l 1−

q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1

Bl =

0

0

In particular, as /

0

→ ∞ we have Al → 0

as must happen, since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes; and Bl → − qa2l+1 . 4π 0 dl+1 (12)

With the coeﬃcients (12), the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r, θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d

l

1 Pl (cos θ). rl+1

Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

8

**(b) Near the origin, we have Φ(r, θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π
**

0

3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2

5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 )

(z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · ·

so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0

z +··· d

Problem 4.10

Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, carry charges ±Q. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ), as shown in the ﬁgure. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b, 0 < θ < π/2, and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity, all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric, so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ), 0<θ< 2 Φ(r, θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ), <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. That region is described by θ = π/2, a < r < b, and we

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

9

**must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) =
**

θ=π/2+ 0

∂Φ ∂θ

θ=π/2−

θ=π/2+

∂Φ = ∂r

θ=π/2−

0

0

l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0.

Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b, the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. In (13), this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even, since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. Similarly, (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking

0

Al = C l Al = C l

0

Bl = Dl , Bl = Dl ,

l odd l even.

(15) (16)

Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. There are actually two components of this charge; one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere, and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric

Problem 4.13

Two long, coaxial, cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them, show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V

where ρ is the density of the liquid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and the susceptibility of air is neglected. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. To begin, we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

10

cylinders. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r, a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces, and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q

0

=

1

0

(2π a dz)σ

aσ 0r

where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors:

b

V =−

a

Eρ (ρ)dρ = −

aσ

0

ln

b a

which tells us that, to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors, the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ=

0V a ln(b/a)

(17)

on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. This is just Wv = 1 2

0 b a b 0 2π

E · D ρ dρ dφ

=π =π =

E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18)

a σ

0

a 2 2

π 0V 2 ln(b/a)

where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’, since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V , then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case, because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. However, in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric, the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). With this greater charge on the electrodes, the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. So the

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

11

energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( −

0)

πV 2 . ln(b/a)

On the other hand, to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge, namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( −

0)

2πV 2 ln(b/a)

(per unit length). The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric, so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( −

0)

πV 2 ln(b/a)

(19)

(per unit length). Turning now to the situation in this problem, we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis, so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. With no potential between the cylinder plates, the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. As we showed earlier, the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. However, at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. So suppose that, with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes, the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height, i.e. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ), so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh, and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

12

**Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders, Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 )
**

h

h dh =

0

1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . 2

(21)

Comparing (20) to (21), we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a)

Solving for χe , χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . 2 0V 2

So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. Actually we should note one detail here. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises, the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall, since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift, namely, the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders, the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

13

Appendix

Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.8.

/* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.8. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.c" #define EZ 1.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.0 */ */

/* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */

#define A 4.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.0 /* radius of outer cylinder

#define NUMLINES 25.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 /* no. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */

#define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) - A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r,phi). */ double Er(double r, double phi) { double Coeff; if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM; else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) - (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ); else Coeff=1.0 - ((B*B - A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)); return Coeff*E0*cos(phi); }

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

14

/* * Return phi component of electric field at (r,phi). */ double Ephi(double r, double phi) { double Coeff; if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM; else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ); else Coeff=1.0 + ((B*B - A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)); return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi); } void main() { double i,j,r,phi,x,y,dx,dy; double RComp,PhiComp; FILE *g; g=GnuPlot("Field lines"); /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. */ fprintf(g,"set terminal postscript portrait color\n"); fprintf(g,"set output ’fig4.1.eps’\n"); fprintf(g,"set multiplot \n"); fprintf(g,"set size square\n"); fprintf(g,"set noxtics\n"); fprintf(g,"set noytics\n"); fprintf(g,"set xrange [%g:%g]\n",-2.0*B,2.0*B); fprintf(g,"set yrange [%g:%g]\n",-2.0*B,2.0*B); /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. */ fprintf(g,"plot ’-’ t ’’, ’-’ t ’’ with lines, ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"); fprintf(g,"e\n"); for(phi=0; phi<=2*M_PI; phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",A*cos(phi),A*sin(phi));

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

15

fprintf(g,"e\n"); for(phi=0; phi<=2*M_PI; phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",B*cos(phi),B*sin(phi)); fprintf(g,"e\n"); /* * Draw field lines. */ for (i=1.0; i<=NUMLINES; i+=1.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. */ x=-2.0*B; y=2.0*B * ((NUMLINES - 2.0*i)/NUMLINES); fprintf(g,"plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"); /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. */ for (j=0.0; j<NUMPOINTS; j+=1.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y); if (x==0.0) phi=(y>0.0) ? M_PI/2.0 : -M_PI/2.0; else phi=atan(y/x); /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r,phi); PhiComp=Ephi(r,phi); dx=cos(phi)*RComp - sin(phi)*PhiComp; dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp; /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount, and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX; y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx); fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",x,y);

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

16

}; fprintf(g,"e\n"); }; printf("Thank you for your support.\n"); }

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid November 8, 2000

Chapter 5: Problems 1-10

Problem 5.1

Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3

for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x , show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω

where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential, ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop, that is, if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule, Ω is positive if n points away from the point P , and negative otherwise. This is the same convention as in Section 1.6 for the electric dipole layer. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 , the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 , and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid February 11, 2001

Chapter 5: Problems 10-18

Problem 5.10

A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ, z) = µ0 Ia π

∞

**dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )
**

0

**where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ, z) = µ0 Ia 2
**

∞

dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

0

(c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction, using the expressions of parts a and b. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.33) into cylindrical coordinates, we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1)

Following Jackson, we take the observation point x on the x axis, so its coordinates are (ρ, φ = 0, z). Since there is no current in the z direction, and since the 1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

2

current density is cylindrically symmetric, there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x |

=

µ0 Re 4π

Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x |

iφ

µ0 Re = 4π

Jφ (x )e

2 π

∞ 0

∞

m=−∞

eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx

**where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3.148). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0, we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2
**

∞ 0 ∞

m=−∞

Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk

**If m = 1, the φ integral yields 2π; otherwise it vanishes. Thus Aφ = µ0 π
**

∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ −∞

Jφ (r , z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr

dk

**Substituting (1), we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π
**

∞

**cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk.
**

0

(b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through, but with the expression from Problem 3.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.148). (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop, so ρ< = ρ, ρ> = a. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π

∞ 0

∂Aφ ∂z

k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0

× A]z =

Iaµ0 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

3

**As ρ = 0, I1 (ρ) → 0, I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2, and I1 (ρ) → 1/2, so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts:
**

∞ 0

1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a

∞

+

0

z a

∞

cos kzK0 (ka) dk

0

K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there, and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there, so the ﬁrst term vanishes. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3.150). Plugging it in to the above, Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2

Problem 5.11

A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 , φ0 . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld, Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. Compare your result with the approximate result (5.69). Comment. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. In the “lab” frame, R, the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane, and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 , φ0 . We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop, so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane, but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. (2)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1

4

Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5.11.

The components of J are easy to express in R , but more complicated in R; the opposite is true for B. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R, or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R , in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. I think the former approach is easier. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R , I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations, as depicted in ﬁgure (??). The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis, which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis, which takes us to R . Evidently, the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices, cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . 0 z cos θ0

(5)

This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

5

frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . j ˆ k (6)

We will also the inverse transformation, i.e. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z

To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . If the loop radius is a, then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ , y = a sin φ , and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0

[J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0

where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ , since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). In the surviving terms, cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

6

To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result, note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above.

Problem 5.12

Two concentric circular loops of radii a, b and currents I, I , respectively (b < a), have an angle α between their planes. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0

∞ 2

b a

2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α).

The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr.

where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. But r · Jb vanishes, because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. As in the last problem, it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b, current I) lies in the xy plane, and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis, so y = y . Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α, φ = 0) in

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

7

R, and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem, with θ0 = α, φ0 = 0. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R, the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2

0 2π

Br (r = b, θ = π/2, φ) sin φ dφ

0 2π

(9) (10)

Br (r = b, θ = π/2, φ) cos φ dφ

To do the integral in (8), we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. Of course, we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane, Jackson’s equation (5.48): Br (r , θ ) = µ0 I a 2r

∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r>

l=0

We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop, and for all such points r = b; then r< = b, r> = a and we have Br (r = b, θ ) = µ0 I 2a

∞

l=0

(−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l!

b a

2l

P2l+1 (cos θ ).

(11)

To transform this to frame R, we ﬁrst note that, since the origins of R and R coincide, the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide, so Br = Br . Next, (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ , the polar angle in frame R . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well, note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α

(12)

where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R; if a point has angular coordinates θ, φ in R, then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be, but we don’t need to, because (11) doesn’t depend on φ .)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

8

To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12), we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ)

l

= Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2

m=1

Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ.

Of course, the smaller loop exists in the xy plane, so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2, whence

l

**Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2
**

m=1

Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.

We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop, evaluated at points on the smaller loop, in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a

∞

l=0

(−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l!

2l+1

b a

2l

P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α)

+2

m=1

m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

This looks ugly, but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term, integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a

∞

l=0

(−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l!

b a

2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α).

**To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2)
**

2

= (l + 1)2

Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2)

2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

9

**So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a
**

∞

(l + 1)2

l=0

Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2)

2

b a

2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α).

Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum, but I can’t ﬁnd where. Can anybody help?

Problem 5.13

A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere.

Problem 5.14

A long, hollow, right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b), and of relative permeability µr , is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space, and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0.5, 0.1. Neglect end eﬀects. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system, and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects, i. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence, so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder; this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region, the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0, × H = Jfree = 0.

These imply that, within the cylinder and in its inner region, we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm , with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. In the external region, there is free current, so things are not so simple. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current, and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. So, in the external region, H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

10

So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions, and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞, we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ, φ) = Actually, we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise, the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes, but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ, ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ, ∂r n=1

∞ ∞

r<a a<r<b r>b

∞ n=1 ∞ n=1

ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ

ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ

− −

r<a a<r<b r < b.

