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First permanent English
Settlement in the New World


Christopher Columbus
discovered The New World


Magna Carta limited the power
of the king of England

Virginia House
of Burgesses

- 1619
-  First representative
assembly in the colonies


- Plymouth colony established
- Mayflower Compact signed
by the Pilgrims to create

English Bill
of Rights

1689 – Protected the individual
rights of English Citizens


-  Founded Massachusetts
Bay Colony in 1830
-  Wanted to reform or purify
the Church of England


-  Religious group that wanted
to escape persecution
-  Founded the colony of


-  Religious group that wanted
to escape persecution
-  Founded the colony of
Plymouth in 1620


-  Religious group that
wanted to escape
persecution in Europe
-  Founded the colony of


The part of the triangular
trade involving the forced
migration of Africans to the
New World as part of the
Atlantic slave trade

Orders of

1639 - The first example of
a written constitution
in the colonies
- Influenced by Thomas Hooker

Reasons for European Exploration The 3 G’s – God. Gold. and Glory Lord Charles Cornwallis British general who lost at Yorktown during the American Revolution Mercantilism – An economic system where European countries use trade and colonies to gain wealth and power .

property) -  English lawyer and judge William Blackstone -  Wrote Commentaries on the Laws of England -  Colonists referenced his writings when arguing for self-government .King George III King of England during The American Revolution John Locke Enlightenment thinker who argued for people’s natural rights (life. liberty.

Rhode Island. Connecticut. New Jersey.New York. barley. South Carolina. -  Diversity and Religious Tolerance. and Georgia .Virginia. and Delaware -  “Breadbasket” Colonies – grew wheat.New England Colonies .Year around growing season - Cash crops such as tobacco. and New Hampshire . Small Farming Middle Colonies . and other grains. Southern Colonies . Trade. North Carolina. oats.Slavery and Plantations. Pennsylvania. and indigo . rye.Rocky soil and Cold Winters . Fishing. rice. . Maryland.Massachusetts.Economy based on Shipbuilding.

judicial) Thomas Paine Wrote Common Sense . . legislative.a pamphlet about the ideas of independence French and Indian War -  1754-1763 -  British and American soldiers fought French and Native American soldiers for control of North America.Charles de Montesquieu -  French political thinker -  Wrote Spirit of the Laws -  Argued for separation of powers (executive.

and the New World . Africa.Imports Goods or products that are brought into the country through trade Exports Goods or products that are sent out of the country through trade Triangular Trade Trade route between Europe.

Quaker who founded Pennsylvania as a “holy experiment” .William Penn .purpose was Peace and Religious Tolerance Albany Plan of Union -  “Join or die …” 1754 .An early attempt by Ben Franklin at forming a union of the colonies "under one government” during the French and Indian War. Representative Government Power and right to govern come from the people who choose leaders to make the laws on their behalf .

France and Spain joined the side of the Patriots .Toleration Acceptance of others beliefs.Turning Point of the American Revolution . actions. and customs First Great Awakening 1730’s – Emotional sermons at revival meetings made faith more important for American colonists Battle of Saratoga .

1770 – 5 civilians were killed by British soldiers including Crispus Attucks Valley Forge -  Washington’s troops endured a difficult winter in Pennsylvania -  thousands died due to lack of food and clothing -  Baron von Steuben trained and inspired the troops Boston Tea Party 1773 .Act of civil disobedience in which colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor .Boston Massacre March 5.

Lexington and Concord Battle of Yorktown Thomas Jefferson -  1775 - “Shot Heard Round the World” -  Beginning of the American Revolution - 1781 . -  Purchased Louisiana Territory in 1803 .S.Main writer of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 -  3rd President of the U.Final surrender that ends at the Revolutionary War .

1776 George Washington Paul Revere -  Declaration of Independence -  formally separated the colonists from England .Known for the Midnight Ride in which he warned the colonists of British troop movements .Commanding General of the Continental Army .1st President of United States .

Founder of Sons of Liberty (the group that organized Boston Tea Party) .American Naval Hero during the American Revolution .“I have not yet begun to fight!” Samuel Adams .Crispus Attucks 1st African American killed at the Boston Massacre John Paul Jones .

