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The struggle to maintain a

balance of power was at


the heart of the Civil
War.
The effects of
Reconstruction left
unresolved the issue of
true equality.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

In the Declaration of Independence and


the U.S. Constitution, people had to
compromise to form a more perfect
union.

However, unresolved issues would divide the


U.S. and foretell stormy times.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Founding Father,
James Madison stated:
It seemed now to
be pretty well
understood that the
real difference of
interests lay not
between the large
and the small but
between the
Northern and the
Southern states.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The events that


caused the Civil War
continued to
accelerate resulting
in the nations
bloodiest war,
a war of brothers
against brothers
that changed the
face of the United
States.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Industrial
North
Agricultural
South
Each section (North and South) had
different lifestyles and needs.
The struggle to maintain the balance
of power became more difficult.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The following events fed the


growing storm.

Missouri Compromise Compromise of

1820

1850

Kansas-Nebraska Act - Bleeding Kansas Dred Scott Decision -

1854

1857

John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia -

1859

Lincoln elected the first Republican president -

1860

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Politicians like Henry


Clay, John C. Calhoun
and Daniel Webster
struggled to maintain
a balance of power
through compromises.
However, differences
finally erupted into a
violent storm.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

If The
Lincoln
got elected,South
The balance
Election
needed
of 1860
to
Carolina
threatened
secede.
caused
maintain
great
peaceconcern.
wastostrained
The
winds
beyond
beganrepair.
to blow.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The two ways of life forced the nation apart,


and neither side would compromise.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

After the election


of 1860, the
South used the
Tenth
Amendment,
(states rights) to
justify secession.
On February 18, eleven Southern
states, formed the Confederate
States of America. The CSA
capitol was established in
Richmond, Virginia. Jefferson
Davis was elected president.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The United States of America


(Union)
Often referred to as the Yanks, the
North had many nicknames. Billy
Yank, the Blue, and the Federals
were popular during the war.
Notice the
huge gap! The
South is gone.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The Confederate States of


America (CSA)

Nicknames for the South included


Rebels and Johnny Reb.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

On April 12,1861,
Ft. Sumter, in
Charleston
Harbor, South
Carolina was
attacked.
It was a bloodless
opening to the
bloodiest war in
American history.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The winds of war


howled and the
U.S. Civil War
began.

People from every walk of life were


faced with the choice... North or South.
Some families were split with sons on
both sides.

V.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Many battles were fought with death


and destruction on both sides.

The winds of
war whipped
across the
nation. The
land, the hearts
and soul of the
nation were
ripped apart.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The Burning of Atlanta

On January 1,
1863, Lincoln
issued the
Emancipation
Proclamation, a
formal order
declaring slaves
in Confederate
states to be
free.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The time came when I


felt that slavery must
die so that the nation
might live.

The winds changed in the summer of 1863


when about 90,000 Union troops met 75,000
Confederate troops near Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania.
Confederate leader
George Pickett led
15,000 soldiers in a
charge, but they
were met with
Union gunners.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The Union
won at
Gettysburg,
but the
losses were
staggering.

Gettysburg
is considered
the turning
point in the
Civil War.

From this point on, Lee would never


invade the North again.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

On July 4, 1863, the very same day the


Union won at Gettysburg, the southern
port of Vicksburg, Mississippi fell to
Grant.

This victory accomplished a


Union strategy- another
turning point - control of the
Mississippi River.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The struggle for power ended on April 9,


1865, at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.
Union General U.S. Grant accepted a
surrender from Confederate General Robert
E. Lee to end the war.

The McClean house, Appomattox


Courthouse, Virginia
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The process of rebuilding the nation was


called Reconstruction.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Lincolns goal was to unite the


nation. His Ten Percent Plan was
considered lenient.
The plan included the following:
former Confederates had to take an
oath to support the Constitution, and
the 13th amendment (abolishing
slavery in the U.S.)
when 10% of a states voters took
the oath, that state could reenter
the Union.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Lincoln never saw his plan


implemented. On April 14, 1865, he
was assassinated at Fords Theater
in Washington D.C.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Andrew Johnson became


president and his goal was to
keep a similar Reconstruction
plan to Lincolns.
Congressional Radical Republicans were
opposed to a lenient reconstruction
plan. These Radicals wanted to
punish the South for the war.

2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

Radical Republicans had their own plan for


Reconstruction.
The Reconstruction Act of 1867:
divided the South into 5 military districts
new Southern constitutions had to be written
guaranteed freedmen (former slaves) citizenship
guaranteed freedman voting rights
13th Amendment- freed all slaves
14th Amendment- defined citizenship and
extended it to blacks
15th Amendment-gave blacks the right to vote
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

It was difficult for Southerners to accept


the freedmen as equals. Many southern
states passed laws to deny the freedmen
their civil rights.
The effects of
Reconstruction left
unresolved the issue of
true equality.
Americans continue to try to achieve
true equality.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX

The struggle to maintain a


balance of power was at
the heart of the Civil
War.
The effects of
Reconstruction left
unresolved the issue of
true equality.
2004 Plano ISD, Plano, TX