Hr =

** ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ , ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ, ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ, ∂φ n=1
**

∞ ∞

r<a a<r<b r < b.

Hφ =

The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous, where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. With the above expressions for the components of H, we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ , ∂φ n=1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

11

0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) , n=1 (13) (14) (15) n=1 (16)

−

**Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) , Similarly, at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a
**

n−1

(17)

−(n+1)

= µ r Cn a

n−1

− En a

,

n=1 (18) n = 1. (19)

A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) ,

For n = 1, the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. For n = 1, multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21)

B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . µ0

On the other hand, multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . Equating (20) with (22), we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1)

2

(22) (23)

while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) B0 µ0

**and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b
**

2

(µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2

b2 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

frag replacements

12

0

-0.5

(a/b) = 0.5 (a/b) = 0.1

-1

-1.5

log10 r

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5 0 1 2

log10 µr

3

4

5

Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .

The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a . 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0

**The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i, (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ , ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 4µr 2 . − (µr − 1)2 a2 b r<a
**

2

cos φˆ , a < r < b r r > b.

The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2

This relationship is graphed in Figure

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

13

Problem 5.16

A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity, unity. (a) In the approximation of b a, show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop, and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 , which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop, which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ), r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ), r > a. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0

∞ ∞

r a a r

2n

1 P2n+1 (cos θ), r < a

B1θ =

On the other hand, since J2 vanishes for r < b, the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region, which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation:

∞

µ0 Ia2 − 4r3

2n

(25)

1 P2n+1 (cos θ),

r > a.

B2 = − Φ m = −

∞

An rn Pn (cos θ)

n=0

→ B2r = B2θ =

**nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ)
**

n=1 ∞ 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1

(26) (27)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

14

Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability, the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld, since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b:

∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1

µ0 Ia2 4b3

(−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0

∞

a b

2n

1 P2n+1 (cos θ).

The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually, whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2

2n

.

Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0

∞ ∞

ar b2

2n

P2n+1 (cos θ)

(28) (29)

µ0 Ia2 = 4b3

ar b2

2n

1 P2n+1 (cos θ).

As r → 0, B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 , while B1r → µ0 I/2a, so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if, for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a, the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25).

Problem 5.18

A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab, (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d, and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0, so that the boundary surface is z = 0. a.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

15

In the region z < 0, there is no free current, so × H = 0 everywhere; thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential, H = − Φm , and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is

∞

Φm (z < 0) =

0

dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ),

(30)

**and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − =
**

0

∂ Φm = − ∂ρ

∞

∞ 0

dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32)

dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z

∞

Hz (z < 0) = −

dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ).

0

On the other hand, for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop, and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), 2 1 0 ˆ ×A, A = Aφ φ, Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2

∞

z>d z < d.

**dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ),
**

0 ∞

z>d z < d. (33)

**dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ),
**

0

H1z

1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ

1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) , z < d. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)

∞

In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3.87), 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

16

Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents, it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is

∞

to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4

∞ 0 ∞ 0

dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] , z > d dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] , z < d.

(35)

Φm (z > 0) =

0

dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ)

**and the components of H2 are
**

∞

H2r (z > 0) = − H2z (z > 0) =

0

dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ)

0 ∞

(36) (37)

dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).

The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary, z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).

**Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??), we have
**

∞

−

dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) =

0

µ0 Ia 2

∞ 0

∞

dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) +

dk kB(k)J0 (kρ)

0

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid April 20, 2001

Chapter 5: Problems 19-27

Problem 5.19

A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 , uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder, both inside and outside. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder, both inside and outside. There is no free current in this problem, so H(ρ, z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ, z) satisfying the Laplace equation. Dividing space into three regions

∞

dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ),

0 ∞

z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2.

Φm =

**dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ),
**

0 ∞

dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ),

0

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

2

**The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ
**

∞

=

z= L + 2

∂Φm ∂ρ

∞

z= L − 2

⇒

dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) =

0 0

dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1)

This must hold for all ρ. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ), integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞, and using the identity

∞

dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) =

0

1 δ(k − k ) k

(2)

**we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z
**

∞

(3)

=

z= L + 2

∂Φm ∂z

∞

+ M (ρ)

z= L − 2

⇒

dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) =

0 0

dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4)

where M (ρ) = M1 , 0, ρ<a ρ > a.

Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2

0 a a

ρJ0 (kρ)dρ

0

(5)

ρJ0 (kρ)dρ =

aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). k

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

3

The solution of eqs. (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 (6)

From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 2 (7)

**Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), M1 a 2 0
**

∞

z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2

M1 a

0 ∞

dk cosh

kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ), 2

z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2.

Hz =

−M1 a

**dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ),
**

0 ∞

−M1 a

dk cosh

0

kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ), 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

4

Problem 5.23

A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . (a) Show that, when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface, it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. a . + L2

2a , 4a2 + L2

a2

(b) Find the limiting form of the force if L

We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis, and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. First, we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium, we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. Instead, we can use the following little trick. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz, two things happen. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder, where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M, but now there is just free space. Second, between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz, while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. Since there are no free currents in the problem, we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates, observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

5

**azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ), 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ), 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ),
**

0

z>L 0<z<L z < 0. (8)

The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ, the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ

∞ 0

=

z=0−

∂Φm ∂ρ

∞ 0

z=0+

dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) =

dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ).

(9)

Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ), integrating from 0 to ∞, and using the identity (2), we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)], where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M, 0, ρ<a ρ > a. (11)

**The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0
**

∞ 0

∂ Φm ∂z

z=0−

= −µ0

0

∂ Φm ∂z

∞

+ µ0 M (ρ)

z=0+

dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = −

dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ)

**Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ), integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞, and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11), the integral on the RHS is
**

a ∞

ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ.

0

(12)

M

0

ρJ0 (kρ) dρ =

Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k

where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). µ0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

6

Now taking µ → ∞, we see that, to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up, we must have D → 0. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k), so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten:

∞

Φm (z, ρ) =

0

dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ),

(0 < z < L).

**The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z =
**

z=L+

∂Φm ∂ρ

z=L−

z=L+

=−

∂Φm ∂z

+ M (ρ)

z=L−

with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL

A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating, we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka), z>L 0 Hz (ρ, z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka), 0 < z < L.

0

Now that we know the ﬁeld, we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a, height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz, and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed:

dz a L+dz a

dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz

Hz (z, ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M

0 a 0 0 a L 0

Hz (z, ρ)ρ dρ dz (14)

Hz (L, ρ)ρ dρ −

Hz (0, ρ)ρ dρ

0

where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction, and may thus be taken out of the integral.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5

7

Inserting (13) into (), and exchanging the order of integration, we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid March 28, 2002

Chapter 6: Problems 1-8

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

2

Problem 6.2

The charge and current densities for a single point charge q can be written formally as ρ(x , t ) = qδ[x − r(t )]; J(x , t ) = qv(t )δ[x − r(t )] where r(t ) is the charge’s position at time t and v(t ) is its velocity. In evaluating expressions involving the retarded time, one must put t = tret = t − R(t )/c, where R = x − r(t ). (a) As a preliminary to deriving the Heaviside-Feynman expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of a point charge, show that d3 x δ[x − r(tret )] = 1 κ

ˆ where κ = 1 − v · R/c. Note that κ is evaluated at the retarded time. (b) Starting with the Jeﬁmenko generalizations of the Coulomb and Biot-Savart laws, use the expressions for the charge and current densities for a point charge and the result of part a to obtain the Heaviside-Feynman expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of a point charge, E= and B= µ0 q 4π q 4π ˆ R κR2 + ret ˆ 1 ∂ R c ∂t κR − 1 ∂ v c2 ∂t κR ret

0

ret

ˆ v×R 2 κR

+ ret

ˆ 1 ∂ v×R c ∂t κR

ret

(c) In our notation Feynman’s expression for the electric ﬁeld is E= q 4π ˆ R R2 + ret ˆ [R]ret ∂ R c ∂t R2 + ret 1 ∂2 ˆ [R]ret c2 ∂t2

0

while Heaviside’s expression for the magnetic ﬁeld is B= µ0 q 4π ˆ v×R 2 R2 κ + ret ˆ 1 ∂ v×R c[R]ret ∂t κ . ret

Show the equivalence of the two sets of expressions for the ﬁelds.

(a) Let’s ﬁrst assume that the charge is traveling along the z axis, so that its position is given by ˆ r(t) = (z0 + vz t)k.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

3

The retarded time tret (t, z) at a given point z on the z axis is tret (t, z) = t − so Hence δ(x − r[tret (x, t)]) = δ(x)δ(y)δ {z − [z0 + vz tret (t, z)]} z = δ(x)δ(y)δ z − [z0 + vz (t − )] c vz = δ(x)δ(y)δ z − z0 − vz t + z)] c vz z − (z0 + vz t) = δ(x)δ(y)δ 1 + c By the properties of the δ function we may write this as = 1 1 + vz /c δ(x)δ(y)δ z − z0 + v z t 1 + vz /c . z c

ˆ r[tret (t, z)] = (z0 + vz tret (t, z))k.