British soldiers could stay in colonists’ homes .Britain punishes colonists severely for the Boston Tea Party .tax on sugar molasses.Colonists would provide food and lodging Intolerable Acts 1774 . one event leading to revolution Quartering Act 1766 .Also known as the Coercive Acts .Sugar Act 1764 .

dice. and playing cards.Proclamation of 1763 Colonists forbidden by England to settle west of Appalachian Mountains Stamp Act 1765 .lead to the Boston Tea Party . on legal documents. diplomas. . licenses.One event that lead to the American Revolution Tea Act 1766 .

Wife of John Adams .United States was recognized as a nation by England Abigail Adams .Olive Branch Petition -  Colonists declare loyalty to King George III but ask him to cancel Intolerable Acts -  Final effort at Peace by colonists Treaty of Paris in 1783 – officially ended American Revolution.Fought for women’s rights .“Remember the ladies…” . .

Anti-Federalist -  “Give me liberty or give me death!” “No taxation without representation” Main complaint by the Colonists against the British . stop trade with England.First and Second Continental Congress Delegates met in Philadelphia and agreed to boycott British goods. and form militias Patrick Henry -  Patriot.

Patriot who helped finance the American Revolution . and Inventor -  Signed the Declaration of Independence and Constitution -  Secured French help for the Patriots during the American Revolution Haym Solomon – Polish born Jewish immigrant . Statesman.Wentworth Cheswell African American who made an all-night ride to warn colonists of British troop movement Benjamin Franklin -  Politician. Author.

Led Spanish troops against British in the South .Helped to supply Americans during the American Revolution Mercy Otis Warren – Wrote anti-British and antiLoyalist plays during the American Revolution James Armistead – African-American who was a spy for the Patriots during the American Revolution .Bernardo de Gálvaz .

Life.Militia a military force composed of ordinary volunteer citizens Unalienable Rights . Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness Marquis de Lafayette – French general who helped lead and train the Continental troops during the American Revolution .Rights that cannot be taken away without due process .

Minutemen .Colonial Militia that were ready at a moments notice Patriots Colonists who supported U.S. independence and rebelled against Britain Loyalists Colonists who were loyal to Britain during the American Revolution .

war material or communications from a particular area by force. organization. or buy from and deal with a person.Blockade An effort to cut off food. supplies. or country as an expression of protest Writs of Assistance A document used especially in colonial America authorizing British officers to search in unspecified locations for unspecified illegal goods . either in part or totally Boycott Voluntary refusal to use products.

Articles of

-  First United States government
- Strengths – Kept colonies united
-  Weaknesses - No Executive or
Judicial Branch; No power to tax;
Most of the power belonged to the


(1787) – Laws for the
orderly expansion of the
United States.
- Organized Western lands
as equal states


Constitutional Convention –
55 delegates met in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania to revise Articles of
Confederation; created a
U.S. Constitution instead


- The removal or
reversal of a law

The Great

- Solved issue of representation
between small and large states.
- Created 2 houses in Congress.
1. House of Representatives

based on population
2. Senate – equal representation
per state


1786 - A rebellion by Massachusetts
farmers in debt
- Land taken and prison was threatened
- Demonstrated need for stronger
government and the weakness of the
Articles of Confederation


-  2nd president
-  Federalist, Founding Father,
Continental Congress delegate,
Declaration of Independence


-  “Father of the Constitution”
-  4th President, Founding Father
-  Declared war on Britain to
start the War of 1812


- A person who speaks or acts
on behalf of an organization
or group of people
- A representative


Northern and Southern
states agreed to count 3/5 of
slaves towards representation
and taxes


Louisiana Purchase –
land bought from France
by Jefferson doubling size
of United States

Marbury vs.

1803 – Supreme Court case that
established Judicial Review
- The ability of the Supreme Court
to be able to decide if a law
violates the Constitution

Written by those who supported the Constitution .Federalist Papers 1787 – written arguments for a strong central government . gained support for the Constitution to be ratified Alexander Hamilton -  1st Secretary of the Treasury -  Leader of the Federalists .Tried to persuade the states to ratify the Constitution Bill of Rights 1791 – First 10 Amendments guarantee individual freedoms.

