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peciele Wie Lecture 8: Genetic Algorithms (with thanks to Mr. Meghdadi) * Motivation and Definition Review of Genetic Algorithms — Vocabulary: Drawing a parallel paradigm with nature — Genetic operators — The algorithm — Dual representations and competing conventions © The Fundamental Theorem of GA: The Schema Theorem and the similarity template ° Types of GA Applications — Traveling Salesman Problem — Chess Playing GA — Fuzzy Control of Systems Why GA? Objective functions in real world: — Discontinuous, Multi-Modal, and Noisy Optimization algorithms: — Calculus based * Problem specific, require gradient evaluation, easily get trapped at local optimas — Enumerative and Random Search: Inefficient. 1[Page pe cheb - Wie What is GA? * Definition: GA is a probabilistic optimization algorithm (or adaptation procedure) guided by the mechanics of natural evolution (according to Darwinian theory of evolution). GA is a parallel search algorithm, For every n function evaluations, n° schemata are processed. GAs have two essential components: — Survival of the Fittest — Recombination 2| Page pe cheb - Wie GAs are blind! * Canonical search must reject problem specifics. * Treat Problem as a black box: * GAs use codings, not decision variables — Use a string coding of the decision variables, — On-off-on-on-off > 10110 — Other codings are available 3[ Page pe cheb - Wie — GAs exploit similarity — Turns finite representation from liability to asset. GAs search from a population, not a single point. individual population eeeoee PO) PH) PQ) P(n) * Searching point by point is a prescription for finding a false peak. * Safety in numbers. * — Diversity as fuel for search 4lPage