The δ function is singling out the point in space from which originates the electromagnetic disturbance we feel at the origin at time t. Let’s think about what’s going on here in two limiting cases. First, as vz → 0, the z delta function becomes δ(z−(z0 +vz t)). This means that the source point for the ﬁeld we feel at the origin at time t is just z = z0 − vz t, which is of course just the instantaneous location of the source particle at time t. In other words, the electromagnetic disturbance left behind by the particle at time t reaches the origin so quickly that the particle hasn’t had time to move on. The electromagnetic disturbance seems to be coming from the instantaneous location of the particle itself. In the opposite limit vz → c, the z delta function becomes δ(z −(z0 −vz t)/2). This says that the point from which we feel an electromagnetic disturbance at time t is half as far from the origin as the particle itself is at time t. This again makes sense. At each point in the particle’s motion, the electromagnetic disturbance it causes begins propagating toward the origin, while meanwhile the particle continues propagating away from the origin at the same speed. Hence when the electromagnetic disturbance has reached the origin, the particle has traveled as far as the electromagnetic disturbance did, but in the opposite direction, so it is now twice as far from the origin as it was when the disturbance we are just now feeling was generated.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

4

Problem 6.5

A localized electric charge distribution produces an electrostatic ﬁeld, E = − Φ. Into this ﬁeld is placed a small localized time-independent current density J(x), which generates a magnetic ﬁeld H. (a) Show that the momentum of these electromagnetic ﬁelds, (6.117), can be transformed to 1 ΦJ d3 x Pﬁeld = 2 c provided the product ΦH falls of rapidly enough at large distances. How rapidly is “rapidly enough”? (b) Assuming that the current distribution is localized to a region small compared to the scale of variation of the electric ﬁeld, expand the electrostatic potential in a Taylor series and show that Pﬁeld = 1 E(0) × m, c2

where E(0) is the electric ﬁeld at the current distribution and m is the magnetic moment, (5.54), caused by the current. (c) Suupose the current distribution is placed instead in a uniform electric ﬁeld E0 (ﬁlling all space). Show that, no matter how complicated is the localized J, the result in part a is augmented by a surface integral contribution from inﬁnity equal to minus one-third of the result of part b, yielding Pﬁeld = 2 E0 × m. 3c2

Compare this result with that obtained by working directly with (6.117) and the considerations at the end of Section 5.6.

(a) From the deﬁnition of electromagnetic ﬁeld momentum we have c2 Pﬁeld = =− E × H dV ( Φ) × H dV.

Focusing for now on the z component, we have c 2 Pz = − ( ∂Φ ∂Φ Hy − Hx ) dx dy dz ∂x ∂y (1)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

5

Let’s take our volume of integration to be a cube of side L, which we will eventually take to inﬁnity. Integrating the ﬁrst term by parts with respect to x, we have

L −L L −L L −L

∂Φ Hy dx ∂x

L

L

dy dz =

−L −L

ΦHy

x=L x=−L

−

Φ

∂Hy dx ∂x

dy dz.

**Similarly integrating the second term in (1) by parts with respect to y, we may write (1) as c 2 Pz = − =−
**

L −L L −L L

ΦHy

−L L

x=L x=−L x=L x=−L

L

L

dy dz +

−L L −L L

ΦHx ΦHx

−L −L

y=L y=−L y=L y=−L

dx dz + dx dz +

Φ(

× H)z dV

ΦHy

−L

dy dz +

ΦJz dV

where in going to the last line we used × H = J since there is no timedependent E ﬁeld. This equation is just the z component of c2 P = ΦH × dA + ΦJ dV. (2)

If we now take L → ∞, the ﬁrst integral (which describes surface eﬀects) vanishes providing the product Φ(x)H(x) vanishes more quickly (i.e. like a higher power of x) than x2 . Then we are left with just the second term: c2 P = (b) We have Φ(x) = Φ(0) + x · Φ(0) + 1 2 xi xj ∂2Φ +··· ∂xi ∂xj ΦJ dV. (3)

We may arbitrarily choose Φ(0) = 0. Also, we are told that the electric ﬁeld doesn’t vary much in the region of nonvanishing J, in which case we may ignore the second derivatives of Φ, to obtain Φ(x) ≈ x · Plugging into (3), c2 P = − We have − x · E(0) J = E(0) × J x − x · E(0) J − E(0) × J x = E(0) × x × J − E(0) × J x x · E(0) J dV. (4) Φ(0) = −x · E(0).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

6

where in the ﬁrst line we added and subtracted a term, and in the second used the BAC-CAB identity of vector analysis. With this, (4) becomes c2 P = E(0) × x + J dV − E(0) × J] x dV

= 2E(0) × m −

E(0) × J] x dV

where in the ﬁrst term we have identiﬁed the deﬁnition of the dipole moment m. Evidently to get this to match up with what Jackson has we need to argue that second term is exactly half the ﬁrst, but I can’t see how to do this for arbitrary J. Can anybody help? (c) From (2) we have c2 P = ΦH × dA + ΦJ dV.

The second term is just equal to (E × m)/c2 , as computed in part b. For the ﬁrst term,

Problem 6.13

A parallel plate capacitor is formed of two ﬂat rectangular perfectly conducting sheets of dimensions a and b separated by a distance d small compared to a or b. Current is fed in and taken out uniformly along adjacent edges of length b. With the input current and voltage deﬁned at this end of the capacitor, calculate the input impedance or admittance using the ﬁeld concepts of Section 6.9. (a) Calculate the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the capacitor correct to second order in powers of the frequency, but neglecting fringing ﬁelds. (b) Show that the expansion of the reactance (6.140) in powers of the frequency to an appropriate order is the same as that obtained for a lumped circuit consisting of a capacitance C = 0 ab/d in series with an inductance L = µ0 ad/3b.

(a) We’ll suppose the plates are oriented parallel to the xy plane, with the lower plate at z = 0 and the upper plate at z = d. We’ll take the edges of side a parallel to the x axis, and the edges of side b parallel to the y axis. Then the boundary condition on the current density is J(0, y, 0) = −J(0, y, d) = J0ˆ j for 0 < y < b.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

7

With neglect of fringing ﬁelds, the electric ﬁeld between the plates exists only in the z direction, while the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the x direction. We assume harmonic time dependence and write ˆ E(y) = E(y)e−iωt k B(y) = B(y)e−iωt x; ˆ (5)

then time diﬀerentiation becomes multiplication by −iω. The Maxwell equations are then ·E=0 ·B=0 ∂B ∂t 1 ∂E ×B= 2 c ∂t ×E=− ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ∂E ∂z ∂B ∂x ∂E ∂y ∂B ∂y =0 =0 (6) = +iωB =+ iω E. c2

We postulate an expansion in powers of ω for E and B: E(y) = E0 (y) + ωE1 (y) + ω 2 E2 (y) + · · · (7)

B(y) = B0 (y) + ωB1 (y) + ω 2 B2 (y) + · · · Then the curl equations in (6) become ∂ E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 + · · · = iω B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2 + · · · ∂y ∂ iω B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2 + · · · = 2 E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 + · · · ∂y c

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

8

Equating equal powers of ω in these equations, we obtain ∂E0 ∂y ∂B0 ∂y ∂E1 ∂y ∂B1 ∂y ∂E2 ∂y ∂B2 ∂y ∂E3 ∂y ∂B3 ∂y ∂E4 ∂y ∂B4 ∂y =0 =0 = iB0 = iβ i iα E = 2 2 0 c c α = iB1 = − 2 y c i β = 2 E1 = − 2 y c c iβ = iB2 = − 2 y 2 2c i iα = 2 E2 = − 4 y 2 c 2c α 3 = iB3 = y 24c4 i β = 2 E3 = + 4 y 3 c 6c = ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ E0 = α B0 = β E1 = iβy B1 = E2 B2 E3 B3 E4 B4 iα y c2 α = − 2 y2 2c β = − 2 y2 2c iβ = − 2 y3 6c iα = − 4 y3 6c iβ 4 = y 24c2 β 4 = y 24c4

and so on. Plugging into (7), we obtain (ky)4 (ky)3 (ky)2 + + · · · ) + iβc(ky − + ···) 2 24 6 = α cos ky + iβc sin ky iα B(y) = β cos ky + sin ky c E(y) = α(1 − (8) (9) (10)

where k = ω/c, and where we simply wrote down what we guessed to be the sums of the full inﬁnite series from their ﬁrst few terms. To complete the problem we need to determine the constants α and β, for which purpose we appeal to the boundary conditions on the plates. We know that the discontinuities in the E and B ﬁeld are proportional to the surface charge and current densities on the plates. Since these conditions only give information on the diﬀerences between the ﬁelds outside and between the plates, we ostensibly have to know what the ﬁelds are outside to get what they are inside. But for the purposes of this problem we’ll just assume there are no ﬁelds outside, so the charge and current densities on the plates determine the ﬁelds inside. I know this is correct in the low-frequency limit, and in the highfrequency limit I’m not yet sure how to compute the radiation ﬁelds in the region outside the plates, so I will ignore them.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

9

**The boundary conditions are Ez = − σ
**

0

Bx = −µ0 Ky where σ and Ky are the charge density and y component of the surface current density on the top plate (assumed to be identical but with opposite sign on the bottom plate). Plugging in the solutions (9) and (??), we have σ = − 0 (α cos ky + iβc sin ky) iα 1 Ky = − (β cos ky + sin ky) µ0 c

(11)

As a sanity check, we can verify the continuity relation between charge and current on the plates: ∂Ky ∂σ =− = +iωσ ∂y ∂t Plugging in (11), the left and right sides of this are 1 ikα (−kβ sin ky + cos ky) µ0 c RHS = −iω 0(α cos ky + iβc sin ky) LHS = − and the two are evidently equal. The forcing function in this problem is the surface current density speciﬁed on the edges of length b. If the total current fed into the y = 0 edge of the top plate is I(t) = I0 cos ωt (with an opposite current taken out of the y = 0 edge of the bottom plate) then the surface current boundary conditions are I0 cos ωt b Ky (y = a) = 0 Ky (y = 0) = Comparing with (11), we see that these boundary conditions we have to take µ0 I 0 cos ωt b iµ0 I0 c cos ωt cot ka α=− b β=−

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

10

Plugging into (9) and (10), iµ0 I0 c cos ωt [cot ka cos ky + sin ky] b iµ0 I0 c 1 =− [cos ka cos ky + sin ka sin ky] cos ωt b sin ka iµ0 I0 c cos[k(y − a)] =− cos ωt b sin ka µ0 I 0 cos ωt [− cos ky + cot ka sin ky] Bz = − b µ0 I 0 1 =− cos ωt [− sin ka cos ky + cos ka sin ky] b sin ka sin[k(y − a)] µ0 I 0 cos ωt =− b sin ka Ez = −

Problem 6.14

An ideal circular parallel plate capacitor of radius a and plate separation d a is connected to a current source by axial leads, as shown in the sketch. The current in the wire is I(t) = I0 cos ωt. (a) Calculate the electric and magnetic ﬁelds between the plates to second order in powers of the frequency (or wave number), neglecting the eﬀects of fringing ﬁelds. (b) Calculate the volume integrals of we and wm that enter the deﬁnition of the reactance X, (6.140), to second order in ω. Show that in terms of the input current Ii , deﬁned by Ii = −iωQ, where Q is the total charge on one plate, these energies are we d 3 x = 1 |Ii |2 d , 4π 0 ω 2 a2 wm d 3 x = µ0 |Ii |2 d 4π 8 1+ ω 2 a2 12c2

(c) Show that the equivalent series circuit has C ≈ π 0 a2 /d, L ≈ µ0 d/8π, and √ that an estimate for the resonant frequency of the system is ωres = 2 2c/a. Compare with the ﬁrst root of J0 (x).