Federalists -  People who supported the ratification of the Constitution -  Wanted a strong government to protect the Country AntiFederalists -  People who were against the ratification of the Constitution -  Favored states’ rights -  Wanted a bill or rights to protect citizens rights Ratify (Ratification) -  To approve by a vote .

Constitution Civic Virtue -  Habits of personal living that are of importance for the success of the community -  Examples include voting. serving in the military. serving on a jury.Founding Fathers -  Men who made key contributions to the Declaration of Independence and U. paying taxes. volunteering Constitution -  A written plan of government .S. obeying laws.

Judicial Branch -  Supreme Court -  Interprets the Laws Legislative Branch -  Congress -  Makes the Laws Executive Branch -  President -  Enforces the Laws .

Limited Government -  The government only has the powers given to it in the Constitution Republicanism -  People elect representatives that make and enforce the laws Federalism -  Powers that are divided between the States and National Government .

Legislative.Separation of Powers Divides the government into 3 independent branches – Executive. and Judicial Checks and Balances The ability of the branches to keep control of the other branches Popular Sovereignty -  Authority to govern comes from the people -  “We the People” .

Press. Petition.Individual Rights -  Rights. and Speech . Assembly. and privileges that are protected by the Bill of Rights Amend (Amendment) -  A change or an addition to the Constitution 1st Amendment -  5 Freedoms -  Religion. liberties.

Veto The right of a president reject or cancel bills passed by the Legislative Branch Impeach -  Formal process in which a government official is accused of unlawful activity -  The outcome may include the removal of that official from office as well as other punishment Override - The power of Congress to cancel out a Presidential veto with a 2/3 vote .

-  He also warned that political parties would divide the nation Judicial Review The ability of the Supreme Court to be able to decide if a law violates the Constitution .Supreme Court case on the issue of Congress creating a bank -  Ruled that Congress can create a bank and the states cannot tax federal institutions George Washington’s Farewell Address -  George Washington warned the nation to stay neutral and avoid alliances with other nations. Maryland 1819 .McCullough vs.

The government must follow the exact course of the law Urban (Urbanization) -  Large cities -  Movement of people from farms to the cities Rural -  Areas outside of large cities -  the country -  Country towns and small cities -  Farming and Agricultural communities .The requirement of the state to respect all of the legal rights that are owed to a person .Due Process .

consisting of the leaders of the 15 Executive departments of the federal government .Leader: Alexander Hamilton .DemocraticRepublican Party . Strong State Government.Leader: Thomas Jefferson . and trade with Britain Cabinet A group of advisors to the president.Priorities: Agriculture. Strong Federal Government.Priorities: Manufacturing. and trade with France Federalist Party . Strict interpretation of the Constitution. Loose interpretation of the Constitution.

A proposed law under consideration by Congress.It does not become law until it is passed by Congress and approved by the President. Jury A group of citizens which hears the testimony in legal disputes and determines what it believes is the truth .Amendment Process -  Proposed by 2/3 of both Houses of Congress -  Approved by 3/4 of the States Bill . .

Embargo The partial or complete stopping of commerce and trade with a particular country.Nullify -  To declare something illegal -  To cancel or invalidate Electoral College The group of individual appointed by each state who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States. in order to isolate it. .

and Britain -  Started as a result of British interference of U. Sailors -  Ended with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 Precedent A decision or action that serves as an authoritative rule or pattern for future situations .Nationalism .Devotion and loyalty to one's own nation or country .S.Patriotism War of 1812 -  War between the U.S.S. shipping and the kidnapping of U.

For States Rights Temperance A movement to end or reduce the use of alcohol . For Federal Authority. Wanted the Union preserved John Calhoun -  Congressman from the South (South Carolina) -  Pro-slavery. Pro-tariffs.Daniel Webster -  Congressman from the North (Massachusetts) -  Anti-slavery. Anti-tariffs.

and growth of cities Labor Reform A campaign to bring about changes in working conditions and to restrict child labor in the 1800’s . and the mentally ill. transportation. economic policies. lower cost of goods. manufacturing.Dorothea Dix An American activist who led a campaign to improve the care of prisoners. factory system. the disabled. Industrial Revolution -  A period in which changes occurred in agriculture. and the social structure -  resulted in mass production.