(a) We work in cylindrical coordinates and assume harmonic time dependence (∝ e−iωt ) for all quantities; then time diﬀerentiation is replaced by multiplication by −iω. If we neglect the eﬀects of fringing ﬁelds, everything is symmetric in θ, and the electric ﬁeld between the plates is entirely in the z direction, while

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

11

the magnetic ﬁeld is entirely in the θ direction: E(x, t) = E(r, z)e−iωtˆ z ˆ B = B(r, z)e−iωt θ. (12)

The Maxwell equations for the ﬁelds between the plates are ∂ E=0 ∂z ∂ ·B=0 ⇒ B=0 ∂θ (13) ∂E ∂B ⇒ = −iωB ×E=− ∂t ∂r 1 ∂ iω 1 ∂E ⇒ (rB) = − 2 E. ×B= 2 c ∂t r ∂r c To proceed, let’s propose an expansion of the ﬁelds in powers of the frequency: ·E=0 ⇒ E(r) = E0 (r, z) + ωE1 (r, z) + ω 2 E2 (r, z) + · · ·

2

(14) (15)

B(r) = B0 (r, z) + ωB1 (r, z) + ω B2 (r, z) + · · · Then the curl equations in (13) become

∂ E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 = −iω B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2 ∂r iω 1 ∂ rB0 + ωrB1 + ω 2 rB2 = − 2 E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 r ∂r c Now we just have to go through and equate like powers of ω in these equations. For n = 0, we have ∂E0 =0 ∂r for some constant α1 , and ⇒ E 0 = α1 (16)

1 ∂ β (rB0 ) = 0 ⇒ B0 = . (17) r ∂r r But for nonzero β this blows up at the origin. Hence we must take β = 0, so B0 = 0. 2 For n = 1, we have ∂E1 = −iB0 = 0 ∂r for some constant α2 , and i iα1 1 ∂ (rB1 ) = − 2 E0 = − 2 r ∂r c c Continuing, ∂E2 α1 = −iB1 = − 2 r ∂r 2c 1 ∂ i iα2 (rB2 ) = − 2 E1 = − 2 r ∂r c c ⇒ E 1 = α2 (18)

⇒

B1 = −

iα1 r. 2c2

(19)

⇒ ⇒

E2 = −

α1 2 r 4c2 iα2 B2 = − 2 r 2c

(20) (21)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

12

α2 ∂E3 = −iB2 = − 2 r ∂r 2c 1 ∂ i iα1 (rB3 ) = − 2 E2 = 4 r2 r ∂r c 4c

⇒ ⇒

E3 = −

α2 2 r 4c2 iα1 3 r B3 = 16c4

(22) (23)

Evidently E2n and E2n+1 have the same form but diﬀer by the presence of α1 or α2 , as is true for B2n−1 and B2n . Plugging in equations (16) through (23) into (14) and (15), we obtain ω4 4 ω2 2 r + r +··· 2 4c 64c4 (kr)2 (kr)4 = (α1 + ωα2 ) 1 − + +··· 4 64 i (kr)2 kr +··· B(r) = − (α1 + ωα2 ) 1− c 2 8 E(r) = (α1 + ωα2 ) 1 − These look the ﬁrst few terms in certain Bessel functions: E(r) = (α1 + ωα2 )J0 (kr) ≡ βJ0 (kr) i B(r) = − βJ1 (kr) c where we can deﬁne the constant β = (α1 + ωα2 ) since we’re dealing with a ﬁxed frequency. Inserting into (12) we obtain ˆ E(r, t) = βJ0 (kr)e−iωt k i ˆ B(r, t) = − βJ1 (kr)e−iωt θ. c (24)

To work out the value of β, we need to apply the boundary conditions at the capacitor plates. An easy way to do this is to consider what happens as ω → 0. In that limit there is no magnetic ﬁeld, and the electric ﬁeld between the plates is just Ez (t) = −2σ(t)/ 0 , where σ(t) is the instantaneous value of the surface charge induced on each plate (positive on the top plate, negative on the bottom). Now, the total charge on the top plate is just the integral of the current ﬂowing onto that plate: I0 sin ωt q = I(t) dt = ω and the surface charge is this divided by the plate area (since we are assuming a low frequency, any charge that ﬂows onto the plate instantaneously equilibrates with the rest of the charge on the plate, yielding a constant surface charge density): I0 σ(t) = sin ωt. πa2 ω Hence the electric ﬁeld in the low frequency limit is Ez (ω → 0) = − 2I0 πa2 ω sin ω.

0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6

13

Comparing this with(24) in the limit k → 0, we obtain β=− Hence E(r, t) = − 2I0 πa2 ω J0 (kr) sin ωt ˆ k B(r, t) = 2µ0 I0 c ˆ J1 (kr) cos ωt θ. πa2 ω (25) 2I0 i . πa2 ω 0

0

**(b) The average energy densities are we = wm =
**

0

4

E2 =

2 I0 2 ω)2 (πa

0

1− kr 2

kr +··· 4

2

2

1 2 B = 4µ2 0

2 µ0 I 0 c 2 (πa2 ω)2

1−

(kr)2 +··· 8

2

We only have to keep the ﬁrst terms in the parentheses to get the energy right to second order in ω: Ue ≈

2 I0 2 ω)2 (πa 2 I0 d = 2 ω2 πa 0 2 µ0 I 0 c 2 = (πa2 ω)2 a

(2πd)(r dr)

0 0

a

Um

(2πd)(rdr)

0

kr (kr)3 − + · · · Um 2 8

=

2 µ0 I 0 c 2 (πa2 ω)2

a

(2πd)(rdr)

0

kr (kr)3 − +··· 2 8

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid May 24, 2002

**Chapter 8: Waveguide Derivations
**

Before starting the problems, I thought it would be useful to run through my own derivations of some of the formulas from this chapter.

**Waveguides and cavities: basic pedagogy
**

The unifying feature of waveguide and cavity problems is that we single out one spatial coordinate and announce from the start that the ﬁelds will have sinusoidal dependence on that coordinate. Taking the special coordinate to be z, this means that all components of all ﬁelds have the functional form f (x, y)eikz for some wavevector k. Assuming harmonic time dependence, we write explicitly E(x) = Ex (x, y)i + Ey (x, y)j + Ez (x, y)k ei(kz−ωt) B(x) = Bx (x, y)i + By (x, y)j) + Bz (x, y)k ei(kz−ωt) (1)

We have here a total of six functions f (x, y) that we must ﬁnd to satisfy Maxwell’s equations with the relevant boundary conditions. At ﬁrst this would appear tough since the six ﬁelds are all coupled by Maxwell’s equations, but after a little algebra we obtain the following simpliﬁed situation: The z− direction ﬁelds Ez (x, y) and Bz (x, y) turn out to satisfy (separately) simple onedimensional diﬀerential equations, which may be readily solved upon specifying the boundary conditions for a particular situation. Meanwhile, the remaining ﬁelds (Ex , Ey , Bx , By ) can be expressed simply as linear combinations of Ez and Bz and their derivatives, so once we obtain the z ﬁelds we have everything. In what follows we’ll derive the diﬀerential equations satisﬁed by Ez and Bz and the equations giving the remaining ﬁelds in terms of them.

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

2

**The diﬀerential equations for Ez and Bz
**

The Maxwell curl equations are ×E=− ∂B , ∂t ×B= 1 ∂E c2 ∂t m

where cm is the speed of light in the medium. We begin by applying the ﬁrst curl equation to our ansatz (1), obtaining ∂y Ez − ikEy = iωBx −∂x Ez + ikEx = iωBy (2) (3) (4)

∂x Ey − ∂y Ex = iωBz , ω i Ey = − Bx − ∂ y Ez . k k

and we pause to solve the ﬁrst two of these for Ex and Ey : Ex = i ω By − ∂ x Ez , k k (5)

Next we apply the second curl equation to our ansatz, obtaining iω Ex c2 m ω −∂x Bz + ikBx = −i 2 Ey cm ω ∂x By − ∂y Bx = −i 2 Ez . cm ∂y Bz − ikBy = − (6) (7) (8)

But in (5) we solved for Ex and Ey , and if we then plug those solutions into (6) and (7) we can solve for Bx and By in terms of Bz and Ez : Bx = ikc2 m − k 2 c2 m ikc2 m By = 2 ω − k 2 c2 m ω2 ω ∂ y Ez c2 k m ω ∂ y Bz − 2 ∂ x Ez . cm k ∂x Bz + · B = 0 reads (9) (10)

Finally, with the ansatz (1) the equation

∂Bx ∂By + = −ikBz . ∂x ∂y When we plug (9) and (10) into this, the terms involving Ez ﬁelds cancel, and we obtain an equation involving Bz alone: ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x2 ∂y or ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x2 ∂y Bz + γ 2 Bz = 0 (11) Bz + ω2 − k 2 Bz = 0 c2 m

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

3

where ω2 − k2. c2 If we had carried out this derivation in the reverse order we would have obtained the same equation for Ez : γ= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂x ∂y Ez + γEz = 0. (12)