Brought about many changes in society including the Reform Movement .Florida Territory added to the United States in 1819 as a result of the Adams–Onís Treaty with Spain Texas Territory . bordering the United States and Mexico between 1836-1845 -  Independence from Mexico in 1836 -  Annexation and Statehood in 1845 Second Great Awakening .A revival movement in the mid-1800’s .A sovereign Republic in North America.

Lewis and Clark Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to lead an expedition to explore the new lands acquired as a result of the Louisiana Purchase Horace Mann -  Education Reform -  "Father of the Common School Movement” – Head of State School Board of Massachusetts .Proponent of public education for all Elizabeth Cody Stanton -  Women’s Rights Activist -  Organized the first Women’s Rights Convention at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York -  Helped write the Declaration of Sentiments .

Anthony -  Women’s rights organizer -  Played a pivotal role to introduce women's voting rights in the United States. supported the common man.Susan B. Indian removal policies. Andrew Jackson -  7th President -  “Old Hickory” -  Battle of New Orleans Hero. created the Democratic Party James Monroe -  5th president -  Issued Monroe Doctrine -  Purchase of Florida in 1819 .

and Great Britain and divided in 1846 .Territory located in the Northwest part of the U.James K.S. the region was jointly occupied between the U.11th President .President mostly associated with Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion -  Movement in the 1830-40’s as a protest to the general state of culture and society -  Stressed individual creativity over reason and theory -  Leaders: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau . Polk Transcendentalism Oregon Territory .S.

a color-plate book entitled The Birds of North America .American art movement started by a group of landscape painters -  Painted the natural beauty of America -  Influenced by Romanticism Nullification Crisis . and wrote about birds and animals -  His major work.South Carolina declared a federal tariff illegal which they justified by States Rights -  President Jackson threatened to use force -  Henry Clay negotiated a Compromise John James Audubon -  Painted. studied.Hudson River School .

the creation of a bank.The act of taking a smaller territory and adding it to a larger one Tariff of Abominations . and improved transportation .Annex (Annexation) .A high tariff in 1828 that angered the South - Led to increased cost of goods and decreased cotton exports -  Led to the Nullification Crisis Henry Clay -  A Politician from Kentucky known as the “Great Compromiser” -  created the American System which called for tariffs.

Slavery permitted south of the 36. Georgia 1832 .Supreme Court ruled Cherokee nation was a “distinct community” and only the federal government had authority to deal with Indians .Maintained balance in the Senate . Gibbons vs.Missouri Compromise 1820 – Missouri admitted as a slave state and Maine admitted as a free state .30 degree parallel Worcester v.The ruling was ignored and the Cherokees were moved. Ogden 1824 – Supreme Court ruled that states cannot interfere with interstate or foreign business and trade .

poet. demands. patriotism.A form of non-violent protest . pride. and unity among Americans Civil Disobedience . naturalist. tax resister and leading Transcendentalist -  Wrote “Essays on Civil Disobedience” Era of Good Feelings -  The time period after the War of 1812 during Monroe’s presidency -  Reflected a sense of national purpose. and commands of a government . abolitionist.The refusal to obey certain laws. philosopher.Henry David Thoreau -  American author.

An amount of money regularly coming in .The income that a government receives from taxation and other sources .C.Washington D. The capital city of the United States of America Wilmot Proviso -  A proposed law that would have made all future states Mexican Cession free from slavery -  Failed to pass in the Senate Revenue .

Spoils System Immigrant (Immigration) after winning an election.A person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence .Labor Union -  A group of workers that organize to get better pay and working conditions .A practice where a political party. and as an incentive to keep working for the party . gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory.

Louisiana Purchase .1783 .1803 ? ? ? 13 Original Colonies Land acquired after the American Revolution .