We can think of equations (11) and (12) as eigenvalue equations that have solutions only for certain values of the parameter γ, which depend on the boundary conditions. Armed with equations (11) and (12) and the boundary conditions appropriate to our problem we can now solve for Bz and Ez and then use (9) and (10) to ﬁnd the remaining components of the B ﬁeld. The remaining components of the E ﬁeld are given by analogous equations: ikc2 m ∂ x Ez + ω 2 − k 2 c2 m ikc2 Ey = 2 m 2 ∂ y Ez − ω − k 2 cm ω ∂y Bz k ω ∂x Bz . k

Ex =

(13) (14)

**Boundary Conditions; TE, TM, TEM Modes
**

The boundary conditions on the ﬁelds at the surfaces of the waveguide or cavity are that E and B⊥ be continuous, where ⊥ denotes the component of the vector normal to the boundary surface and includes all other components of the vector. This means that the two eigenvalue equations (11) and (12) must be solved subject to diﬀerent boundary conditions, which means in general their eigenvalues will be diﬀerent. If we have a solution of (12) for some value of γ (i.e. for some combination of values of ω and k), then there will be no nonzero solution of (11) for that value of γ, and hence we must have Bz = 0 identically for the mode at that frequency and wavevector. Since in this case the magnetic ﬁeld has nonzero components only transverse to the direction of propagation, this is called a transverse magnetic mode. Similarly, if (11) can be solved with nonzero Bz at some γ, then Ez = 0 and we have a transverse electric mode. A mode for which both Ez and Bz are zero is called a transverse electromagnetic mode, and can only exist in the region between two conducting surfaces, not within a single conductor as is possible for TE and TM modes. Since either Ez or Bz is zero, we can simplify some of the equations above and collect results appropriate to the two cases.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

4

TM Modes

TE Modes

Bz ≡ 0

2 t Ez

Ez ≡ 0 En

∂S

+ γ 2 Ez = 0,

=0

2 t Bz

+ γ 2 Bz = 0,

∂Bn ∂n

=0

∂S

Ex = Ey = Bx =

iω ∂ y Ez ω 2 − k 2 c2 m iω ∂ x Ez By = − 2 ω − k 2 c2 m

ikc2 m ∂ x Ez ω 2 − k 2 c2 m ikc2 m ∂ y Ez ω 2 − k 2 c2 m

iωc2 m ∂y Bz ω 2 − k 2 c2 m iωc2 m Ey = − 2 ∂x Bz ω − k 2 c2 m ikc2 Bx = 2 m 2 ∂x Bz ω − k 2 cm ikc2 By = 2 m 2 ∂y Bz ω − k 2 cm Ex =

(A factor of ei(kz−ωt) is understood in all of these expressions.) For TM modes, the boundary condition is E = 0, and Ez is always perpendicular to the boundary surfaces, so the boundary condition for the eigenvalue equation is Ez = 0. For the case of TE modes, the boundary condition is B⊥ = 0. Suppose one boundary surface is the yz plane. The normal to this plane is the x direction, so Bx must vanish at this surface; but we just saw that in the TE case Bx ∝ ∂x Bz , i.e. the derivative of Bz normal to the boundary surface must vanish. This is general: the boundary condition for the eigenvalue equation in the TM case is ∂Bz /∂n = 0.

**Power ﬂow; Energy Loss
**

The ﬂow of power down a waveguide is described by the z component of the 1 Poynting vector S = E × H = µ E × B. Using the boxed expressions above, for the two types of modes we obtain

TM Sz =

1 (Ex By − Ey Bx ) µ kωc2 m = (∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2 e2i(kz−ωt) 2 − k 2 c 2 )2 µ(ω m kωc2 m (∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2 − k 2 c 2 )2 m (15)

or, in the time average, = = 2µ(ω 2

kω (∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2 . 2γ 4

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

5

**Similarly, for TE modes we obtain
**

TE Sz =

kω (∂x Bz )2 + (∂y Bz )2 . 2µγ 4

(16)

To address the issue of dissipation in the boundaries, we solve Maxwell’s equations within the boundary surfaces. The two curl equations are × E = iωB × B = µJ − iµ ωE (17)

= µ (σ − i ω) E ≈ µσE

(18)

since σ ω in most cases. (For example, for a copper waveguide with air or vacuum interior we have we have σ ≈ 6 · 107 Ω−1 m−1 , while ω ≈ 9 · 10−12 Ω−1 m−1 · (ω in rad/sec), so the approximation is good up to frequencies ω ∼ 1019 rad/sec.) Now we assume that the ﬁelds are only changing signiﬁcantly in the direction normal to the boundary surface (i.e., as we go deeper and deeper into the boundary surface the ﬁelds die out rapidly, whereas as we move along parallel to the boundary surface the ﬁelds don’t change much) and keep only the normal derivative in the curl equations. If ρ measures the depth of penetration into the surface, the curl equations become ∂E = iωB ∂ρ ∂B ρ× ˆ = µσE ∂ρ ρ× ˆ Diﬀerentiating the ﬁrst of these, taking the cross product with ρ of both sides, ˆ and substituting in the second equation yields ρ×ρ× ˆ ˆ or, using the bac-cab rule, ∂ 2 Eρ ∂ 2E ρ− ˆ = iωµσE. ∂ρ2 ∂ρ2 Evidently the ρ component of the LHS vanishes here, so Eρ = 0; the electric ﬁeld within the conducting boundary has no component normal to the surface. For the remaining components we obtain ∂2E + iωµσE = 0 ∂ρ2 ∂ 2E = iωµσE ∂ρ2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

6

with solution E = e± =e

√ iωµσρ

E0

±(1+i) ρ δ

E0

where δ = 2/ωµσ is the skin depth and E0 is the ﬁeld just at the surface of the boundary. To keep the solution from blowing up as we penetrate into the conductor we take the negative sign in the exponent. From (17) we then obtain B=

ρ i−1 (ˆ × E0 )e−(1+i) δ . ρ δω

Evaluating this at the surface yields the modiﬁed boundary condition on the ﬁelds in the cavity or waveguide: B0 = i−1 (ˆ × E0 ). ρ δω (19)

From this equation we can work out the power loss per unit length in the cavity or waveguide. The power dissipated in a volume dV is (J · E) dV = σ E 2 dV. We integrate over the volume occupied by the boundary surfaces in a length dz :

∞

dP = dz

0

2 σE0 e−2(1+i) δ dρ dl e2i(kz−ωt) 2 E0 dl e2i(kz−ωt)

ρ

= dz

σδ 2(1 + i)

**or, taking the time average, σδ dP = √ dz 4 2
**

2 E0 dl

(20)

where the line integral is over the cross section of the surface boundary at a ﬁxed value of z.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid May 24, 2002

Chapter 8: Problems 1-8

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

2

Problem 8.2

A transmission line consisting of two concentric cylinders of metal with conductivity σ and skin depth δ, as shown, is ﬁlled with a uniform lossless dielectric (µ, ). A TEM mode is propagated along this line. (a) Show that the time-averaged power ﬂow along the line is P = µ πa2 |H0 |2 ln b a

where H0 is the peak value of the azimuthal magnetic ﬁeld at the surface of the inner conductor. (b) Show that the transmitted power is attenuated along the line as P (z) = P0 e−2γz where γ= 1 2σδ

1 a

+

b a

1 b

µ ln

.

(c) The characteristic impedance Z0 of the line is deﬁned as the ratio of the voltage between the cylinders to the axial current ﬂowing in one of them at any position z. Show that for this line Z0 = 1 2π µ ln b a .

(d) Show that the series resistance and inductance per unit length of the line are R= µ ln 2π 1 2πσδ b a + 1 1 + a b µc δ 4π 1 1 + a b .

L=

(a) For the TEM mode, the electric ﬁeld in the waveguide may be written E(x, y, z, t) = Et (x, y)e−ikz e−iωt where Et has only x and y components and may be derived from a scalar potential, i.e. Et = − t Φ. Since Φ satisﬁes the Laplace equation, we may write its general form immediately (neglecting an arbitrary constant):

∞

Φ(ρ, θ) = β0 ln ρ +

l=1

(αl ρl + βl ρ−l ) sin(lθ + αl ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

3

In this part of the problem we’ll neglect dissipation in the waveguide walls, so the boundary condition on Et is that its components transverse to the walls vanish, i.e. ∂Φ ∂Φ = = 0. ∂θ r=b ∂θ r=a This yields no condition on β0 , since the θ derivative of that term vanishes anyway, but on the terms in the summation we obtain the conditions αl al + βl a−l = αl bl + βl b−l = 0 which can only be satisﬁed if αl = βl = 0 for l = 0. Hence we have Φ(ρ) = β0 ln ρ −→ 1 ˆ E = −β0 ρ. ρ (1)

**The magnetic ﬁeld is found from Jackson’s (8.28): 1 H=− B= µ β0 ˆ = θ. µ ρ The time-averaged Poynting vector is S= 1 1 (E × H∗ ) = 2 2 |β0 |2 1 ρ
**

2

µ

(z × E) (2)

µ

ˆ z

**Integrating over the cross section of the waveguide, we obtain the power transfer:
**

b 2π 0

P =

a

S · dA |β0 |2

b

= = =

1 2

2πρ dρ µ ρ2 a b |β0 |2 · π ln µ a µ (πa2 ) ln b a · |β0 |2 µ a2

(3)

Referring back to (2) to rewrite the term in brackets, we obtain P = µ (πa2 ) ln b a |H(a)|2 (4)

(b) Without going back and completely re-solving for the ﬁelds in the waveguide for the case of ﬁnite conductivity, we can calculate the power loss per unit length

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

4

**approximately using Jackson’s equation (8.58): − dP 1 = dz 2σδ 1 = 2σδ =
**

2 πβ0

c

|ˆ × H|2 dl ρ 2πb · 1 1 + b a β0 b .

2

µ µ

+ 2πa ·

β0 a

2

σδ

**Dividing by (3), we obtain γ=− 1 dP 1 = 2P dz 2σδ
**

1 a

+

b a

1 b

µ ln

.