1819 ? ? Texas Annexation .1846 .Florida Annexation .1845 ? Oregon Territory .

which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.Gadsden Purchase .1853 ? Mexican Cession . / Mexican War .S. .An armed conflict between the U.S.1848 ? U. and Mexico from 1846-1848 as a result of the annexation of Texas.

trade.S. competition. and investment Eli Whitney -  Introduced Interchangeable Parts and invented the Cotton Gin .Cyrus McCormick Invented the Mechanical Reaper – led to improved farming and harvesting Free Enterprise -  U. economic system -  Protects property rights and features minimal government regulation -  Encouraged business.

Cotton Gin -  A machine that removed seeds from Cotton -  Expanded cotton production. and slavery Interchangeable Parts -  Parts that are identical -  They are made to specifications that ensure that they will fit into any device of the same type -  Made production of many goods faster and cheaper William Lloyd Garrison -  Abolitionist -  Wrote anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator -  NE Antislavery Society . the plantation system.

Robert Fulton Invented the first successful Steamboat – called it the “Clermont” – led to improved transportation Erie Canal A waterway in New York that runs the Hudson River to Lake Erie.B. completing a water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Samuel F. Morse Invented the Telegraph and a Code to be able to send messages – led to improved communication .

S.S. / Mexican War -  Became the Southwestern part of the United States Gadsden Purchase Mexico sold U. in 1848 after the U.S.Indian Removal Act American government policy that forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River in 1830 Mexican Cession -  Mexico sold western lands to U. strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico in 1853 .

Manifest Destiny Westward expansion of the United States from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean Forty-niners (49ers) Miners that came to California during the Gold Rush in 1849 California Gold Rush Discovery of Gold brought over 80.000 people to California in 1849 .

000 Cherokee Indians West to Oklahoma in 1838-39 -  Many died as a due to lack of food and warm clothing Seneca Falls Convention -  1848 in New York -  First organized convention for Women’s Rights -  Marked the beginning of the Women’s Rights Movement .Monroe Doctrine 1823 – Prohibited the further colonization of the Western Hemisphere by European nations Trail of Tears -  Forced march of over 15.

Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman Grimke Sisters -  Former female slave -  Abolitionist and Women’s rights activist Famous conductor of the Underground Railroad Southern sisters who moved to Philadelphia and became abolitionists .

and places that helped slaves escape to the North or Canada . paths.Frederick Douglass -  Freed slave -  speaker and Abolitionist -  wrote anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star Abolitionists Group of people who were against slavery and wanted it outlawed Underground Railroad -  Routes.

Settlers. Large Cities The South .Plantation Farming. Native Americans -  Ranching. Business. Farming communities The West -  Undeveloped land -  Pioneers. Mining.The North -  Union -  Manufacturing. Cash Crops .Rural.Confederacy . Trade. Commerce -  Urban. Farming . Farmers. Agriculture. Trappers. Traders.

Territory -  A region or section of the United States that has not yet been admitted to the Union as a state Compromise .An agreement between two people or two groups South Carolina -  First State to secede from the Union .

Suffrage The right to vote 1860 Presidential Election - Won by Republican Candidate Abraham Lincoln -  Led to the secession of the Southern States Julia Ward Howe Writer of the “Battle Hymn of the Republic” which was sung by Union troops during the Civil War .

Kansas-Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 Bleeding Kansas Divided the Kansas and Nebraska territories and let settlers vote on the issue of slavery Agreement to … a) Admit California as a free to benefit the North b) Create the Fugitive Slave to benefit the South state Act Violence between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers in the Midwest territories .

John Brown -  Extreme Abolitionist -  Bleeding Kansas -  Raid on Harper’s Ferry Stephen Douglas -  politician who supported popular sovereignty -  Debated Lincoln in Illinois over the issue of slavery 1861-1865 Civil War – attempt for Southern states to separate from the United States and form own country .

Grant -  Union Commanding General -  18th U. Lee Confederate Commanding General in charge of the Army of Northern Virginia Ulysses S. President Harriet Beecher Stowe Wrote a book about slavery entitled Uncle Tom’s Cabin .Robert E.S.

Amendment Gave voting rights to all male U.S. citizens .13th 14th 15th Amendment Abolished slavery throughout nation Amendment Gave citizenship to all people born in U.S.