(c) The ﬁelds inside the waveguide are E(ρ, z, t) = − H(ρ, z, t) = β0 i(kz−ωt) e ρ ˆ ρ β0 i(kz−ωt) ˆ e θ µ ρ

**From the E ﬁeld we can compute the voltage diﬀerence between the cylinders: V (z, t) = −β0 ei(kz−ωt)
**

b a

b dρ = −β0 ei(kz−ωt) ln ρ a

(5)

while from the H ﬁeld we can compute the axial current ﬂowing in, say, the outer cylinder: I = 2πb|Kb | = 2πb|ˆ × H(ρ = b)| = 2π ρ Dividing (5) by (6), we have Z= V 1 = I 2π µ b ln . a µ β0 ei(kz−ωt) . (6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

5

Problem 8.4

Transverse electric and magnetic waves are propagated along a hollow, right circular cylinder of brass with inner radius R. (a) Find the cutoﬀ frequencies of the various TE and TM modes. Determine numerically the lowest cutoﬀ frequency (the dominant mode) in terms of the tube radius and the ratio of cutoﬀ frequencies of the next four higher modes to that of the dominant mode. For this part assume that hte conductivity of brass is inﬁnite. (b) Calculate the attenuation constant of the waveguide as a function of frequency for the lowest two modes and plot it as a function of frequency.

**(a) The equation we have to solve is (
**

2 t

+ γ 2 )Ψ(ρ, θ) = 0,

i.e. the Helmholtz equation. Ψ is Ez for the TM case and Hz for the TE case. The boundary conditions are Ψ(ρ = R) = 0 for the TM case, and (∂Ψ/∂ρ)(ρ = R) = 0 for the TE case. The general solution of Helmholtz in 2D is

∞

Ψ(ρ, θ) =

L=0

JL (γρ)(AL eiLθ + BL e−iLθ ) + NL (γρ)(CL eiLθ + DL eiLθ ).

Since this solution must be valid everywhere in the interior of the waveguide, including at ρ = 0, the part of the solution involving NL must vanish. Also, for a physical solution we must have L an integer. But otherwise I don’t think there are any constraints on AL and BL . I guess these guys are determined by the ﬁeld conﬁguration one forces into the waveguide at one of its ends. The allowed values of γ are determined by the boundary conditions. These are TM case : TE case : Ψ|ρ=R = 0 ∂Ψ ∂ρ =0

ρ=R

=⇒ =⇒

JL (γR) = 0 JL (γR) = 0

(7) (8) (9)

Hence the allowable eigenvalues are given by γi = xi R

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

6

where the xi are the roots of JL (x) = 0 and JL (x) = 0. Referring to Jackson’s tables on pages 114 and 370, we can write down the ﬁve lowest-lying eigenvalues: γ1 = γ2 = γ3 = γ4a = γ4b = 1.841 , R 2.405 , R 3.054 , R 3.832 , R 3.832 , R TE, L = 1 TM, L = 0 TE, L = 2 TE, L = 1 TM, L = 0.

The last two eigenvalues are degenerate. The lowest cutoﬀ frequency is γ1 1.841 ωc = √ = √ . µ R µ (b) The lowest-lying mode is the TE mode with L = 1. For this mode we have Hz (ρ, θ, z, t) = H0 J1 (γ1 ρ)eiθ ei(kz−ωt) (10)

2 with k 2 = µ ω 2 − γ1 . The tangential component of the ﬁeld, from Jackson (8.33), is k (11) Hθ (ρ, θ, z, t) = − 2 Hz ργ

Using (10) and (11), we can ﬁnd the current induced in the wall of the conductor at ρ = R: k ˆ Keﬀ = ρ × H(ρ = R) = −H0 J1 (γ1 R)eiθ ei(kz−ωt ) θ + ˆ z 2ˆ . Rγ1 Then Jackson (8.58) is − dP 1 = H 2 J 2 (γ1 R) · 2πR 1 + dz 2σδ 0 1 k 2 Rγ1

2

(12)

**On the other hand, the transmitted power is given by Jackson (8.51): P = 1 2 µ ω ωλ µ
**

2

1− ω ωλ

2

ωλ ω

2 1/2 A 2 1/2

∗ Hz Hz dA R 0 2 ρJ1 (γ1 ρ) dρ

2 = πH0

ωλ 1− ω

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

7

**The integral can be evaluated with Jackson (3.95):
**

2 = πH0

µ

ω ωλ

2

1−

ωλ ω

2 1/2

R2 [J2 (γ1 R)]2 2

(13)

Dividing (12) by (13), we calculate the attenuation coeﬃcient: β= = = 2 1 dP = 2P dz σδR 1 dP 2 = 2P dz σδR 1 dP 2 = 2P dz σδR J1 (1.841) µ J2 (1.841) J1 (1.841) µ J2 (1.841) J1 (1.841) µ J2 (1.841)

2

1+

2

k 2 Rγ1

2

ωλ ω

2

2

ω2 2 ω 2 − ωλ

2

1/2

1+

2

Rk (1.841)2 ωλ ω

ωλ ω

ω2 2 − ω2 ω λ

1/2

1/2

µ R2 ω 2 (1.841)2

2

ω2 2 ω 2 − ωλ

.

Problem 8.5

A waveguide is constructed so that the cross section of the guide forms a right √ triangle with sides of length a, a, 2a, as shown. The medium inside has µr = r = 1. (a) Assuming inﬁnite conductivity for the walls, determine the possible modes of propagation and their cutoﬀ frequencies. (b) For the lowest mode of each type calculate the attenuation constant, assuming that the walls have large, but ﬁnite, conductivity. Compare the result with that for a square guide of side a made from the same material.

(a) We’ll take the origin of coordinates at the lower left corner of the triangle. Then the boundary surfaces are deﬁned by x = 0, y = a, and x = y. The task is to solve ( 2 + γ 2 )Ψ = 0 subject to the vanishing of Ψ, or its normal t derivative, at the walls. In the text, Jackson ﬁnds the form of the solutions for a rectangular waveguide. A little bit of staring at the triangular waveguide reveals that appropriate solutions for this geometry can be assembled from linear combinations of the solutions for the rectangular case. For example, a term like sin kx x sin ky y, for suitable choices of kx and ky , already vanishes on the two legs of the triangle. To get it to vanish on the third boundary surface, i.e. the hypotenuse (x = y), we can simply subtract the same term with kx and ky swapped. In other words, we take Ez (x, y) = Hz (x, y) = Amn sin Bmn mπx nπy nπx mπy sin − sin sin a a a a mπx nπy nπx mπy cos cos + cos cos a a a a (TM) (TE)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

8

The TE case involves the plus sign because in the normal derivative on the diagonal boundary surface the x derivative comes in with the opposite sign as the y derivative. 2 These satisfy ( 2 + γmn )Ψ = 0, where t π 2 2 (nx + n2 ). y a In contrast to the rectangular case, TM modes with m = n vanish identically. For both TM and TE modes, mode (m, n) is the same mode as (n, m). As in the case of the rectangular waveguide, the smallest value of γ is to be had for the TE1 , 0 mode, in which case π γ10 = a √ and the cutoﬀ frequency is ωc(1,0) = π/(a µ ). For the TM case the lowest √ propagating mode is (m, n) = (2, 1), for which γ21 = 5π/a and ωc(2,1) = √ 5ωc(1,0) .

2 γmn =

(b) The lowest-frequency TE mode has Hz = H0 cos Ht = The power loss is ikπ 2 H0 aγ10 − πy πx + cos a a πx ˆ πy ˆ sin i + sin j . a a |n × H|2 dl πx +1 a

2

**1 dP = dz 2σδ On the lower surface (y = 0) we have
**

2 2 2 |n × H|2 = |Hy + Hz | = H0

(14)

cos

+

k2 π2 2 πx 4 sin a2 γ10 a

**The contribution of the lower surface to the integral in (14) is thus lower
**

2 = aH0

k2 π2 3 + 2 4 2 a γ10

(15)

The contribution of the right (vertical) boundary surface is the same. On the diagonal boundary surface, we have 1 n = √ (−ˆ + ˆ i j) 2 with magnitude |n × H|2 = 1 2 2 2 [H + Hy + Hz + 2Hx Hy ] 2 x kπ H2 πγ +4 = 0 4 cos2 2 a aγ10 =⇒ 1 ˆ n × H = √ [Hzˆ + Hzˆ − (Hy + Hx )k] i j 2

2

sin2

πγ a

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

9

where γ = x = y is the common coordinate as we move from (0, 0) to (a, a). In √ the integral in (14) we can put dl = 2dγ and integrate over γ from 0 to a to obtain √ k2 π2 2 = 2aH0 1 + 2 4 . a γ10 diagonal Adding this to two times (15) and inserting into (14), we have −

2 √ √ k2 π2 aH0 dP = 3 + 2 + (2 + 2) 2 4 . dz 2σδ a γ10

(16)

**On the other hand, from Jackson (8.51) we have P =
**

2 H0 2

µ ×

ω ωλ

a 0

2

y 0

2 ωλ ω2 πx πy πx πy cos2 + cos2 + 2 cos cos a a a a

1/2

1−

dx dy

By symmetry, the integral is just half of what we would get from integrating the integrand over a square of side a, which, by inspection, is a2 . Hence P =

2 a 2 H0 4

µ

ω ωλ

2

1−

2 ωλ ω2

.1/2

We could at this point proceed to write out the explicit form of the attenuation constant, but what’s the point?

Problem 8.6

A resonant cavity of copper consists of a hollow, right circular cylinder of inner radius R and length L, with ﬂat end faces. (a) Determine the resonant frequencies of the cavity for all types of waves. With √ (1/ µ R) as a unit of frequency, plot the lowest four resonant frequencies of each type as a function of R/L for 0 < R/L < 2. Does the same mode have the lowest frequency for all R/L ? (b) If R=2 cm, L=3 cm, and the cavity is made of pure copper, what is the numerical value of Q for the lowest resonant mode?