Courts ruled slaves were property an slavery was made legal in all territories Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 -  Helped slave owners recapture runaway slaves -  demanded all citizens help Popular sovereignty The right of states and territories to vote on issues . Sandford 1857 – slave who sued for his freedom .Dred Scott v.

C.John Wilkes Booth Assassinated Abraham Lincoln in Washington D. at Ford’s Theater Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson -  Commander in the Confederate Army -  Inspired a Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run William T. Sherman Union general who waged “total war” in his march from Atlanta to the Atlantic Ocean .

Bloodiest day of the Civil War – 25.First battle in Union Territory .First shots fired at the Civil War -  1861 off the coast of Charleston. South Carolina -  Confederate victory -  No deaths Battle of Antietam .Fort Sumter .000 casualties .Confederacy lost chance for European support Battle of Gettysburg -  Turning Point of the Civil War -  3 day battle – Union victory -  Confederate would never attack the North again .

Union victory during the Civil War resulting in the Union control of the Mississippi River and a split Confederacy Emancipation Proclamation -  January 1. 1863 -  Lincoln frees slaves in Confederate states Gettysburg Address Speech given by Lincoln that honored Union Soldiers and dedicated a cemetery in Pennsylvania .Siege of Vicksburg .

Union strategy during the Civil War a) blockade Southern ports b) take over the Mississippi River c) capture Richmond Appomattox Courthouse Surrender of Confederate General Robert E.Anaconda Plan . Grant to end the Civil War Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) . Lee to Union General Ulysses S.

Lincoln made this speech before the Civil War .Lincoln made this speech during the Civil War .Secede To formally withdraw from the Union Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address .Focused on the states not being able to secede and the importance of preserving the Union .Focused on healing the nations wounds at a time when the end of the war was in sight Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address .

CSA) Southern States that seceded from the Union .Black Codes Set of laws in the South to limit the rights of former slaves Jefferson Davis’ Inaugural Address Speech made by the Confederate President focusing on the right of States to secede and the willingness to fight for it Confederate States of America (Confederacy.

Tariff .A tax on goods coming into the country .Supported by the North because the protected American Manufacturing Freedmen Former slaves 1877 End of reconstruction – troops removed from the South .

Hoped to use cotton to force European nations to aid the Confederacy. Hiram Rhodes Revels First African-American to serve in the United States Senate .Confederate strategy during the Civil War .Reconstruction Act of 1867 Divided South into 5 military districts “King Cotton” .

William Carney First African American to receive the Medal of Honor for actions during the Civil War .Philip Bazaar -  Sailor born in Chile that was given the Medal of Honor for actions during the Civil War Radical Reconstruction Northern Congressmen took control of Reconstruction as a response to the Black Codes and over concern for Andrew Johnson’s presidential policies.

Scalawags Southerners who supported the Union during the Civil War Carpetbaggers Northerners who traveled to the South during Reconstruction to get involved in Politics Segregation -  Separate individuals by race -  Separate schools and public facilities .

-  A cause of the Civil War . -  Supported in the South and disliked in the North -  A cause of the Civil War Sectionalism -  Loyalty to the interests of a region or section of the country. rather than to the country as a whole.States’ Rights -  The belief that states have a right to cancel illegal federal laws -  The belief that states have the right to secede -  A cause of the Civil War Slavery -  Forced servitude as the property of another person.

. -  If settlers improved the land after 5 years then the land would become their property. -  Broke up tribes into sections and resulted in a loss of land for Indians. Utah in 1869.Transcontinental Railroad -  Railroad that connected the Great Plains to the west coast. -  Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads met in Promontory Point. Dawes Act of 1887 -  Attempt to break up tribes and assimilate Native Americans into American Society. Homestead Act of 1862 -  Government gave 160 acres of land to farm and improve to encourage expansion to the West.

Ku Klux Klan Group that used violence to oppose civil rights for Blacks Morril Act of 1862 -  Each state would get 30.000 acres of land to sell. Sharecropping System -  Poor farmers and former slaves made deals with landowners who provided land and supplies -  Both would share the crop that was produced . -  Money made from the land would be used to fund colleges that agriculture and mechanical arts.