(a) Taking the origin at the center of the cavity, the ρ and φ components of the ﬁelds must vanish at z = ±L/2. Since the z dependence of all ﬁeld components is e±ikz , the allowed values of k are k = nπ/L, with E ∝ sin kz for k even and E ∝ cos kz for k odd.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

10

**The equation characterizing T M modes is (
**

2 t

+ γ 2 )Ez = 0,

Ez |∂S = 0.

Expanding this in cylindrical coordinates, we obtain ∂ 2 Ez 1 ∂Ez 1 ∂ 2 Ez + + 2 + γ 2 Ez = 0 ∂ρ2 ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ2 We put Ez (ρ, φ) = R(ρ)P (φ) to obtain ∂2P + νP = 0 ∂φ2 ν2 ∂ 2 R 1 ∂R + + γ 2 − 2 = 0. ∂ρ2 ρ ∂ρ ρ The solutions are P (φ) = e±iνφ R(ρ) = Jν (γρ). For single-valuedness we require ν ∈ , and to ensure Ez (ρ = R) = 0 we require γ = xνm /R where xνm is the mth root of Jν (x) = 0. Hence Ez = AJν xνm ρ ±iνφ −iωt e e R

sin kz, cos kz,

keven kodd

(TM modes).

**For TE modes the relevant equation is (
**

2 t

+ γ 2 )Bz = 0,

∂Bz ∂n

= 0.

∂S

The general solution to the diﬀerential equation is the same as above, but now the boundary condition requires Jν (γR) = 0, so γ = yνm /R where yνm is the mth root of Jν (y) = 0. Then the solutions look like Bz = AJν yνm ρ ±iνφ −iωt e e R sin kz, cos kz, keven kodd (TE modes).

**As we saw above, the allowed wavevectors are k = nπ/L. The frequency is related to the wavenumber according to
**

2 2 ωνmn = cm γνm + kn cm 2 2 R xνm + π = cm 2 yνm + π 2 R

R L R L

2

n2 ,

2

(TM) (TE)

n2 ,

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

11

PSfrag replacements

9 TE modes TM modes 8

ω (units of c/R)

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

R/L Figure 1: TM and TE mode frequencies for the resonant cavity of Problem 8.6.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8

12

(The m subscript on cm is not related to the m subscripts on ω and ν). The lowest four TM and TE mode frequencies are shown in Figure 1. (b) The lowest resonant mode is the TE1,1,1 mode.info

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid January 13, 2003

Chapter 11: Problems 1-8

Problem 11.4

A possible clock is shown in the ﬁgure. It consists of a ﬂashtube F and a photocell P shielded so that each views only the mirror M, located a distance d away, and mounted rigidly with respect to the ﬂashtube-photocell assembly. The electronic innards of the box are such that when the photocell responds to a light ﬂash from the mirror, the ﬂashtube is triggered with a negligible delay and emits a short ﬂash toward the mirror. The clock thus “ticks” once every (2d/c) seconds when at rest. (a) Suppose that the clock moves with a uniform velocity v, perpendicular to the line from P F to M, relative to an observer. Using the second postulate of relativity, show by explicit geometrical or algebraic construction that the observer sees the relativistic time dilatation as the clock moves by. (b) Suppose that the clock moves with a velocity v parallel to the line from P F to M. Verify that here, too, the clock is observed to tick more slowly, by the same time dilatation factor.

(a) Suppose that, relative to an observer, the clock is moving with speed v perpendicular to the direction in which the light travels back and forth. Let dt be the time measured by the observer for the light to travel from the ﬂashtube to the mirror. The vertical distance traveled by the light is d, but—as far as the observer is concerned—during the time dt the mirror has also translated a horizontal distance vdt. Hence the total distance the observer sees the light

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

2

travel (one-way) is d2 + (vdt)2 . But this distance must equal cdt, since the light must have the universal speed c in any reference frame. Hence we have cdt = or dt = 1 2 1 + v2 c d2 + (vdt)2

1/2

d . c

This is the time (as measured by the observer) in which the light makes the trip from ﬂashtube to mirror. The light takes the same amount of time to travel back to the photocell, so the total period of the clock is just twice this, or period = 1 2 1 − v2 c

1/2

2d c

which is greater than the period of the clock at rest by the normal Lorentz dilatation factor. (b) Now we suppose that the clock is moving relative to an observer with speed v parallel to the direction of motion of the light. We align the z axis with the direction of motion. Then we may write down the space-time coordinates (in the clock’s rest frame) of the three relevant events in the operation of the clock (taking x4 = ct): xa = (0, 0, 0, 0), xb = (0, 0, d, d), xc = (0, 0, 0, 2d), (light leaves ﬂashtube) (light reaches mirror) (light reaches photocell).

and using this we may write down the spacetime coordinates of the three events above in the rest frame of the observer: xa = (0, 0, 0, 0) xb = 0, 0, γ(1 + β)d, γ(1 + β)d xc = 0, 0, 2γβd, 2γd

The transformation matrix from the clock’s reference frame to the observer’s reference frame is 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Γ= 0 0 γ γβ 0 0 γβ γβ

Evidently the diﬀerence in the time coordinates of events a and c (which is just the observed period of the clock) is c∆t = 2γd, so again the observer observes

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

3

the clock to have a period of 2γd/c, longer by the factor γ than the period of the clock in its rest frame.

Problem 11.5

A coordinate system K moves with a velocity v relative to another system K. In K a particle has a velocity u and an acceleration a . Find the Lorentz transformation law for acceleration, and show that in the system K the components of acceleration parallel and perpendicular to v are 1− 1+

v2 c2 v·u c2 3/2 3

a =

v2 c2 3

a

a⊥ =

1− 1+

a⊥ +

v·u c2

v × (a × u ) . c2

The initial components of the velocity in the moving frame (frame K ) are u and u⊥ . Using Jackson’s equations 11.31 to transform these to frame K, we obtain u (0) = u⊥ (0) = u +v 1+ γv

u v c2

(1) (2)

u⊥ u v . 1 + c2

After a time dt has passed in frame K, a time dt = dt/γ has passed in frame K , and the velocity has increased by the amount a dt = a dt/γ. Then we can write down the new components of the velocity in K and again transform to K: u (dt) = u⊥ (dt) = γv 1 + Subtracting (1) from (3), we have u + a dt + v 1+

(u +a dt )v c2

(3) (4)

u⊥ (u +a dt )v c2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

4

∆u =

u + a dt + v 1+

(u +a dt )v c2

− 1−

u +v 1+

v2 c2 u v c2 u v c2

a dt = 1+

u v c2 2

+ 1+

a dt

**Using the relation dt = dt/γ we can rewrite this as a dt 1 − + 1+
**

v2 c2 3/2

= 1+

u v c2

2

u v c2

1+

v 2 1/2 c2

a dt

**Dividing by dt and taking the limit as dt → 0, we obtain a ∆u a = lim = dt→0 dt 1− 1+
**

v2 c2 3/2 2

u v c2

.

So evidently I’m oﬀ by 1 in the exponent of the denominator. What am I doing wrong? Next, subtracting (2) from (4), we have 1 u⊥ + a⊥ dt u⊥ ∆u⊥ = − u v γv 1 + u v + a dt v 1 + c2 2 2 c c a dt v u v a⊥ dt 1 + c2 − u⊥ 2 c 1 = u v 2 u v a dt v γv 1 + c2 + 1 + c2 2 c a⊥ dt + cv u a⊥ − u⊥ a dt 2 1 = u v 2 u v a dt v γv + 1 + c2 1 + c2 2 c Again putting in dt = γdt , we have v a⊥ dt + c2 u a⊥ − u⊥ a dt 1 = 2 u v a dtv u v 2 γv + 1 + c2 1 + c2 γv c2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

5

As before, when we divide by dt and take the limit as dt → 0 the second term in the denominator becomes irrelevant and we obtain a⊥ = lim ∆u⊥ = dt→0 dt 1

2 γv 1 + u v c2

Jackson writes the second term in the brackets a little diﬀerently. To show that his expression is equivalent to mine, we use the BAC-CAB rule: v × (a × u ) = (v · u )a − (v · a )u = vu a + a⊥ − va u + u⊥

=

1

1+

2 − v2 c u v

c2

2

2

a⊥ +

v u a⊥ − u ⊥ a c2

a⊥ +

v u a⊥ − u ⊥ a c2

The parallel components cancel, and we are left with = v(u a⊥ − a u⊥ ) which is the way I wrote it above. But I’m still oﬀ by 1 in the exponent of the term in the denominator! What am I missing?

Problem 11.6

Assume that a rocket ship leaves the earth in the year 2010. One of a set of twins born in 2080 remains on earth; the other rides in the rocket. The rocket ship is so constructed that it has an acceleration g in its own rest frame (this makes the occupants feel at home). It accelerates in a straight-line path for 5 years (by its own clocks), decelerates at the same rate for 5 more years, turns around, accelerates for 5 years, decelerates for 5 years, and lands on earth. The twin in the rocket is 40 years old. (a) What year is it on earth? (b) How far away from the earth did the rocket ship travel? Let v(t) be the speed of the rocket, as observed on earth, at a time t as measured on earth. Using the ﬁrst result of problem 11.5, we see that the acceleration of the rocket as measured from earth is a= dv v(t)2 =± 1− 2 dt c

3/2

g,

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

6

dβ 3/2 = ± 1 − β2 α dt where α = g/c and the plus or minus sign depends on whether we are accelerating or decelerating. Manipulating this a little, we obtain dβ = ±αdt. (1 − β 2 )3/2 Integrating, we obtain β (1 − β 2 )1/2

β2 β1

or

= ±α(t2 − t1 ).

(5)

For the ﬁrst leg of the rocket’s journey, we have t1 = β1 = 0 and we take the plus sign in (5). Then we ﬁnd β = αt (1 − β 2 )1/2 or β(t) = and γ(t) = 1 1 − β 2 (t) = 1 + (αt)2 (7) αt [1 + (αt)2 ]1/2 (6)

Next let’s work out the relation between time as measured on the rocket and time as measured on earth. With primed (unprimed) quantities referring to the rocket (to earth), the inﬁnitesimal relation is dt = γ(t)dt or

t2

t2 − t 1 = =

t1 t2 t1

dt γ(t) dt 1 + (αt)2

=

du 1 αt2 √ α αt1 1 + u2 1 = sinh−1 (αt2 ) − sinh−1 (αt1 ) α

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

7

For the ﬁrst leg of the journey this becomes t2 = 1 sinh(αt2 ). α (8)

Now we know that the ﬁrst leg of the journey lasts until t2 = 5 years, and we have 9.8 m s−2 g = 3.27 · 10−8 s−1 . α= = c 3 · 108 m s−1 Then the time on earth at the end of the ﬁrst leg of the journey is, from (8), t2 = 1 3.27 · 10−8 · sinh 3.27 · 10−8 s−1 (5 yr) 3.153 · 107 s 1 yr s

= 2.65 · 109 s ≈ 84 yr.

**Finally, the distance the rocket travels during the ﬁrst leg of its journey is
**

t

d=c

0 t

β(t)dt αt 1 + (αt)2 dt

=c

0

c αt u √ du α 0 1 + u2 c 1/2 1 + (αt)2 −1 = α 15 = 3.0 · 10 meters. = The behavior of the rocket on the subsequent three legs of the journey is similar to that in the ﬁrst leg. In particular, the total distance traveled away from earth is twice that covered in the ﬁrst leg, or 6.0 ·1015 meters, and the total time elapsed on earth during the rocket’s journey is four times that elapsed during the ﬁrst leg, or 4·84=336 years. So it should be the year 2436 on earth by the time the rocket returns home.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

8

Problem 11.13

An inﬁnitely long straight wire of negligible cross-sectional area is at rest and has a uniform linear charge density q0 in the inertial frame K . The frame K (and the wire) move with a velocity v parallel to the direction of the wire with respect to the laboratory frame. (a) Write down the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in cylindrical coordinates in the rest frame of the wire. Using the Lorentz transformation properties of the ﬁelds, ﬁnd the components of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the laboratory. (b) What are the charge and current densities associated with the wire in its rest frame? In the laboratory? (c) From the laboratory charge and current densities, calculate directly the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the laboratory. Compare with the results of part (a). I don’t like q0 as a symbol for charge density, because it appears to have the wrong units. I’ll use λ instead. We’ll take our z axis to coincide with the wire and take v in the positive z direction. (a) In the rest frame there is no current and the E ﬁeld is static; hence B = 0. The electric ﬁeld is found by considering a Gaussian pillbox in the shape of a right circular cylinder coaxial with the wire and of radius r and length dz. There is no electric ﬁeld normal to the upper and lower surfaces, and the ﬁeld normal to the radial bounding surface is uniform across the circumference. On the other hand, the charge enclosed in the cylinder is λ dz. Then Gauss’ law is E · dA = 4πQ =⇒ 2πrdzEr = 4πλdz 2λ =⇒ Er = . r In terms of cartesian components we have Ex = 2λ x x2+y2 , Ey = 2λ y x2 +y2 .

(9)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

9

The ﬁeld-strength tensor in the laboratory frame is ˜ F = ΛF Λ γ 0 0 βγ 0 −x 0 1 0 0 x 1 0 = 2λ 2 0 x +y 2 0 0 1 0 y βγ 0 0 γ 0 0 0 −x −y 0 x 2γλ 0 0 βx . = 0 0 βy (x 2 + y 2 ) y 0 −βx −βy 0 −y 0 0 0 0 γ 0 0 0 0 0 βγ 0 1 0 0 0 βγ 0 0 1 0 0 γ

Reading oﬀ from this the transformed ﬁelds, and dropping the primes on x and y since the z boost leaves these coordinates unchanged, we have 2λ (xi + yj) x2 + y 2 2λ =γ ˆ r r λ B = βγ (−yi + xj) 2 + y2) 2(x 2λ ˆ = βγ φ. r E=γ (10) (11) (12) (13)

**(b) In the rest frame there is no current and the charge density is ρ = λδ(x)δ(y), so J µ = cλ(δ(x)δ(y), 0, 0, 0). The transformed current density is J µ = Λµ J ν
**

ν

γ 0 0 0 1 0 = cλ 0 0 1 βγ 0 0 δ(x)δ(y) 0 = cγλ 0 βδ(x)δ(y)

γβ δ(x)δ(y) 0 0 0 0 γ 0 .

(c) Computing the electric ﬁeld in the laboratory frame is easy, since the charge density is the same as we had before but with a factor of γ thrown in. Then the E ﬁeld is just (9) but with that factor of γ thrown in, i.e. E= 2γλ ˆ r r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

10

which agrees with (10). For the magnetic ﬁeld, we note that the current density in the lab frame is J = cβγλδ(x)δ(y)ˆ. Then the current piercing a disc of radius r is I = cβγλ. z On the other hand, by symmetry the magnetic ﬁeld in the azimuthal direction around the circumference of this disc is constant, so we may use Ampere’s law, × B = (4π/c)J to write 2πrBφ = or B= which agrees with (13). 2βγλ ˆ φ r 4π (cβγλ) c

Problem 11.15

In a certain reference frame a static, uniform, electric ﬁeld E0 is parallel to the x axis, and a static, uniform, magnetic induction B0 = 2E0 lies in the x − y plane, making an angle θ with the axis. Determine the relative velocity of a reference frame in which the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are parallel. What are the ﬁelds in that frame for θ 1 and θ → (π/2)? The untransformed ﬁelds are E = E0 i, B = 2E0 (cos θi + sin θj).

Let’s suppose we boost along the z axis. Then the ﬁelds transform according to Jackson equation (11.149): E = γE0 (1 − 2β sin θ)i + 2γβE0 cos θj B = 2γE0 cos θi + γE0 (2 sin θ + β)j. The angle between the ﬁelds is given by cos θ = = E ·B |E ||B |

2 γ 2 E0 (1

2 2γ 2 E0 cos θ(1 + β 2 ) − 4β sin θ + 4β 2 )1/2 (4 + 4β sin θ + β 2 )1/2

Setting this equal to unity, we obtain

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

11

Problem 11.18

The electric and magnetic ﬁelds of a particle of charge q moving in a straight line with speed v = βc, given by (11.152), become more and more concentrated as β → 1, as indicated in Fig. 11.9. Choose axes so that the charge moves along the z axis in the positive direction, passing the origin at t = 0. Let the spatial coordinates of the observation point be (x, y, z) and deﬁne the transverse vector r ⊥ , with components x and y. Consider the ﬁelds and the source in the limit of β = 1. (a) Show that the ﬁelds can be written as E = 2q r⊥ 2 δ(ct − z); r⊥ B = 2q v × r⊥ ˆ δ(ct − z). 2 r⊥

(b) Show by substitution into the Maxwell equations that these ﬁelds are consistent with a 4-vector source density, J α = qcv α δ (2) (r⊥ )δ(ct − z) where the 4-vector v α = (1, v). ˆ (c) Show that the ﬁelds of part a are derivable from either of the following 4-vector potentials, A0 = Az = −2qδ(ct − z) ln(λr⊥ ); A⊥ = 0 or A0 = Az = 0; A⊥ = −2qΘ(ct − z)

⊥

ln(λr⊥ )

where λ is an irrelevant parameter setting the scale of the logarithm. Show that the two potentials diﬀer by a gauge transformation and ﬁnd the gauge function, χ. (a) In the reference frame in which the particle is at rest at the origin, the ﬁelds are q E = (x i + y j + z k), B = 0. (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Transforming back to the laboratory frame according to Jackson 11.148, the electric ﬁeld is q E= (γx i + γy j + z k) 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (x where in this expression the coordinates are still those of the observation point in the moving frame. The transformation of these to the lab frame is x = x, y = y = y, z = γ(z − βct). Then the correct expression for the transformed ﬁeld is q E= 2 (γxi + γyj + (z − ct)k). 2 + γ 2 (z − ct)2 ]3/2 [x + y

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11

12

In the limit β → 1, we have γ → ∞. For z = ct the γ 2 factor in the denominator then ensures that all ﬁeld components are zero. For z = ct, however, although the z component of the ﬁeld clearly vanishes, the behavior of the other components is not as immediately clear. To elucidate the behavior of, say, the x component of the ﬁeld at z = ct we integrate it from z = ct − to z = ct + :

ct+ ct+

Ex dz = qγx

ct−

qx 2 r⊥ 2qx = 2 r⊥ =

ct− γ /r⊥

2 [r⊥

+

γ 2 (z

−γ /r⊥

du [1 + u2 ]3/2

2

dz − ct)2 ]3/2

γ

2 r⊥ + γ 2

.

**Taking the limit γ → ∞ for any ﬁnite , we ﬁnd
**

ct+ γ→∞

lim

Ex dz =

ct−

2qx 2 . r⊥

(14)

On the other hand, integrating between two points on the same side of z = ct, say from z = ct + to z = ct + 2 , we ﬁnd

ct+2

Ex dz =

ct+

2qx 2 r⊥

2γ 2 r⊥ + 4γ 2

2

−

γ 2 r⊥ + γ 2

2

which vanishes as γ → ∞. Since Ex vanishes at any point z = ct but yields something nonzero when integrated across that point, we conclude that it is just a δ function in (z − ct) with coeﬃcient given by (14): Ex = and, similarly, Ey = Combining these, we can write E = 2q r⊥ 2 δ(ct − z). r⊥ 2qx 2 δ(z − ct). r⊥ 2qy 2 δ(z − ct). r⊥

The B ﬁeld is given by Jackson (11.150) with, in the ultrarelativistic limit, ˆ β=k: v × r⊥ ˆ δ(ct − z). B = 2q 2 r⊥

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